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케토코나졸

케토코나졸
케토코나졸 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
65277-42-1
한글명:
케토코나졸
동의어(한글):
케토코나졸;케토코나졸(KETOCONAZOLE)
상품명:
Ketoconazole
동의어(영문):
Nizral;nizoral;kw-1414;R-41400;Fitonal;ketoderm;fungoral;Brizoral;Onofin K;fungarest
CBNumber:
CB9146879
분자식:
C26H28Cl2N4O4
포뮬러 무게:
531.43
MOL 파일:
65277-42-1.mol

케토코나졸 속성

녹는점
146°C
끓는 점
753.4±60.0 °C(Predicted)
밀도
1.4046 (rough estimate)
굴절률
-10.5 ° (C=0.4, CHCl3)
인화점
9℃
저장 조건
2-8°C
용해도
methanol: soluble50mg/mL
산도 계수 (pKa)
pKa 3.25/6.22(H2O,t =25,I=0.025) (Uncertain)
물리적 상태
Off-white solid
색상
white to light yellow
optical activity
[α]20/D -1 to 1°, c = 4 in methanol
수용성
Soluble in DMSO, ethanol, chloroform, water, and methanol.
Merck
14,5302
InChIKey
XMAYWYJOQHXEEK-OZXSUGGESA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
65277-42-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 T,N,F
위험 카페고리 넘버 25-36/37/38-23/24/25-50/53-48/22-60-39/23/24/25-11
안전지침서 36-45-36/37/39-26-61-60-53-36/37-16-7
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 2811 6.1/PG 3
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 TK7912300
위험 등급 6.1(b)
포장분류 III
HS 번호 29349990
유해 물질 데이터 65277-42-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 in mice, rats, guinea pigs, dogs (mg/kg): 44, 86, 28, 49 i.v.; 702, 227, 202, 780 orally (Heel)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H301 삼키면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 3 위험 P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H311 피부와 접촉하면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 - 경피 구분 3 위험 P280, P302+P352, P312, P322, P361,P363, P405, P501
H331 흡입하면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 3 위험 P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H360 태아 또는 생식능력에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음 생식독성 물질 구분 1A, 1B 위험
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H373 장기간 또는 반복 노출되면 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 반복 노출 구분 2 경고 P260, P314, P501
H400 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 급성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
H402 수생생물에 유해함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 급성 구분 3
H410 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
H412 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 유해함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 3 P273, P501
예방조치문구:
P201 사용 전 취급 설명서를 확보하시오.
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P273 환경으로 배출하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P311 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P308+P313 노출 또는 접촉이 우려되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
P501 ...에 내용물 / 용기를 폐기 하시오.

케토코나졸 MSDS


cis-1-Acetyl-4-(4-((2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methoxy)phenyl)piperazine

케토코나졸 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

White or almost white powder.

용도

antifungal, PXR/SRC1 & CAR/SRC1 inhibitor

용도

For the treatment of the following systemic fungal infections: candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, oral thrush, candiduria, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, chromomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis.

용도

An inhibitor of CYP proteins, thromboxane synthetase, and 5-LO

용도

Inhibits cytochrome P-450 dependent steps in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in vivo. Antimetastatic and antineoplastic activity. Orally active 5-lipoxygenase and thromboxane synthase inhibitor

Indications

Ketoconazole (Nizoral) is approved for treating dermatophyte infections unresponsive to griseofulvin and for patients unable to tolerate that drug. A single oral dose is also effective for the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Other effective drugs that are less hepatotoxic may be preferred, however.

Indications

Ketoconazole (Nizoral) is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that in very high doses inhibits several steps in the biosynthesis of both adrenal and gonadal steroids. While the normal antifungal dose is 200 mg/day, testosterone biosynthesis in both the adrenal and testis is completely abolished by doses of 800 to 1,600 mg/day. This drug is used most commonly for large virilizing adrenal tumors that cannot be surgically removed.

Indications

Ketoconazole (Nizoral), an orally effective broadspectrum antifungal agent, blocks hydroxylating enzyme systems by interacting with cytochrome P450 at the heme iron site to inhibit steroid and/or androgen synthesis in adrenals, gonads, liver, and kidney. The most sensitive site of action appears to be the C17-20 lyase reaction involved in the formation of sex steroids. This explains the greater suppressibility of testosterone production than with cortisol. Cholesterol side-chain cleavage and 11β/18-hydroxylase are secondary sites of inhibition.

상표명

Ketozole (Taro); Nizoral (Janssen); Nizoral (McNeil);Cerozalol;Cetonax;Fetonal;Fungarol;Fungo-hubber;Ketocidin;Ketoisdin;Ketonan;Ketoral;Micoral;Micotek;Micoticum;Nizcrem;Nizoral 2% shampoo;Nizoral 20% cream;Nizovules;Nizshampoo;Oromycosal;Oronazol;Panfungol;Rofenid;Spike;Unidox.

World Health Organization (WHO)

Ketoconazole, an imidazole antifungal agent, was introduced in 1978 for the topical and systemic treatment of a wide variety of fungal infections. Its use by mouth has been associated with hepatotoxicity, including cases of hepatitis, which have usually been reversible on discontinuation of the drug, but some fatalities have also occurred. Ketoconazole is widely marketed.

