Antacid and Mucosal protective Drugs

The cause and mechanisms of peptic ulcer has not yet been entirely clear, it is generally believed that the occurrence of peptic ulcer is the consequence of many factors, primarily related with the enhancement of mucosal injury factors (acid, pepsin), weakening of the mucosal protective factors (gastric mucosa barrier, the mucosal blood circulation and epithelium update) and the Helicobacter pylori infection. Now it is widely recognized that the occurrence of duodenal ulcer is related to the enhancement of mucosal damage related factors while the occurrence of the gastric ulcer is often more closely associated with the weakening of the mucosal protective factors.

The gastric fluid contains gastric acid and pepsin with their self-digestion effects on the stomach leading to the formation of peptic ulcer. Gastric acid is secreted by gastric parietal cells. There are three receptors on the cell wall, namely acetylcholine receptors, histamine and gastrin receptor (H2) receptor with three receptors being able to accept corresponding substances to stimulate the secretion of gastric acid. Regardless of stimulation substance, the secretion of gastric acid from parietal cells is subject to the control of "H + -K + -ATP" enzyme that is known as "acid pump" (H + -K + pump). This enzyme can prompt the H + to be secreted into the extracellular wall. When various kinds of internal and external factors are combined to initiate the stomach acid secretion mechanism which causes the hyperactivity of the gastric acid secretion, excess amount of stomach acid will cause damage to the stomach mucous membrane, leading to formation of gastric ulcers.

Pepsin originated from activation of the pepsinogen secreted from the gastric chief cells under the action of gastric acid or the activated pepsin, it is another major gastric injury factor. In addition to digest the protein in the food, pepsin can also digest of glycoproteins and mucoprotein in the gastric mucus and also destroy the gastric mucus barrier, leading to ulcer formation. The activity of the pepsin can be regulated by the gastric acid. Upon pH 1.8 to 2.5 in the gastric fluid, the activity of pepsin is in its optimal condition. Increased gastric pH can weaken the pepsin activity. The gastric acid and pepsin work together to cause ulcers but the pepsin plays the major role.

The Gastroduodenal mucous membrane is covered by the mucus secreted by the epithelium. The mucus is connected to the intact epithelial cell membrane as well as cells to form a line of defense, called mucus – mucous membrane barriers. It can protect the mucosa from digestion. Under normal circumstances, the thickness of the mucus is about 10 to 20 times of the epithelial cells. The diffusion speed of H+ in the mucus is relatively slow. In fact, the mucus layer can provide a insulation zone for the mucous membrane so that the contents of the cavity is insulated from the mucous membrane, further blocking the damage of the H+ and pepsin on the mucous membrane.

