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포르말린

포르말린
포르말린 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
50-00-0
한글명:
포르말린
동의어(한글):
폼알데하이드;포르말린;포름알데히드;포름알데히드수용액;포름알데히드수용액(37%);폼알데하이드용액;포름알데하이드;메탄알;포르말리트;포름알데히드용액;포름올
상품명:
Formaldehyde
동의어(영문):
BFV;CH2O;HCHO;Fyde;H2CO;Hoch;Forol;Durine;dormol;FORMOL
CBNumber:
CB4853677
분자식:
CH2O
포뮬러 무게:
30.03
MOL 파일:
50-00-0.mol

포르말린 속성

녹는점
-15°C
끓는 점
97°C(37% solution),-19.5°C(pure)
밀도
1.09 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
1.03 (vs air)
증기압
52 mm Hg ( 37 °C)
굴절률
n20/D 1.377
인화점
133 °F
저장 조건
room temp
용해도
water: soluble
물리적 상태
Solution
산도 계수 (pKa)
13.27(at 25℃)
색상
APHA: ≤10
냄새
Pungent odor detectable at 1 ppm
수소이온지수(pH)
pH (25℃) : 7.0~7.5
Odor Threshold
0.5ppm
수용성
soluble
최대 파장(λmax)
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.01
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.01
Merck
14,4235
BRN
1209228
Henry's Law Constant
2.08(x 10-7 atm?m3/mol) at 25 °C (flow-type generation system, spectrophometry, Kanda et al., 2005)
노출 한도
NIOSH REL: TWA 0.016 ppm, 15-min C 0.1 ppm, IDLH 20 ppm; OSHA PEL: TWA 0.75 ppm, STEL 2 ppm.
InChIKey
WSFSSNUMVMOOMR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
50-00-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
IARC
1 (Vol. Sup 7, 62, 88, 100F) 2012
NIST
Formaldehyde(50-00-0)
EPA
Formaldehyde (50-00-0)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 T
위험 카페고리 넘버 23/24/25-34-40-43-39/23/24/25-68-45-68/20/21/22
안전지침서 36/37-51-45-36/37/39-26-53
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1198 3/PG 3
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 LP8925000
F 고인화성물질 10
자연 발화 온도 424 °C for formalin containing 15% methanol
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 3
포장분류 III
HS 번호 29121100
유해 물질 데이터 50-00-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 oral (rat) 500 mg/kg
LD50 skin (rabbit) 270 mg/kg
LC50 inhal (rat) 203 mg/m3 (2 h)
PEL (OSHA) 1 ppm (1.5 mg/m3)
TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 0.3 ppm (ceiling)(0.37 mg/m3)
STEL (OSHA) 2 ppm (2.5 mg/m3)
기존화학 물질 KE-17074
유해화학물질 필터링 97-1-345;06-5-5
중점관리물질 필터링 별표1-1
사고대비 물질 필터링 1
함량 및 규제정보 물질구분: 제한물질; 혼합물(제품)함량정보: 폼알데하이드 및 이를 1% 이상 함유한 혼합물
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H226 인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 3 경고
H227 가연성 액체 인화성 액체 구분 4 경고 P210, P280, P370+P378, P403+P235,P501
H301 삼키면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 3 위험 P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H303 삼키면 유해할 수 있음 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 5 P312
H311 피부와 접촉하면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 - 경피 구분 3 위험 P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H317 알레르기성 피부 반응을 일으킬 수 있음 피부 과민성 물질 구분 1 경고 P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H331 흡입하면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 3 위험 P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H333 흡입하면 유해할 수 있음 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 5 P304+P312
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
H341 유전적인 결함을 일으킬 것으로 의심됨 (노출되어도 생식세포 유전독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 생식세포 변이원성 물질 구분 2 경고 P201,P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H350 암을 일으킬 수 있음 (노출되어도 암을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 발암성 물질 구분 1A, 1B 위험
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H371 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 2회 노출 구분 2 경고 P260, P264, P270, P309+P311, P405,P501
예방조치문구:
P201 사용 전 취급 설명서를 확보하시오.
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P308+P313 노출 또는 접촉이 우려되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
P403+P233 용기는 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 단단히 밀폐하여 저장하시오.
NFPA 704
4
3 0

