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시트르산

시트르산
시트르산 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
77-92-9
한글명:
시트르산
동의어(한글):
시트르산;무수물구연산;베타-히드록시트리카르발릴산;2-히드록시-1,2,3-프로판트리카르복실산;시트르산,HPCEGRADE;시트르산,무수(무수구연산);구연산;시트릭애씨드;무수구연산;시트르산(CITRICACID)
상품명:
Citric acid
동의어(영문):
Citro;E 330;F 4020;Suby G;INS 330;nsc30279;CheMfill;BETZ 0623;BETZ 6251;Citretten
CBNumber:
CB9854361
분자식:
C6H8O7
포뮬러 무게:
192.12
MOL 파일:
77-92-9.mol

시트르산 속성

녹는점
153-159 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
248.08°C (rough estimate)
밀도
1.542
증기압
<0.1 hPa (20 °C)
굴절률
1.493~1.509
FEMA
2306 | CITRIC ACID
인화점
100 °C
저장 조건
Store at RT.
용해도
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
물리적 상태
grit
산도 계수 (pKa)
3.14(at 20℃)
색상
White
수소이온지수(pH)
1.0-2.0 (25℃, 1M in H2O)
폭발한계
8%, 65°F
수용성
750 g/L (20 ºC)
감도
Hygroscopic
최대 파장(λmax)
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.20
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.10
Merck
14,2326
JECFA Number
218
BRN
782061
안정성
Stable. Incompatible with bases, strong oxidizing agents, reducing agents, metal nitrates.
InChIKey
KRKNYBCHXYNGOX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
77-92-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-(77-92-9)
EPA
1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-(77-92-9)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xi,C,T
위험 카페고리 넘버 41-36/37/38-36/38-37/38-34-36-35-61-60
안전지침서 26-39-37/39-24/25-36/37/39-45-36-53
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1789 8/PG 3
WGK 독일 1
RTECS 번호 GE7350000
F 고인화성물질 9
TSCA Yes
HS 번호 2918 14 00
유해 물질 데이터 77-92-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 in mice, rats (mmol/kg): 5.0, 4.6 i.p. (Gruber, Halbeisen)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Warning
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H303 삼키면 유해할 수 있음 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 5 P312
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
예방조치문구:
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P304+P340 흡입하면 신선한 공기가 있는 곳으로 옮기고 호흡하기 쉬운 자세로 안정을 취하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P337+P313 눈에 대한 자극이 지속되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.

시트르산 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

용도

시트르산은 향료, 킬레이트제, 산성화제로 광범위하게 사용된다. 시트르산은 자연적인 보존제이며, 음식이나 음료수에 산성 또는 신맛을 첨가하기 위해 사용한다. 또한 시트르산은 환경 친화적인 청소제로도 쓰이며, 커피포트 등에 굳은 석회질을 녹이는데도 쓰인다.

용도

시트르산은 식품 첨가제로 가장 많은 양이 쓰인다 . 맛과 향을 내거나 식품을 보존시키는 용도로 첨가된다. 아이스크림에 유화제로 첨가되어 지방이 분리되지 않게 하는데 쓰인다. 설탕시럽에 첨가되어 설탕이 석출되지 않게 한다. 신 맛을 내는 용도로 쓰인다. 칼슘과 결합하여 구연산칼슘을 형성하는데 이를 통해 칼슘의 결정화를 막아서 요로결석을 예방하는 효과가 있다. 금속과 결합하여 킬레이트를 형성하는 특성이 있어서, 보일러 등에 낀 산화물 때를 제거하는 데 쓰인다.

개요

Citric acid is a white, crystalline, weak organic acid present in most plants and many animals as an intermediate in cellular respiration. Citric acid contains three carboxyl groups making it a carboxylic, more specifically a tricarboxylic, acid.the name citrus originates from the Greek kedromelon meaning apple of melon for the fruit citron. Greek works mention kitron, kitrion, or kitreos for citron fruit, which is an oblong fruit several inches long from the scrublike tree Citrus medica. Lemons and limes have high citric acid content, which may account for up to 8% of the fruit’s dry weight.
Citric acid is a weak acid and loses hydrogen ions from its three carboxyl groups (COOH) in solution.the loss of a hydrogen ion from each group in the molecule results in the citrate ion,C3H5O(COO)3 3?. A citric acid molecule also forms intermediate ions when one or two hydrogen atoms in the carboxyl groups ionize.the citrate ion combines with metals to form salts, the most common of which is calcium citrate. Citric acid forms esters to produce various citrates, for example trimethyl citrate and triethyl citrate.