Stomach and proximal duodenum can also secreted alkaline HCO3- to neutralize the gastric acid in the surface of the mucous membrane to maintain a pH range of 0 ~ 8 for the epithelium cells and resist the diffusion of H+ to reduce the damage of the stomach acid on mucous membrane. In addition, the rich blood supply and the constantly shedding and updating of the gastric epithelial cells can timely maintain the integrity of the gastric mucosa and block the reverse diffusion of the H +. When there is insufficient blood supply to the mucous membrane which causes ischemic necrosis, the renewal and regeneration process of epithelial cell are delayed, leading to the formation of ulcers. For example, stimuli ulcer can easily occur upon neonatal asphyxia and hypoxia.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Sofalcone Sofalcone 64506-49-6 C27H30O6
REBAMIPIDE REBAMIPIDE 111911-87-6 C19H15ClN2O4
Rebeprazole sodium Rebeprazole sodium 117976-90-6 C18H20N3NaO3S
5-Aminosalicylic acid 5-Aminosalicylic acid 89-57-6 C7H7NO3
Rabeprazole Rabeprazole 117976-89-3 C18H21N3O3S
Lansoprazole Lansoprazole 103577-45-3 C16H14F3N3O2S
Esomeprazole sodium Esomeprazole sodium 161796-78-7 C34H36MgN6O6S2
3-Methoxy-1-propanol 3-Methoxy-1-propanol 1589-49-7 C4H10O2
Sodium bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate 144-55-8 CHNaO3
Esomeprazole magnesium Esomeprazole magnesium 161973-10-0 2(C17H18N3O3S)2.Mg
Magnesium oxide Magnesium oxide 1309-48-4 MgO
Famotidine Famotidine 76824-35-6 C8H15N7O2S3
Bismuth trioxide Bismuth trioxide 1304-76-3 BiO3-
Calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate 471-34-1 CCaO3
K-CATALYST K-CATALYST 1318-93-0 Al2O9Si3
R-(+)-Lansoprazole R-(+)-Lansoprazole 138530-94-6 C16H14F3N3O2S
Irsogladine maleate Irsogladine maleate 84504-69-8 C13H11Cl2N5O4
Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide 21645-51-2 AlH3O3
Bismuth subnitrate Bismuth subnitrate 1304-85-4 Bi5H9N4O22
Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide 1309-42-8 H2MgO2
Pantoprazole Sodium Pantoprazole Sodium 138786-67-1 C16H14F2N3NaO4S
Dimethicone Dimethicone 9006-65-9 C6H18OSi2
Rebamipide Rebamipide 139344-42-6 C19H15ClN2O4
Roxatidine Roxatidine 78273-80-0 C17H26N2O3
BISMUTH ALUMINATE HYDRATE  99.9+% BISMUTH ALUMINATE HYDRATE 99.9+% 308796-32-9 Al3BiH2O7
OLSALAZINE OLSALAZINE 15722-48-2 C14H10N2O6
Vonoprazan Vonoprazan 881681-00-1 C17H16FN3O2S
Proglumide Proglumide 6620-60-6 C18H26N2O4
BISMUTH ALUMINATE BISMUTH ALUMINATE 12284-76-3 Al3BiO6
BISMUTH SODIUM TARTRATE BISMUTH SODIUM TARTRATE 31586-77-3 C12H12BiNa3O18
Carbenoxolone disodium Carbenoxolone disodium 7421-40-1 C34H48Na2O7
Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Poly(dimethylsiloxane) 9016-00-6 C5H6Si
Aluminium phosphate Aluminium phosphate 7784-30-7 AlO4P
Gastrin I Human Gastrin I Human 10047-33-3 C97H124N20O31S
Vonoprazan FuMarate Vonoprazan FuMarate 881681-01-2 C21H20FN3O6S
BISMUTH POTASSIUM CITRATE BISMUTH POTASSIUM CITRATE 57644-54-9 C12H10BiK3O14
Rebamipide Rebamipide 90098-04-7 C19H15ClN2O4
ColloidalBismuthPectin ColloidalBismuthPectin
Sucralfate Sucralfate 54182-58-0 C11H52Al16O75S8-16
BISMUTH SUBGALLATE BISMUTH SUBGALLATE 99-26-3 C7H5BiO6
Bismuth subcarbonate Bismuth subcarbonate 5892-10-4 CBi2O5
POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE 8050-81-5 (C2H6OSi)n
Troxipide Troxipide 30751-05-4 C15H22N2O4
Olsalazine sodium Olsalazine sodium 6054-98-4 C14H8N2O6.2Na
Hydrotalcite Hydrotalcite 12304-65-3 CH24Al2Mg6O23
Irsogladine Irsogladine 57381-26-7 C9H7Cl2N5
Pantoprazole Pantoprazole 102625-70-7 C16H15F2N3O4S
Magnesium trisilicate Magnesium trisilicate 14987-04-3 Mg2O8Si3
Teprenone Teprenone 6809-52-5 C46H76O2
AMINOPENTAMIDE SULFATE (200 MG) AMINOPENTAMIDE SULFATE (200 MG) 60-46-8 C19H24N2O
calcium bicarbonate calcium bicarbonate 3983-19-5
Carbenoxolone Carbenoxolone 5697-56-3 C34H50O7
ALUMINUM GLYCINATE ALUMINUM GLYCINATE 41354-48-7 C2H6AlNO4
Nizatidine Nizatidine 76963-41-2 C12H21N5O2S2
Ramixotidine Ramixotidine 84071-15-8
Tritiozine Tritiozine 35619-65-9 C14H19NO4S
HEAVY MAGNESIUM CARBONATE HEAVY MAGNESIUM CARBONATE
ZINC ACEXAMATE ZINC ACEXAMATE C16H28N2O6Zn
Gastric Mucin Gastric Mucin 84082-64-4 NULL
MAGNESIUM CARBONATE MAGNESIUM CARBONATE 12125-28-9 CH12Mg2O10
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