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질산칼륨

질산칼륨
질산칼륨 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
7757-79-1
한글명:
질산칼륨
동의어(한글):
니테르;니트레;질산칼륨염(1:1);초석;콜로-보;질산칼륨염;질산칼륨;질초산칼륨;포타슘나이트레이트;질산 칼륨
상품명:
Potassium nitrate
동의어(영문):
XSJ;KNO3;nitre;vicknite;collo-bo;SALTPETER;saltpetre;kaliinitras;kaliumnitrat;nitrateofpotash
CBNumber:
CB9854301
분자식:
KNO3
포뮬러 무게:
101.1032
MOL 파일:
7757-79-1.mol

질산칼륨 속성

녹는점
334 °C (lit.)
끓는 점
100 °C750 mm Hg
밀도
1.00 g/mL at 20 °C
인화점
400°C
저장 조건
Store at RT.
용해도
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
물리적 상태
Solid
Specific Gravity
2.109
색상
white
수소이온지수(pH)
5.0-7.5 (50g/l, H2O, 20℃)
수용성
320 g/L (20 ºC)
감도
Hygroscopic
Merck
14,7648
안정성
Stable. Strong oxidizer - contact with combustible material may cause fire. Incompatible with combustible materials, strong reducing agents.
CAS 데이터베이스
7757-79-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA
Potassium nitrate (7757-79-1)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 O,Xi,Xn
위험 카페고리 넘버 8-36/38-36/37/38-22
안전지침서 26-17-36-7-24/25
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK 독일 1
RTECS 번호 TT3700000
TSCA Yes
HS 번호 2834 21 00
위험 등급 5.1
포장분류 III
유해 물질 데이터 7757-79-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in rabbits: 1.166 g anion/kg, Dollahite, Rowe, Southwest. Vet. 27, 246 (1974)
기존화학 물질 KE-29163
사고대비 물질 필터링 63
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Warning
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H272 화재를 강렬하게 함; 산화제 산화성 액체;산화성 고체 구분 2
구분 3
위험
경고
P210, P220, P221P280, P370+P378,P501
H303 삼키면 유해할 수 있음 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 5 P312
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
H412 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 유해함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 3 P273, P501
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P220 의류 그리고 가연성 물질로부터 멀리하시오.
P221 가연성 물질과 혼합되지 않도록 조치하시오.
P273 환경으로 배출하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P370+P378 화재 시 불을 끄기 위해 (Section 5. 폭발, 화재시 대처방법의 적절한 소화제)을(를) 사용하시오.
NFPA 704
0
1 0

질산칼륨 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

용도

1) 염화칼륨의 뜨거운 수용액에 질산나트륨(칠레 초석)을 첨가하여 복분해에 의해 생긴 염화나트륨의 결정을 분리하고 용액을 냉각하면 질산칼륨이 석출된다. 수용액에서 재결정에 의해 정제한다.
2) 탄산칼륨 또는 수산화칼륨을 질산에 용해하여 제조한다.

용도

1) 흑색 화약, 성냥, 불꽃 등의 화공품의 제조.
2) 유리, 유약의 원료, 유리의 청정제(특히 아비산과 함께 사용하여 그 청정 작용을 조장한다).
3) 열처리제(매용제라고도 한다).
4) 한제 및 육류의 색깔 고정제.
5) 산화제.
6) 의약(6국 기재. 이뇨, 발한, 소염약. 용량 : 1회 0.3g, 1일 1g 내복).
7) 분석 시약.

개요

Potassium nitrate is a solid, colorless, crystalline ionic compound that exists as the mineral niter.Potassium nitrate is also known as saltpeter. The name saltpeter comes from the Latin sal petrae, meaning salt of stone or salt of Petra. he term saltpeter or Chilean saltpeter is also used for sodium nitrate, NaNO3.

화학적 성질

Potassium nitrate is an odorless, flammable, water-soluble, white or colorless crystals with saline taste that melt at 337°C. Used in pyrotechnics, explosives, and matches, as a fertilizer, and as an analytical reagent.

물리적 성질

Colorless transparent crystals or white granular or crystalline powder;rhombohedral structure; density 2.11 g/cm3at 20°C; melts at 334°C; decomposes at 400°C evolving oxygen; soluble in cold water, 13.3 g/100mL at 0°C;highly soluble in boiling water, 247 g/100mL at 100°C; lowers the temperature of water on dissolution; very slightly soluble in ethanol; soluble in glycerol and liquid ammonia.