포르말린 MSDS


Formaldehyde

포르말린 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

존재

주요발생원은 포르말린제조, 합판제조, 합성수지 및 화학제품제조, 소각로, 석유정제, 유류 및 천연가스 연소시설 등으로 매우 광범위하다. 특히 새집증후군의 주범으로 실내공기 오염의 주요 원인물질이다.일반 주택 및 공공건물에 많이 사용되는 단열재인 우레아폼 외에도 실내가구의 칠, 가스난로 등에서의 연소과정, 접착제, 흡연 등에 의해 발생된다.

개요

포르말린은 포름알데히드35~37%와 중합 방지를 위해 8~12%의 메탄올을 첨가한 물에 녹아 있는 혼합물질로서 무색투명하나 강한 자극성 향을 가졌으며 포름알데히드액이라고도 한다. 포르말린의 구성원인 포름알데히드는 탄소가 포함된 물질이 불완전 연소할 때에 쉽게 만들어지며 산불이나 담배의 연기 또는 자동차 매연에서 발견된다. 공기 중에서는 메테인과 다른 탄화수소에 햇빛과 산소가 가해지면서 합성되며, 과일, 채소, 육류, 어류 등 천연의 식품에서도 신진 대사의부산물로 미량 생성된다.

용도

포름알데히드는 자극성 냄새를 갖는 가연성 무색기체로 물에 잘 녹고 살균방부제로 이용되며, 화학적으로는 반응성이 매우 강한 환원제이다. 또한 많은 물질들(젤라틴, 아교 등과 같은 단백질)과 쉽게 결합하여 중합체를 형성할 수 있다.

안전성

포름알데히드는 피혁제조나 사진건판, 폭약 등을 만들 때에도 이용되며, 또한 강한 반응성을 이용하여 요소계, 멜라민계 합성수지를 만드는 공정 등에 쓰인다. 여러 건축자재에 함유된 포름알데히드의 경우는 공기 중으로 방산 되면서 실내 공기를 오염시키며 인체에 영향을 주게 되는데, 최근에는 새집으로 이사한 뒤 두통, 피로, 호흡곤란, 천식, 비염, 피부염 등의 증상이 나타나는 새집증후군에 대한 관심이 늘어나는데 새집증후군의 원인물질 중 하나가 포름알데히드이다.

개요

Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable gas with a distinctive pungent odor. It is the simplest aldehyde, which is a class of organic compounds with the carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen atom. Formaldehyde was described by August Wilhelm von Hoff mann (1818–1892) in 1867 after the Russian Aleksandr Butlerov (1828–1886) had inadvertently synthesized it in 1857. Formaldehyde readily dissolves in water to produce a solution called formalin, which is commonly marketed as a 37% solution.

화학적 성질

Formaldehyde is an important chemical widely used by industry to manufacture building materials and numerous household products. It is also a by-product of combustion and certain other natural processes. It is present in substantial concentrations both indoors and outdoors. Formaldehyde is well known as a preservative in medical laboratories, as an embalming fl uid, and as a sterilizer. Its primary use is in the production of resins and as a chemical intermediate. Urea formaldehyde (uf) and phenol formaldehyde (pf) resins are used in foam insulations, as adhesives in the production of particle board and plywood, and in the treating of textiles. Sources of formaldehyde in the home include building materials, smoking, household products, and the use of unvented, fuel-burning appliances, like gas stoves or kerosene space heaters. Formaldehyde, by itself or in combination with other chemicals, serves a number of purposes in manufactured products. It has been reported that the use and production of formaldehyde in 1998 was about 11.3 billion pounds and the international production crossed over 46 billion pounds in 2004.

