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Trichloroethylene

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Products Intro: Product Name:Trichloroethylene
CAS:79-01-6
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CAS:79-01-6
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Products Intro: Product Name:Trichloroethylene
CAS:79-01-6
Purity:99% Package:280kg drum
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Products Intro: Product Name:Trichloroethylene
CAS:79-01-6
Purity:99.90%
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Products Intro: Product Name:Trichloroethylene, 99%, SuperDry, stabilized, water≤20 ppm, J&KSeal
CAS:79-01-6
Purity:99% Package:100ML;1L
Trichloroethylene Chemical Properties
Melting point -86 °C
Boiling point 87 °C
density 1.463 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor density 4.5 (vs air)
vapor pressure 61 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index n20/D 1.476(lit.)
Fp 90°C
storage temp. 0-6°C
form Liquid
color Clear colorless
OdorChloroform-like; ethereal.
Water Solubility Slightly soluble. 0.11 g/100 mL
Merck 14,9639
BRN 1736782
Stability:Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, aluminium, magnesium, strong bases, reducing agents. Light-sensitive. Reacts violently with many metals, ozone, potassium nitrate, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide.
CAS DataBase Reference79-01-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry ReferenceTrichloroethylene(79-01-6)
EPA Substance Registry SystemEthene, trichloro-(79-01-6)
Safety Information
Hazard Codes T,F
Risk Statements 45-36/38-52/53-67-68-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11
Safety Statements 53-45-61-36/37-16-7
RIDADR UN 1710 6.1/PG 3
WGK Germany 3
RTECS KX4550000
TSCA Yes
HazardClass 6.1
PackingGroup III
HS Code 29032200
Hazardous Substances Data79-01-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
ToxicityLD50 orally in rats: 4.92 ml/kg; LC (4 hrs) in rats: 8000 ppm (Smyth)
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
Trichloroethylene English
SigmaAldrich English
ACROS English
ALFA English
Trichloroethylene Usage And Synthesis
OutlineTrichloroethylene (TCE), also known as acetylide trichloride, is a colorless, volatile liquid solvent with strong ability of dissolving. It is insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, ether and other organic solvents. It is non-combustible under normal conditions. Because of its moderate boiling point, high vapor pressure and high stability as well as being suitable for the air wash operation in the industry for metal cleaning (for complete degreasing) as well as removal of fat and fiber. With its strong feature for dissolution, it is commonly used for removing dirt which is difficult to remove such as semi-hardened varnish, coating sectional agent, thicker flux; it can also be used as extracting agent, solvent and low-temperature HTF media. As the raw material of intermediate, it can be used for the production of tetrachlorethylene, acid, dichloroacetic chloride, octachlorodipropylether, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HFC-125, HFC-134a and the like.
Physical and Chemical PropertiesIt is colorless oily liquid with smells being similar as chloroform. It is volatile with the relative molecular mass of 131.29, the relative density of 1.4642, melting point of-73 ℃, and boiling point of 86.7 ℃. It has a flash point of 32.2 ℃, the refractive index of 1.4773, and the viscosity of 0.58mPa • s (20 ℃). The critical temperature is 271 ℃. Critical pressure is 5.02MPa. It is slightly soluble in water (0.107 at 20 ℃ while 0.124 at 60 ℃), soluble in alcohol, ether, acetone and chloroform, and soluble in a variety of fixed oil and volatile oil. At wet condition, it can generate hydrochloric acid upon exposure to light. High concentrations of vapor will burn at high temperatures. It will be decomposed upon heating and emit toxic chloride. Upon being heated to 250~600 ℃, it can generate phosgene upon contact with iron, copper, zinc, and aluminum. It can have fierce reaction with barium, nitrogen tetroxide, lithium, magnesium, liquid oxygen, ozone, potassium hydroxide, potassium nitrate, sodium hydroxide, and titanium. This product is however less stable and easily to be oxidized, generating dichloroacetyl chloride or phosgene, carbon monoxide and hydrochloric acid. It can undergo further chlorination, generating pentachloroethane or perchlorethylene. It can be brominated or fluorinated upon the action of the catalyst. It can undergo either self-polymerization, also co-polymerized with vinyl chloride, vinyl acetate, propylene, butene, butadiene and acrylonitrile. This vapor of this product can form explosive mixture with air with the explosion limit being 8.0%~10.5% (volume fraction).