역사

Saltpeter’s most prominent use in human history is as the principal ingredient in gunpowder.The potassium nitrate used in gunpowder was originally obtained from natural mineral deposits of niter. Small quantities formed as efflorescence deposits on damp stone walls were identified as early as 2000 b.c.e. in Sumerian writings. As the use of black powder expanded with the development of weapons, the demand for saltpeter exceeded supply. This was exacerbated during times of war. To meet the demand for saltpeter to produce black powder, a saltpeter industry developed that followed prescribed methods to produce large quantities of saltpeter. The method depended on processing dirt obtained from areas where nitrates would naturally form. These were areas in which animal waste had accumulated such as the dirt floors of barns, stables, herding pens, caves, or cellars. The ammonia compounds in the urine and fecal wastes in these areas underwent nitrifi cation to produce nitrates, which combined with potassium in the soil to form saltpeter.

용도

Although the most prominent use of saltpeter is for the production of black powder,potassium nitrate is also used as fertilizer. In the first half of the 17th century, JohannRudolf Glauber (1604–1668) obtained saltpeter from animal pens and discovered its useto promote plant growth. Glauber included saltpeter with other nutrients in fertilizer mixtures. Glauber’s work was one of the first to indicate the importance of nutrient cyclingin plant nutrition.

용도

Potassium Nitrate is a preservative and color fixative in meats which exists as colorless prisms or white granules or powder. it has a solubility of 1 g in 3 ml of water at 25°c. see nitrate.

용도

This natural substance is the product of the decomposition of lime and urine. The white granules or powder are soluble in water 1:3 but insoluble in alcohol. Potassium nitrate, also called saltpeter or nitre, was combined with sulfuric acid to nitrate cotton for the manufacture of collodion. It was also used with magnesium to make flash powder and added to ferrous sulfate developers to produced cool white tones in collodion positives.

용도

In fireworks, fluxes, pickling meats; production of nitric acid; manufacture of glass, matches, gunpowder; freezing mixtures. Agricultural fertilizer. Preservative in foods. In dentrifices to reduce tooth hypersensitivity.

정의

ChEBI: The inorganic nitrate salt of potassium.

생산 방법

Potassium nitrate may be produced by several methods. It is made commercially by reacting potassium chloride with nitric acid at high temperature.Nitrosyl chloride, a product obtained in the reaction, is converted into chlorine in this manufacturing process. Also, nitric acid is partly recycled in the process. The reactions are (Dancy, W.B. 1981. Potassium Compounds. In Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd. ed. Pp. 939-42. New York: Wiley Interscience):
3KCl + 4HNO3 →3KNO3+ Cl2+ NOCl + 2H2O
2NOCl + 4HNO3→6NO2+ Cl2+ 2H2O
4NO2+ O2+ 2H2O →4HNO3
Potassium nitrate also can be prepared by mixing a hot saturated solution of potassium chloride and sodium nitrate. The reaction is:
K++ Clˉ+ Na++ NO3ˉ→NaCl↓+ K++ NO3ˉ
Sodium chloride is less soluble than KCl, NaNo3and KNo3. It separates out by crystallization. The remaining solution is cooled to ambient tempera-ture. Potassium nitrate crystallizes out.

상표명

Cholal modifico;Cholal simple;Dewitt's pills for backache and joint pain;Viridite k.

World Health Organization (WHO)

Potassium nitrate was formerly used as a diuretic. Its use for this purpose is now considered obsolete but it is still available in at least one country for the correction of potassium deficiency. It is aslo widely permitted at concentrations of the order of 5% in proprietary toothpastes. In some countries the drug has been banned due to a potential carcinogenic risk arising from the excessive use of nitrates and their transformation to nitrosamines.

일반 설명

A white to dirty gray crystalline solid. Water soluble. Noncombustible, but accelerates the burning of combustible materials. If large quantities are involved in fire or the combustible material is finely divided an explosion may result. May explode under prolonged exposure to heat or fire. Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced in fires. Used in solid propellants, explosives, fertilizers.

공기와 물의 반응

Soluble in water.

반응 프로필

Potassium nitrate mixed with alkyl esters may explode, owing to the formation of alkyl nitrates; mixtures with phosphorus, tin (II) chloride, or other reducing agents may react explosively [Bretherick 1979. p. 108-109]. Powdered antimony mixed with Potassium nitrate explodes when heated [Mellor 9:282 1946-47]. A mixture of antimony trisulfide and Potassium nitrate explodes at a red heat [Mellor 9:524. 1946-47]. Arsenic disulfide forms explosive mixtures when mixed with Potassium nitrate, [Mellor 9:270.1946-47]. A mixture of sodium acetate and Potassium nitrate may cause an explosion [Pieters 1957. p. 30]. A mixture of Potassium nitrate and sodium hypophosphite constitutes a powerful explosive [Mellor 8:881. 1946-47]. A mixture of powdered zirconium and Potassium nitrate explodes when heated above the melting point [Mellor 7:116. 1946-47].