물리적 성질

Formaldehyde is a clear, colorless liquid with a pungent, suffocating odor. Burning taste. Experimentally determined odor threshold concentrations of 1.0 ppmv and 0.50 ppmv were reported by Leonardos et al. (1969) and Nagata and Takeuchi (1990), respectively. Also,formalin is an aqueous solution that is 37% formaldehyde by weight; inhibited solutions (added to prevent polymeri zation) usually contain 6 12% methyl alcohol. Formaldehyde is used in the manufacture of plastics and resins by reaction with phenols,urea, and melamine. It is used as a preservative,a disinfectant, and as a chemical intermediate.

역사

Formaldehyde is a by-product of combustion of organic compounds, metabolism, and other natural processes. Formaldehyde results from wood combustion and elevated atmospheric concentrations can result from forest fires, as well as from urban pollution sources such as transportation. Formaldehyde has been identified as a significant indoor air pollutant. Building materials such as particleboard, plywood, and paneling are major sources of formaldehyde because they incorporate formaldehyde resins as bonding adhesives. Other sources of formaldehyde in the home are carpets, upholstery, drapes, tobacco smoke, and indoor combustion products. Formaldehyde may be emitted from building materials for several years after installation. In the two decades of the 1960s and 1970s, a half million homes in the United States used urea formaldehyde foam insulation, but health complaints led to its elimination as an insulator in the early 1980s. People react differently to formaldehyde exposure, but it is estimated that between 10% and 20% of the population will experience some reaction at concentrations as low as 0.2 parts per million. Formaldehyde irritates the eyes, nose, and throats, producing coughing, sneezing, runny nose, and burning eyes. More severe reactions result in insomnia, headaches, rashes, and breathing difficulties. Some states have established indoor air quality standards ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 ppm.

용도

Formaldehyde is used in the manufactureof phenolic resins, cellulose esters, artificialsilk, dyes, explosives, and organic chemicals.Other uses are as a germicide, fungicide, anddisinfectant; in tanning, adhesives, waterproofingfabrics, and for tonic and chromeprinting in photography; and for treating skindiseases in animals. In vitro neutralizationof scorpion venom toxicity by formaldehydehas been reported (Venkateswarlu et al.1988).
Formaldehyde constitutes about 50% ofall aldehydes present in the air. It is oneof the toxic effluent gases emitted fromburning wood and synthetic polymeric substancessuch as polyethylene, nylon 6, andpolyurethane foams. Firefighters have a greaterrisk to its exposure. Incapacitation fromthe toxic effluent gases is reported to occurmore rapidly from the combustion of syntheticpolymers than from that of naturalcellulose materials.
Formaldehyde is directly emitted into theair from vehicles. It is released in traceamounts from pressed wood products suchas particleboard and plywood paneling, fromold “sick” buildings, and from cotton andcotton–polyester fabrics with selected crosslinkfinishes. Formation of formaldehyde hasbeen observed in some frozen gadoid fishdue to enzymic decomposition of the additivetrimethylamine oxide (Rehbein 1985).Its concentration can build up during frozenstorage of fish (Leblanc and Leblanc 1988;Reece 1985). It occurs in the upper atmosphere,cloud, and fog; it also forms inphotochemical smog processes.

용도

More than half of the commercial formaldehyde produced is used to manufacture phenolic,urea, and melamine formaldehyde resins. Polyacetyl resins use another 5–10% of formaldehyde,and approximately 80% of formaldehyde goes into the resins and plastics industry.Phenolic-formaldehyde resins were the first synthetic plastics to be produced. The first plasticwas called Bakelite.
Formaldehyde has traditionally been used as a preservative in biology and medical laboratoriesand in embalming fluid. Embalming fluids typically contain 5–15% formaldehyde, a significant percentage of alcohol, and other additives to perform certain functions, for example,bleaches and coloring to preserve skin color. Formaldehyde has been used to preserve deadbodies since 1900 and has several qualities that make it the preferred preservative. Foremostamong these is its low cost, but it also has several biochemical advantages: it kills germs andmicroorganisms, destroys decomposition enzymes, retards decomposition of proteins, andhardens body tissues.

