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발프로산

발프로산
발프로산 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
99-66-1
한글명:
발프로산
동의어(한글):
밸프로산;발프로산
상품명:
2-Propylpentanoic acid
동의어(영문):
VPA;44089;Epilim;Ergenyl;depakote;Mylproin;Valproic;Convulex;Depakene;Depakine
CBNumber:
CB7149528
분자식:
C8H16O2
포뮬러 무게:
144.21
MOL 파일:
99-66-1.mol

발프로산 속성

녹는점
-21.25°C (estimate)
끓는 점
220 °C(lit.)
밀도
0.92
증기압
0.01 hPa (20 °C)
굴절률
n20/D 1.425(lit.)
인화점
232 °F
저장 조건
2-8°C
용해도
H2O: slightly soluble
물리적 상태
Liquid
산도 계수 (pKa)
4.6(at 25℃)
색상
Clear colorless to pale yellow
폭발한계
1%(V)
수용성
slightly soluble
Merck
14,9913
BRN
1750447
CAS 데이터베이스
99-66-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Valproic Acid(99-66-1)
EPA
Pentanoic acid, 2-propyl-(99-66-1)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xn,T,F
위험 카페고리 넘버 22-36/37/38-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-34-61
안전지침서 26-45-36/37-16-7-36/37/39-53
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1230 3/PG 2
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 YV7875000
위험 등급 8
포장분류 III
HS 번호 29159080
유해 물질 데이터 99-66-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in rats: 670 mg/kg (Jenner)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
H360 태아 또는 생식능력에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음 생식독성 물질 구분 1A, 1B 위험
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
예방조치문구:
P201 사용 전 취급 설명서를 확보하시오.
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P309 노출되었거나 몸이 편치 않은 경우
P310 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오. 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 도움을 받으시오.
P311 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P308+P313 노출 또는 접촉이 우려되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.

발프로산 MSDS


Valproic acid

발프로산 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

Colorless Liquid

용도

Antiepileptic; increases levels of -aminobutyric acid(GABA) in the brain. Anticonvulsant that also has efficacy as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder

용도

Antiepileptic; Anticonvulsant that also acts as a mood stabilizer for those with bipolar disorder.

용도

For treatment and management of seizure disorders, mania, and prophylactic treatment of migraine headache. In epileptics, valproic acid is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal), complex partial seizures, and the seizures asso

정의

ChEBI: A branched-chain saturated fatty acid that comprises of a propyl substituent on a pentanoic acid stem.

상표명

Depakene (Abbott);Valproine;Vederon.

Biological Functions

Although it is marketed as both valproic acid (Depakene) and as sodium valproate (Depakote), it is the valproate ion that is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is the active form.
As with several other AEDs, it is difficult to ascribe a single mechanism of action to valproic acid.This compound has broad anticonvulsant activity, both in experimental studies and in the therapeutic management of human epilepsy.Valproic acid has been shown to block voltage-dependent sodium channels at therapeutically relevant concentrations. In several experimental studies, valproate caused an increase in brain GABA; the mechanism was unclear.There is evidence that valproate may also inhibit T-calcium channels and that this may be important in its mechanism of action in patients with absence epilepsy.

일반 설명

VPA is an established AED with a simple chemical structurebut an unusually broad spectrum of action. It is generallywell tolerated, but its use is limited by two rare but significanttoxic side effects (hepatotoxicity and teratogenicity) thatcan be dose-dependent or idiosyncratic in nature.Thesedrawbacks are apparently shared by its equipotent activemetabolite, (E)-2-propyl-2-pentenoic acid (2-ene-VPA).
VPA is also an important inhibitor of the cytochrome P450isozymes, mainly of CYP2C9 and also of uridine diphosphate(UDP)-glucuronyl transferase and epoxide hydrolase.

일반 설명

Clear colorless liquid.

공기와 물의 반응

Insoluble in water.