화학적 성질

Citric acid is a weak organic acid with the formula C6H8O7. It is a natural preservative / conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks. In biochemistry, the conjugate base of citric acid, citrate, is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms.
Citric acid is a commodity chemical, and more than a million tonnes are produced every year by fermentation. It is used mainly as an acidifier, as a flavoring, and as a chelating agent.

화학적 성질

At room temperature, citric acid is a white crystalline powder. It can exist either in an anhydrous (water-free) form or as a monohydrate. The anhydrous form crystallizes from hot water, while the monohydrate forms when citric acid is crystallized from cold water. The monohydrate can be converted to the anhydrous form by heating above 78 °C. Citric acid also dissolves in absolute (anhydrous) ethanol (76 parts of citric acid per 100 parts of ethanol) at 15 °C.
In chemical structure, citric acid shares the properties of other carboxylic acids. When heated above 175 °C, it decomposes through the loss of carbon dioxide and water.
Citric acid is a slightly stronger acid than typical carboxylic acids because the anion can be stabilized by intramolecular hydrogenbonding from other protic groups on citric acid.

화학적 성질

Citric acid and its salts are naturally occurring constituents and common metabolites in plant and animal tissues. Citric acid is an intermediary compound in the Krebs cycle linking oxidative metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat. The concentration of naturally occurring citrate is relatively higher in fruits, particularly citrus fruits and juices than vegetables and animal tissues. Typical concentrations, fresh weight, are about 1% in orange juice and up to 8% in unripe lemon juice as compared to less than 0.1% in peas, corn and cabbage and about 0.1% in human milk. Citric acid has a pleasant acid taste and is odorless.*

화학적 성질

Citricacid,(COOH)CH2C(OHXCOOH)CH2COOH, also known as 2-hydroxy- l,2,3-propane tricarboxylic acid, is a colorless crystalline solid. Citric acid is soluble in water and alcohol. It is found in many plants, especially citrus fruits. The juice of unripe lemonsis a commercial source of citric acid.The reaction of calcium citrate and dilute sulfuric acid yields citric acid and calcium sulfate,which maybe separated by filtration. The food industry uses citric acid as a flavoring agent and as an antioxidant. Citric acid, formulated with propylene glycol and butylated hydroxy anisol,is used as a stabilizer for fats, greases,and tallow. Etching,textile dyeing, and printing operations use citric acid in various applications, and it is also used to adjust the pH in certain electroplating baths.

출처

Citric acid exists in greater than trace amounts in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably citrus fruits. Lemons and limes have particularly high concentrations of the acid; it can constitute as much as 8 % of the dry weight of these fruits (about 47 g/L in the juices ) . The concentrations of citric acid in citrus fruits range from 0.005 mol/L for oranges and grapefruits to 0.30 mol/L in lemons and limes. Within species, these values vary depending on the cultivar and the circumstances in which the fruit was grown.

역사

The discovery of citric acid is credited to Jabir ibn Hayyan (Latin name Geber, 721–815). Citric acid wasfirst isolated in 1784 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742–1786), who crystallized it from lemon juice.

용도

Citric acid and its citrate compounds are widely used in hundreds of applications. Globalproduction of citric acid in 2005 was 1.6 million tons, with China producing approximately40% of the world supply. In the United States, approximately 65% of citric acid use is in thefood and beverage industry. Citric acid is used as an acidulant to impart tartness, to controlpH, as a preservative and antioxidant, as a metal chelator, and to stabilize color and taste.Citrate salts can be used as mineral and metal dietary supplement; for example, calcium citrate is used as a calcium supplement.the second greatest use of citric acid is in detergents andcleaning products. Sodium citrate is used as a builder. Citric acid’s ability to chelate metalsmakes it useful as a water-softening agent, which can also assist in cleaning. Approximately10% of citric acid production is used in the pharmaceutical industry. Citric acid’s largest usein pharmaceuticals is as an eff ervescent when combined with carbonates or bicarbonates suchas in Alka-Seltzer. As an eff ervescent, it improves tastes, buff ers, and improves solubility ofingredients. It is also used in pharmaceuticals to impart tartness to mask unpleasant medicinalfl avors, maintain stability, and as a buff ering agent.