용도

Formaldehyde is used as the preservative; disinfectant; antiseptic; in embalming solutions; in the manufacture of phenolic resins, artificial silk, cellulose esters, dyes, urea, thiourea, melamine res ins, organic chemicals, glass mirrors and explosives; used in improving fastness of dyes on fabrics; in tanning and preserving hides; in mordanting and waterproofing fabrics; as a germicide and fungicide for vegetables and other plants; in destroying flies and other insects; in preserving and coagulating rubber latex; prevent mildewand spelt in wheat and rot in oats; used to ren der casein, albumin, and gelatin insoluble; in chemical analysis; as a tissue fixative; as a component of particle board and plywood; in the manufacture of pentaerythritol, hexamethylenetetramine and lkbutanediol; used in ceiling and wall insulation; in res ins used to wrinkle-proof fabrics; in photography for hardening gelatin plates and papers, for toning gelatin-chloride papers and for chrome printing and developing; intermediate in drug manufacture; pesticide intermediate; in the production of urea, phenolic melamine and acetale resins; in textile products; as an astringent, disinfectant, and preservative in cosmetics, metal-working fluids, shampoos, etc.; antiperspirant in cosmetics; anticracking agent in dental plastics; in anhidrotics; chipboard production; in cleaning products, disinfectants and deodorizers, dry-cleaning materials, and glues; in mineral-wool production, paints and coatings, paper industry, phenolic resins and urea plastics; in adhesives and footwear, photographic paper and solutions, polishes, printing materials, tanning agents, wart remedies, embalming solutions, fertilizers, wood composites, and insulation.

생산 방법

The industrial preparation of formaldehyde has occurred since the late 1800s and involvesthe catalytic oxidation of methanol: 2CH3OH(g) + O2(g) → 2CH2O(g).the oxidationtakes place at temperatures between 400°C and 700°C in the presence of metal catalysts. Metalsinclude silver, copper, molybdenum, platinum, and alloys of these metals. Formaldehyde iscommonly used as an aqueous solution called formalin. Commercial formalin solutions varybetween 37% and 50% formaldehyde. When formalin is prepared, it must be heated anda methanol must be added to prevent polymerization; the final formalin solution containsbetween 5% and 15% alcohol.

정의

Formalin: a colourless solution of methanal (formaldehyde) in waterwith methanol as a stabilizer; r.d.1.075–1.085. When kept at temperaturesbelow 25°C a white polymer ofmethanal separates out. It is used asa disinfectant and preservative forbiological specimens.

공기와 물의 반응

The solution gives up formaldehyde vapors readily. These vapors are flammable over a wide vapor-air concentration range. Water soluble.

반응 프로필

FORMALDEHYDE, SOLUTION, reacts violently with strong oxidizing agents (hydrogen peroxide, performic acid, perchloric acid in the presence of aniline, potassium permanganate, nitromethane). Reacts with bases (sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonia), and with nitrogen dioxide (explosive reaction around 180°C). Reacts with hydrochloric acid to form highly toxic bis(chloromethyl) ether. Polymerization reaction with phenol may develop sudden destructive pressure [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p.168].

위험도

Moderate fire risk. Explosive limits in air 7– 73%. Toxic by inhalation, strong irritant, a carcinogen. (Solution) Avoid breathing vapor and avoid skin contact. Confirmed carcinogen.