반응 프로필

2-Propylpentanoic acid is a carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acids donate hydrogen ions if a base is present to accept them. They react in this way with all bases, both organic (for example, the amines) and inorganic. Their reactions with bases, called "neutralizations", are accompanied by the evolution of substantial amounts of heat. Neutralization between an acid and a base produces water plus a salt. Carboxylic acids with six or fewer carbon atoms are freely or moderately soluble in water; those with more than six carbons are slightly soluble in water. Soluble carboxylic acid dissociate to an extent in water to yield hydrogen ions. The pH of solutions of carboxylic acids is therefore less than 7.0. Many insoluble carboxylic acids react rapidly with aqueous solutions containing a chemical base and dissolve as the neutralization generates a soluble salt. Carboxylic acids in aqueous solution and liquid or molten carboxylic acids can react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt. Such reactions occur in principle for solid carboxylic acids as well, but are slow if the solid acid remains dry. Even "insoluble" carboxylic acids may absorb enough water from the air and dissolve sufficiently in 2-Propylpentanoic acid to corrode or dissolve iron, steel, and aluminum parts and containers. Carboxylic acids, like other acids, react with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide. The reaction is slower for dry, solid carboxylic acids. Insoluble carboxylic acids react with solutions of cyanides to cause the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide. Flammable and/or toxic gases and heat are generated by the reaction of carboxylic acids with diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides. Carboxylic acids, especially in aqueous solution, also react with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), to generate flammable and/or toxic gases and heat. Their reaction with carbonates and bicarbonates generates a harmless gas (carbon dioxide) but still heat. Like other organic compounds, carboxylic acids can be oxidized by strong oxidizing agents and reduced by strong reducing agents. These reactions generate heat. A wide variety of products is possible. Like other acids, carboxylic acids may initiate polymerization reactions; like other acids, they often catalyze (increase the rate of) chemical reactions. 2-Propylpentanoic acid is incompatible with bases, oxidizing agents and reducing agents. 2-Propylpentanoic acid is corrosive. .

화재위험

2-Propylpentanoic acid is combustible.

Clinical Use

Valproic acid is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is highly bound (~90%) to plasma protein, and most of the compound is therefore retained within the vascular compartment.Valproate rapidly enters the brain from the circulation; the subsequent decline in brain concentration parallels that in plasma, indicating equilibration between brain and capillary blood. A large number of metabolites have been identified, but it is not known whether they play a role in the anticonvulsant effect of the parent drug. Valproic acid inhibits the metabolism of several drugs, including phenobarbital, primidone, carbamazepine, and phenytoin, leading to an increased blood level of these compounds. At high doses, valproic acid can inhibit its own metabolism. It can also displace phenytoin from binding sites on plasma proteins, with a resultant increase in unbound phenytoin and increased phenytoin toxicity. In this instance, the dosage of phenytoin should be adjusted as required. These examples reinforce the need to determine serum anticonvulsant levels in epileptic patients when polytherapy is employed.
Valproic acid has become a major AED against several seizure types. It is highly effective against absence seizures and myoclonic seizures. In addition, valproic acid can be used either alone or in combination with other drugs for the treatment of generalized tonic– clonic epilepsy and for partial seizures with complex symptoms.

부작용

The most serious adverse effect associated with valproic acid is fatal hepatic failure. Fatal hepatotoxicity is most likely to occur in children under age 2 years, especially in those with severe seizures who are given multiple anticonvulsant drug therapy. The hepatotoxicity is not dose related and is considered an idiosyncratic reaction; it can occur in individuals in other age groups, and therefore, valproic acid should not be administered to patients with hepatic disease or significant hepatic dysfunction or to those who are hypersensitive to it. Valproic acid administration has been linked to an increased incidence of neural tube defects in the fetus of mothers who received valproate during the first trimester of pregnancy. Patients taking valproate may develop clotting abnormalities.
Valproic acid causes hair loss in about 5% of patients, but this effect is reversible. Transient gastrointestinal effects are common, and some mild behavioral effects have been reported. Metabolic effects, including hyperglycemia, hyperglycinuria, and hyperammonemia, have been reported. An increase in body weight also has been noted. Valproic acid is not a CNS depressant, but its administration may lead to increased depression if it is used in combination with phenobarbital, primidone, benzodiazepines, or other CNS depressant agents.

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