용도

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that is known as a commodity chemical, as more than a million tonnes are produced every year by mycological fermentation on an industrial scale using crude sugar sol utions, such as molasses and strains of Aspergillus niger. Citric acid is widely distributed in plants and in animal tissues and fluids and exist in greater than grace amounts in variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably in citrus fruits such as lemon and limes. Citric acid is mainly used as an acidifier, flavoring agent and chelating agent.

용도

Used in sequestering agents for trace metals; determination of citrate-soluble phosphorus pentoxide.

용도

citric acid has astringent and anti-oxidant properties. It can also be used as a product stabilizer, pH adjuster, and preservative with a low sensitizing potential. It is not usually irritating to normal skin, but it can cause burning and redness when applied to chapped, cracked, or otherwise inflamed skin. It is derived from citrus fruits.

용도

Citric Acid is an acidulant and antioxidant produced by mold fer- mentation of sugar solutions and by extraction from lemon juice, lime juice, and pineapple canning residue. it is the predominant acid in oranges, lemons, and limes. it exists in anhydrous and mono- hydrate forms. the anhydrous form is crystallized in hot solutions and the monohydrate form is crystallized from cold (below 36.5°c) solutions. anhydrous citric acid has a solubility of 146 g and mono- hydrate citric acid has a solubility of 175 g/100 ml of distilled water at 20°c. a 1% solution has a ph of 2.3 at 25°c. it is a hygroscopic, strong acid of tart flavor. it is used as an acidulant in fruit drinks and carbonated beverages at 0.25–0.40%, in cheese at 3–4%, and in jellies. it is used as an antioxidant in instant potatoes, wheat chips, and potato sticks, where it prevents spoilage by trapping the metal ions. it is used in combination with antioxidants in the processing of fresh frozen fruits to prevent discoloration.

용도

An organic acid obtained from lemon or lime. The colorless crystals of this acid are soluble in water and alcohol but less so in ether. It was used as a chemical restrainer particularly in developers for the collodion process and in silver nitrate solutions used for sensitizing salted and albumen papers.

정의

A white crystalline carboxylic acid important in plant and animal cells. It is present in many fruits. The systematic name is 2-hydroxypropane- 1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid. The formula is:
HOOCCH2C(OH)(COOH)CH2COOH.

정의

citric acid: A white crystallinehydroxycarboxylic acid,HOOCCH2C(OH)(COOH)CH2COOH;r.d. 1.54; m.p. 153°C. It is present incitrus fruits and is an intermediate inthe Krebs cycle in plant and animalcells.

정의

ChEBI: A tricarboxylic acid that is propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid bearing a hydroxy substituent at position 2. It is an important metabolite in the pathway of all aerobic organisms.

제조 방법

By mycological fermentation using molasses and strains of Aspergillus niger; from citrus juices and pineapple wastes

생명 공학 생산

Fermentation is the technology of choice for citric acid synthesis. Different bacteria (e.g. Arthrobacter paraffinens and Bacillus licheniformis), filamentous fungi (e.g. Aspergilus niger and Penicillium citrinum) and yeasts (e.g. Candida tropicalis and Yarrowia lipolytica) are able to produce citric acid. Due to high productivity and easy handling, citric acid is usually produced by fermentation with A. niger. For example, a product concentration of 114 g.L-1 within 168 h has been reached by cultivation of A. niger GCMC 7 on cane molasses . On the industrial scale, submerged cultivation, surface fermentation and solid-state fermentation are used.
In general, molasses, starch hydrolyzate and starch are used as substrates. However, there are various studies for alternative raw materials. Solid-state fermentation of inexpensive agricultural wastes is one possibility. For example, high yields up to 88 % have been achieved using grape pomace as substrate. Lowering the cost of product recovery is crucial. Different methods using precipitation, solvent extraction, adsorption, or in situ product recovery have been described. One interesting process could be the in situ crystallization of citric acid during fermentation to improve the economics.