건강위험

Formaldehyde is moderately toxic by skin contact and inhalation. Exposure to formaldehyde gas can cause irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract, coughing, dry throat, tightening of the chest, headache, a sensation of pressure in the head, and palpitations of the heart. Exposure to 0.1 to 5 ppm causes irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat; above 10 ppm severe lacrimation occurs, burning in the nose and throat is experienced, and breathing becomes difficult. Acute exposure to concentrations above 25 ppm can cause serious injury, including fatal pulmonary edema. Formaldehyde has low acute toxicity via the oral route. Ingestion can cause irritation of the mouth, throat, and stomach, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, and coma. An oral dose of 30 to 100 mL of 37% formalin can be fatal in humans. Formalin solutions can cause severe eye burns and loss of vision. Eye contact may lead to delayed effects that are not appreciably eased by eye washing.Formaldehyde is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen (Standard 1910.1048) and is listed in IARC Group 2A ("probable human carcinogen"). This substance is classified as a "select carcinogen" under the criteria of the OSHA Laboratory Standard. Prolonged or repeated exposure to formaldehyde can cause dermatitis and sensitization of the skin and respiratory tract. Following skin contact, a symptom free period may occur in sensitized individuals. Subsequent exposures can then lead to itching, redness, and the formation of blisters

화재위험

Toxic vapors such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are generated during combustion. Explosion hazard: when aqueous formaldehyde solutions are heated above their flash points, a potential for explosion hazard exists. High formaldehyde concentration or methanol content lowers flash point. Reacts with nitrogen oxides at about 180; the reaction becomes explosive. Also reacts violently with perchloric acid-aniline, performic acid, nitromethane, magnesium carbonate, and hydrogen peroxide. When heated, irritant formaldehyde gas evolved from solution. The main products of decomposition are carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Metals such as platinum, copper, chromia, and alumina also catalyze the formation of methanol, methylformate, formic acid, carbon dioxide, and methane. Reacts with peroxide, nitrogen oxide, and performic acid causing explosions. Can react with hydrogen chloride or other inorganic chlorides to form bis-chloromethylether (BCME), a known carcinogen. Very reactive, combines readily with many substances, 40% solution is powerful reducing agent. Incompatible with amines, azo compounds, dithiocarbamates, alkali and alkaline earth metals, nitrides, nitro compounds, unsaturated aliphatics and sulfides, organic peroxides, oxidizing agents, and reducing agents. Aqueous solutions are unstable. Commercial formaldehyde-alcohol solutions are stable. Gas is stable in absence of water. Avoid oxidizing and alkaline materials. Hazardous polymerization may occur. Compound will polymerize with active organic materials such as phenol. Will polymerize violently in the presence of caustics and nitrides; (amines) exothermic reaction, (Azo compound) exothermic reaction giving off nitrogen gas, (caustics) heat generation and violent polymerization, (dithiocarbamates) formation of flammable gases and toxic fumes, formation of carbon disulfide may result, (alkali and alkaline earth metals) heat generation and formation of a flammable hydrogen gas.

인화성 및 폭발성

Formaldehyde gas is extremely flammable; formalin solution is a combustible liquid (NFPA rating = 2 for 37% formaldehyde (15% methanol), NFPA rating = 4 for 37% formaldehyde (methanol free)). Toxic vapors may be given off in a fire. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used to fight formaldehyde fires.

화학 반응

Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reactions; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

농업용

Microbiocide, Fungicide, Bactericide; Soil sterilent: Registered for use in the U.S. Not approved for use in EU countries. Formaldehyde has found wide industrial usage as a fungicide, germicide and in disinfectants. It is used most often in an aqueous solution stabilized with methanol (formalin). It is also a pesticide intermediate.

상품명

DYNOFORM®; FANNOFORM®; FORMALITH®; FORMOL®; FYDE®; HERCULES 37 M6-8®; HOCH®; IVALON®; KARSAN®; LYSOFORM®; MAGNIFLOC 156C FLOCCULANT®; MORBICID®; STERIFORM®; SUPERLYSOFORM®