위험도

Dangerous fire and explosion risk when shocked or heated, or in contact with organic mate- rials, strong oxidizing agent.

건강위험

Exposure can cause mild irritation of eyes, nose and throat.

농업용

Potassium nitrate (KNO3) is a potassium salt of nitric acid, also known as saltpeter or nitrate of potash. It is a white crystalline salt which occurs naturally in nitre or saltpeter. It can be used as fertilizer for normal application and fertigation. Potassium (44% K2O) and nitrogen (13 %) are the constituents of NK fertilizers, which serve as a source of potassium, where extra chloride is not desired.
The agricultural grade of potassium nitrate is freeflowing and non-caking, with a particle size in the range of 1500 to 400 microns.
Potassium nitrate, which is slightly hygroscopic and granulated, can be spread on soil by trucks, fertilizer distributors or by aerial spraying. In a mixed fertilizer, a powdered grade of nitrate of potash does not cake. Potassium nitrate is made by the reaction of potassium chloride with nitric acid as: The nitrate of potash forms an easily breakable crust on top. It is chemically neutral and its nitrogen and potassium oxide ratio is roughly 1:3. It has been used successfully as a source of nitrogen and potassium for tobacco, tomato, potato, corn, citrus and carnations.

공업 용도

Potassium nitrate is also called niter and saltpeter,although these usually refer to the nativemineral. A substance of the composition KNO3,it is used in explosives, for bluing steel, and infertilizers. A mixture of potassium nitrate andsodium nitrate is used for steel-tempering baths.The mixture melts at 250°C. Potassium nitrateis made by the action of potassium chloride onsodium nitrate. It occurs in colorless prismaticcrystals, or as a crystalline white powder. It hasa sharp saline taste and is soluble in water. Thespecific gravity is 2.1 and the melting point is337°C.
Potassium nitrate contains a large percentageof oxygen, which is readily given up andis well adapted for pyrotechnic compounds. Itgives a beautiful violet flame in burning. It isused in flares and in signal rockets.
Most enamels contain some oxidizing agentin the form of potassium or sodium nitrate.Only a small amount of nitrate is necessary; 2to 4% is sufficient to maintain oxidizing conditionsin most smelting operations.
In glazes it is sometimes used as a flux inplace of potassium oxide, but, owing to its costand solubility, very little of it is contained inglaze. Where conditions prevent the use of sufficientpotash feldspar, potassium oxide is introducedinto the mix, usually in the form of thenitrate in a frit.
Potassium nitrite is a solid of the compositionKNO2 used as a rust inhibitor, for theregeneration of heat-transfer salts, and for themanufacture of dyes.

Safety Profile

Poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. Ingestion of large quantities may cause gastroenteritis. Chronic exposure can cause anemia, nephritis, and methemoglobinemia. When heated, reaction with calcium hydroxide + polychlorinated phenols forms extremely toxic chlorinated benzodtoxins. A powerful oxidizer. Gunpowder is a mixture of potassium nitrate + sulfur + charcoal. Explosive reaction with aluminum + barium nitrate + potassium perchlorate + water (in storage), boron + laminac + trichloroethylene. Forms explosive mixtures with lactose, powdered metals (e.g., titanium, antimony, germanium), metal sulfides (e.g., antimony trisulfide, barium sulfide, calcium sulfide, germanium monosulfide, titanium disulfide, arsenic disulfide, molybdenum disulfide), nonmetals (e.g., boron, carbon, white phosphorus, arsenic), organic materials, phosphides (e.g., copper(l1) phosphide, copper monophosphide), reducing agents (e.g., sodium phosphinate, sodium thiosulfate), sodium acetate. Can react violently under the appropriate conditions with 1,3- bis(trichlorometh~d)benzene, boron phosphde, F2, calcium shcide, charcoal, chromium nitride, Na hypophosphte, ma2O2 + dextrose), red phosphorus, (S + As2S3), thorium dicarbide, trichloroethylene, zinc, zirconium. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of NOx and K2O. See also NITRATES.

잠재적 노출

Used to make explosives, gunpowder, fireworks, rocket fuel; matches, fertilizer, fluxes, glass manufacture; and as a diuretic

운송 방법

UN1486 Potassium nitrate, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer.

Purification Methods

It crystallises from hot H2O (0.5mL/g) on cooling (cf KNO2 below). Dry it for 12hours under vacuum at 70o. The solubility in H2O is 13.3% at 0o, 110% at 60o, and 246% at 100o. After two recrystallisations, technical grade salt had <0.001 ppm of metals. The fused salt is a powerful oxidising agent.

비 호환성

A powerful oxidizer. Dangerously reactive and friction-and shock-sensitive when mixed with organic materials and many materials. Violent reactions with reducing agents; chemically active metals; charcoal, trichloroethylene.

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