Antimicrobial activity

The spectrum includes dermatophytes, some dimorphic fungi and Candida spp.

원료

Resistance has been documented in patients treated for chronic mucocutaneous candidosis and AIDS patients with oropharyngeal or esophageal candidosis. Some fluconazoleresistant C. albicans and C. glabrata are cross-resistant to ketoconazole.

Pharmaceutical Applications

A synthetic dioxolane imidazole available for oral and topical use.

생물학적 활성

Antifungal agent; potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450c17.

Pharmacokinetics

Oral absorption: Variable
Cmax 400 mg oral: c. 5–6 mg/L after 2 h
Plasma half-life: 6–10 h
Volume of distribution: 0.36 L/kg
Plasma protein binding: >95%
It is erratically absorbed after oral administration. Absorption is favored by an acid pH. Food delays absorption, but does not significantly reduce the peak serum concentration. Absorption is reduced if it is given with compounds that reduce gastric acid secretion. Penetration into CSF is generally poor and unreliable, although effective concentrations have been recorded with high doses in some cases of active meningitis. It is extensively metabolized by the liver, and the metabolites are excreted in the bile. Less than 1% of an oral dose is excreted unchanged in the urine.

Clinical Use

Mucosal candidosis
Pityriasis versicolor
Seborrheic dermatitis
Non-life-threatening forms of blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis

Clinical Use

Ketoconazole remains useful in the treatment of cutaneous and mucous membrane dermatophyte and yeast infections, but it has been replaced by the newer triazoles in the treatment of most serious Candida infections and disseminated mycoses. Ketoconazole is usually effective in the treatment of thrush, but fluconazole is superior to ketoconazole for refractory thrush. Widespread dermatophyte infections on skin surfaces can be treated easily with oral ketoconazole when the use of topical antifungal agents would be impractical. Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with topical imidazoles is less expensive.

Clinical Use

Ketoconazole can be used as palliative treatment for Cushing’s syndrome in patients undergoing surgery or receiving pituitary radiation and in those for whom more definitive treatment is still contemplated. Because surgical treatment is not always well tolerated by elderly patients, ketoconazole 200 to 1,000 mg/day can be a valuable alternative for the control of hypercortisolism. Common side effects include pruritus, liver dysfunction, and gastrointestinal symptoms.

부작용

Because of its effectiveness in blocking C17-20 lyase activities, ketoconazole does not enhance existing hirsutism associated with metyrapone. On the other hand, the antiandrogenic effects of ketoconazole may prove disconcerting to male patients.

부작용

Nausea, vomiting, and anorexia occur commonly with ketoconazole, especially when high doses are prescribed. Epigastric distress can be reduced by taking ketoconazole with food. Pruritis and/or allergic dermatitis occurs in 10% of patients. Liver enzyme elevations during therapy are not unusual and are usually reversible. Severe ketoconazole-associated hepatitis is rare.
At high doses, ketoconazole causes a clinically significant reduction in testosterone synthesis and blocks the adrenal response to corticotropin. Gynecomastia, impotence, reduced sperm counts, and diminished libido can occur in men, and prolonged drug use can result in irregular menses in women. These hormonal effects have led to the use of ketoconazole as a potential adjunctive treatment for prostatic carcinoma.

부작용

Unwanted effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, rashes, urticaria and pruritus. Transient abnormalities of liver enzymes, interference with testosterone synthesis (leading to gynecomastia, alopecia and oligospermia) and rare fatal hepatic damage have been reported.

Veterinary Drugs and Treatments

Because of its comparative lack of toxicity when compared to amphotericin B, oral administration, and relatively good efficacy, ketoconazole has been used to treat several fungal infections in dogs, cats, and other small species. Ketoconazole is often employed with amphotericin B to enhance the efficacy of ketoconazole, and by reducing the dose of amphotericin B, decreasing its risk of toxicity. See the Dosage section or Pharmacology section for specifics. Newer antifungal agents (fluconazole, itraconazole) have advantages over ketoconazole, primarily less toxicity and/or enhanced efficacy; however, ketoconazole can be significantly less expensive than the newer agents. Ketoconazole is considered by some to still be the drug of choice for treating histoplasmosis in dogs.
Use of ketoconazole in cats is controversial and some say it should never be used that species. Ketoconazole is also used clinically for the medical treatment of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. Ketoconazole appears to be a viable option (although relatively expensive) to mitotane, particularly for palliative therapy in dogs with large, malignant, or invasive tumors where surgery is not an option. Ketoconazole is also used frequently in dogs for stabilization prior to surgery. It is a reversible inhibitor of steroidogenesis, so it is usually not a viable option for long-term treatment.
Because it interferes with the metabolism of cyclosporine, it has been used to reduce the dosage necessary for cyclosporine in dogs.

주의 사항

Both rifampin and isoniazid lower plasma ketoconazolelevels, and concomitant administration should be avoided.Phenytoin serum levels should be monitored closelywhen ketoconazole is prescribed.Ketoconazole causes increasesin serum concentrations of warfarin, cyclosporine,and sulfonylureas. Because of its ability to increase serumcyclosporine levels, ketoconazole has been given to cyclosporine-dependent cardiac transplant recipients to reducethe dose of cyclosporine needed and as a cost-savingmeasure.

케토코나졸 준비 용품 및 원자재

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