색상 색인 번호

Sources and uses of formaldehyde are numerous. Exposed people are mainly health workers, cleaners, painters, met alworkers, but also photographers (color developers) and carbonless copy paper users. Formaldehyde can induce contact urticaria. Formaldehyde may be the cause of sen sitization to formaldehyde releasers: benzylhemiformal, bromonitrodioxane, bromonitropropanediol (?), chloroal lylhexaminium chloride or Quaternium-15, diazolidinylu rea, dimethylol urea, dimethyloldimethylhydantoin or DMDM hydantoin, hexamethylenetetramine or methe namine, imidazolidinylurea, monomethyloldimethylhy dantoin or MDM hydantoin, N-methylolchloracetamide, paraformaldehyde and trihydroxyethylhexahydrotriazine or Grotan BK. Formaldehyde is used for the synthesis of many resins. Some of them, such as formaldehyde-urea and melamine formaldehyde resins, can be used in textiles and second arily release free formaldehyde (see Chap. 40). Other resins, such as p-tert-butylphenol formalde hyde resin or tosylamine formaldehyde resin, do not release formaldehyde.

Safety Profile

Confirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, tumorigenic, and teratogenic data. Human poison by ingestion. Experimental poison by ingestion, skin contact, inhalation, intravenous, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes. Human systemic effects by inhalation: lachqmation, olfactory changes, aggression, and pulmonary changes. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. A human skin and eye irritant. If swallowed it causes violent vomiting and darrhea that can lead to collapse. Frequent or prolonged exposure can cause hypersensitivity leading to contact dermatitis, possibly of an eczematoid nature. An air concentration of 20 ppm is quickly irritating to eyes. A common air contaminant. Flammable liquid when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizers. A moderate explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame. The gas is a more dangerous fire hazard than the vapor. Should formaldehyde be involved in a fire, irritating gaseous formaldehyde may be evolved. When aqueous formaldehyde solutions are heated above their flash points, a potential for an explosion hazard exists. High formaldehyde concentration or methanol content lowers the flash point. Reacts with sodum hydroxide to yield formic acid and hydrogen. Reacts with NOx at about 180'; the reaction becomes explosive. Also reacts violently with perchloric acid + anhe, performic acid, nitromethane, magnesium carbonate, H2O2. Moderately dangerous because of irritating vapor that may exist in toxic concentrations locally if storage tank is ruptured. To fight fire, stop flow of gas (for pure form); alcohol foam for 37% methanol-free form. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes. See also ALDEHYDES.

잠재적 노출

Formaldehyde has found wide indus trial usage as a fungicide, germicide; and in disinfectants and embalming fluids. It is also used in the manufacture of artificial silk and textiles, latex, phenol, urea, thiourea and melamine resins; dyes, and inks; cellulose esters and other organic molecules; mirrors, and explosives. It is also used in the paper, photographic, and furniture industries. It is an intermediate in drug manufacture and is a pesticide intermediate.

Carcinogenicity

Formaldehyde is known to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans and supporting data on mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Formaldehyde was first listed in the Second Annual Report on Carcinogens in 1981 as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals. Since that time, additional cancer studies in humans have been published, and the listing status was changed to known to be a human carcinogen in the Twelfth Report on Carcinogens (2011).

Source

Formaldehyde naturally occurs in jimsonweed, pears, black currant, horsemint, sago cycas seeds (1,640 to 2,200 ppm), oats, beets, and wild bergamot (Duke, 1992).
Formaldehyde was formed when acetaldehyde in the presence of oxygen was subjected to continuous irradiation (λ >2200 ?) at room temperature (Johnston and Heicklen, 1964).
Schauer et al. (2001) measured organic compound emission rates for volatile organic compounds, gas-phase semi-volatile organic compounds, and particle phase organic compounds from the residential (fireplace) combustion of pine, oak, and eucalyptus. The gas-phase emission rates of formaldehyde were 1,165 mg/kg of pine burned, 759 mg/kg of oak burned, and 599 mg/kg of eucalyptus burned.
Gas-phase tailpipe emission rates from California Phase II reformulated gasoline-powered automobiles with and without catalytic converters were 8.69 and 884 mg/km, respectively (Schauer et al., 2002).