Aroma threshold values

By mycological fermentation using molasses and strains of Aspergillus niger; from citrus juices and pineapple wastes

일반 설명

Colorless, odorless crystals with an acid taste. Denser than water.

공기와 물의 반응

The pure material is moisture sensitive (undergoes slow hydrolysis) Water soluble.

반응 프로필

Citric acid reacts with oxidizing agents, bases, reducing agents and metal nitrates . Reactions with metal nitrates are potentially explosive. Heating to the point of decomposition causes emission of acrid smoke and fumes [Lewis].

건강위험

Inhalation of dust irritates nose and throat. Contact with eyes causes irritation.

화재위험

Behavior in Fire: Melts and decomposes. The reaction is not hazardous.

생물학적 활성

Commonly used laboratory reagent

Biotechnological Applications

Citric acid cycle
Citrate, the conjugate base of citric acid is one of a series of compounds involved in the physiological oxidation of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and water.
This series of chemical reactions is central to nearly all metabolic reactions, and is the source of two-thirds of the foodderived energy in higher organisms. Hans Adolf Krebs received the 1953 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery. The series of reactions is known by various names, including the "citric acid cycle", the "Krebs cycle" or "Szent-Gy?rgyi — Krebs cycle", and the "tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle".
Other biological roles
Citrate is a critical component of bone, helping to regulate the size of calcium crystals.

Safety Profile

Poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by subcutaneous and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic byingestion. A severe eye and moderate skin irritant. An irritating organic acid, some allergenic properties. Combustible liquid. Potentially explosive reaction with metal nitrates. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes.

시트르산 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품

시트르산암모늄 TERT-BUTYL 4-(3-FORMYLBENZYL)TETRAHYDRO-1(2H)-PYRAZINECARBOXYLATE 아세틸 트라이뷰틸 시틀산염 METHYL 3-((PIPERIDIN-4-YL)METHYL)BENZOATE N-isopropyl-2-(piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-3-amine 1-CYCLOPROPYLPIPERAZINE 4-((1-(TERT-BUTOXYCARBONYL)PIPERIDIN-4-YL)METHYL)BENZOIC ACID 1-N-Boc-3-hydroxyazetidine METHYL 4-((PIPERIDIN-4-YL)METHYL)BENZOATE 비스(4-아미노페닐) 에테르 D-글루코사민 2-((1-(TERT-BUTOXYCARBONYL)PIPERIDIN-4-YL)METHYL)BENZOIC ACID 2-FLUORO-5-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID 5-FLUORO-4-HYDROXY-2-METHOXYBENZONITRILE 1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylicacid,2-hydroxy-,potassiumsalt 1-Trityl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid N-Boc-S-Trityl-L-cysteine 2-(PIPERAZIN-1-YL)-ACETIC ACID N-(2-PHENYLETHYL)-AMIDE TERT-BUTYL-4-(3-HYDROXYPROPYL)PIPERAZINE-1-CARBOXYLATE 4-(4-Methoxyphenyl)butyric acid 3-((1-(TERT-BUTOXYCARBONYL)PIPERIDIN-4-YL)METHYL)BENZOIC ACID 3-N-Boc-Aminomethylpiperidine 4-(2-FORMYLPHENYL)PIPERAZINE-1-CARBOXYLIC ACID TERT-BUTYL ESTER Phosphatizing liquid Disodium stannous citrate 펜타닐시트레이트 6-BROMO-2H-1,4-BENZOXAZIN-3(4H)-ONE 트리아연 디사이트레이트 Rifapentine TERT-BUTYL 4-(4-FORMYLBENZYL)PIPERAZINE-1-CARBOXYLATE 칼륨 시트르산, 무수물 2-FLUORO-5-METHOXYBENZOIC ACID 구연산 칼슘 METHYL 2-((PIPERIDIN-4-YL)METHYL)BENZOATE 3-Amino-2-[4-butoxycarbonyl(piperazino)]pyridine 구연산 암모늄, 삼염기 아이타코닉 무수물 5-BROMO-2-FLUOROPYRIDINE-3-CARBALDEHYDE 2-Fluoropyridine-4-carboxaldehyde 구연산 나트륨

시트르산 공급 업체

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