환경귀착

Biological. Biodegradation products reported include formic acid and ethanol, each of which can further degrade to carbon dioxide (Verschueren, 1983).
Photolytic. Major products reported from the photooxidation of formaldehyde with nitrogen oxides are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide (Altshuller, 1983). In synthetic air, photolysis of formaldehyde gave hydrochloric acid and
Irradiation of gaseous formaldehyde containing an excess of nitrogen dioxide over chlorine yielded ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen pentoxide, nitryl chloride, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Peroxynitric acid was the major photolysis product when chlo
Chemical/Physical. Oxidizes in air to formic acid (Hartley and Kidd, 1987). Trioxymethylene may precipitate under cold temperatures (Sax, 1984). Polymerizes easily (Windholz et al., 1983). Anticipated products from the reaction of formaldehyde with ozone orhydroxyl radicals in air are carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide (Cupitt, 1980). Major products reported from the photooxidation of formaldehyde with nitrogen oxides are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide (Altshuller, 1983).
Reacts with hydrochloric acid in moist air forming bis(chloromethyl)ether. This compound may also form from an acidic solution containing chloride ion and formaldehyde (Frankel et al., 1974). In an aqueous solution at 25°C, nearly all the formaldehyde add

저장

work with formaldehyde should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. Formaldehyde should be used only in areas free of ignition sources. Containers of formaldehyde should be stored in secondary containers in areas separate from oxidizers and bases.

운송 방법

UN1198 Formaldehyde solutions, flammable, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid, 8-Corrosive material. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner. UN2209 Formaldehyde solutions, with not<25% formal dehyde, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material. UN3077 For solids containing varying amounts of formal dehyde : UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.

Purification Methods

It commonly contains added MeOH. Add KOH solution (1 mole KOH: 100 moles HCHO) to ~37% by weight aqueous formaldehyde solution (formalin), or evaporate to dryness, to give paraformaldehyde polymer which, after washing with water, is dried in a vacuum desiccator over P2O5 or H2SO4. Formaldehyde is regenerated by heating the paraformaldehyde to 120o under vacuum, or by decomposing it with barium peroxide. The monomer, a colourless flammable gas, is passed through a glass-wool filter cooled to -48o in a CaCl2/ice mixture to remove particles of polymer, then dried by passage over P2O5 and either condensed in a bulb immersed in liquid nitrogen or absorbed in ice-cold conductivity water. The gas or aqueous solutions have pungent suffocating odours, are LACHRYMATORY and suspected carcinogens, handle carefully. Formalin is a disinfectant and a preservative of dead animal and plant tissues. [Beilstein 1 IV 3017.]

Toxicity evaluation

The carbonyl atom is the electrophilic site of formaldehyde, making it react easily with nucleophilic sites on cell membranes and in body fluids and tissues such as the amino groups in protein and DNA. Higher concentrations of formaldehyde precipitate protein. It is probable that formaldehyde toxicity occurs when intracellular levels saturate formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, allowing the unmetabolized intact molecule to exert its effects locally. Formaldehyde is a very strong crosslinking agent even in the low concentration range. The reaction mechanism of this agent is the initial addition of formaldehyde to a primary amine on either an amino acid residue or DNA base to yield a hydroxymethyl intermediate. Then the hydroxymethyl group condenses with a second primary amine to yield a methylene bridge.

비 호환성

Pure formaldehyde may polymerize unless properly inhibited (usually with methanol). May form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with strong acids; amines, strong oxidizers; alkaline materials; nitrogen dioxide; performic acid; phenols, urea. Reaction with hydrochloric acid forms bis-chloromethyl ether, a carcino gen. Formalin is incompatible with strong oxidizers, alkalis, acids, phenols, urea, oxides, isocyanates, caustics, anhydrides.

폐기물 처리

Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Incineration in solution of combus tible solvent. Consult with environmental regulatory agen cies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, trans portation, treatment, and waste disposal.

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