PreparationCurrently, the major production methods of trichlorethylene include acetylene, direct chlorination of ethylene, and ethylene oxy-chlorination method. According to information, trichlorethylene can also be produced using vinyl chlorination upon heating, and the joint process between cold chlorination and oxy-chlorination while generating several products including vinyl chloride, dichloroethylene, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethane, dichloroethane, etc. It enables the rational application of resources as well as the reduction of byproducts. In addition, trichlorethylene can also made from tetrachlorethylene which undergoes dehydrochlorination under vapor phase. This method can eliminate the emission of saponification residue and thereby greatly reducing the contamination of organochlorine of the environment with producing by-product of hydrochloric acid.
1. Acetylene
(1) Saponification
Use anhydrous ferric chloride as a catalyst under reduced pressure, have addition reaction between acetylene and chlorine for generating tetrachloroethane, which is further reacted with lime to produce calcium chloride and trichlorethylene. The generated trichlorethylene and water were co-boiled and distilled off with both low-boiling substance and high-boiling substance being subsequently removed via low-boiling and high-boiling distillation column, respectively to obtain the finished product of trichlorethylene. The saponification process is simple, but yielding a large number of saponification residue, each producing 1t trichlorethylene product will produce 5~8t saponification residue, greater pressure on environmental protection, and therefore the new domestic unit trichlorethylene has no saponification French technology to produce trichlorethylene products. The reaction equation is as follows:
a schematic view of saponification process
Figure 1 is a schematic view of saponification process
(2) Gas-phase catalytic dehydrochlorination method
The current novel domestic plant for production of trichlorethylene applies vapor phase dehydrochlorination process. This method is through the vaporization of tetrachloroethane, under the condition of 200~290 ℃, tetrachloroethane gas enters into the fixed bed reactor containing the catalyst. Then tetrachloroethane generate crude trichlorethylene after dehydrochlorination with a few amount of pentachlorocyclohexane also being transformed into tetrachlorethylene. After the dehydrochlorination reaction, the finished trichlorethylene is obtained through the multi-column separation. The reaction equation is as follows:
C2H2 + 2Cl2 → CHCl2CHCl2
CHCl2CHCl2 + Cl2 → CHCl2CCl3 + HCl
CHCl2CHCl2 → CHCl = CCl2 + HCl
CHCl2CCl3 → CCl2 = CCl2 + HCl
2. The direct chlorination of ethylene
Direct chlorination of ethylene is through putting ethylene and chlorine gas for reaction in dichloroethane solution with the ferric chloride as catalyst to generate 1,2-dichloroethane which undergoes further chlorination to generate the mixture of trichlorethylene and tetrachlorethylene with the reaction undergoing at high temperature of 280~450 ℃; Then further go through distillation, ammonia neutralization, washing, and drying to obtain the trichlorethylene and tetrachlorethylene products, respectively. The reaction equation is as follows:
a schematic view of saponification process
Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of an ethylene chlorination process
3. Ethylene oxy-chlorination
Ethylene oxy-chlorination is through addition reaction between ethylene and chlorine into 1, 2-dichloroethane, and then further have oxy-chlorination with chlorine and oxygen with supplying the catalyst with at the temperature of 425 °C. The product is cooled, washed with water, dried and distilled, isolated to obtain trichlorethylene and tetrachlorethylene. The reaction equation is as follows:
C2H2 + Cl2 → ClCH2CH2Cl
8ClCH2CH2Cl + 6Cl2 + 7O2 → 4ClCH = CCl2 + 4CCl2 = CCl2 + 14H2O
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
PrecautionsBecause of the toxicity of this product, we should note the following tips; the clinical manifestations of poisoning:
1. Acute poisoning: headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, unsteady gait like drunkenness with difficulty in breathing in severe cases, delirium, delirium, convulsions, seizures, as well as quick appearance of inhibition of the respiratory center or circulatory failure as well as combined liver and kidney damage. Upon fire, trichlorethylene can produce phosgene to cause pulmonary edema. During the acute recovery period, it can appear that mental depression, paranoid psychosis, peripheral nerve classes and optic neuritis, optic atrophy and blindness. It will occasionally cause sudden death due to overwork.
2. Chronic poisoning: fatigue, weakness, loss of work ability, headaches, episodes of dizziness, irritability, sleep disturbance, loss of appetite, gastrointestinal disorders, chest tightness, palpitations, angina-like pain, peripheral neuropathy, autonomic dysfunction and liver damage. Long-term exposure to trichlorethylene can cause addiction and reduced alcohol tolerance.
3. TCE exposure can cause dermatitis, eczema, or bulla, and conjunctival and corneal damage. Because of its role of degreasing, it can easily cause dry skin and secondary infections.
There is no specific antidote with can be treated with general aid measures and symptomatic treatment. Make sure for protecting the liver, kidney and avoid using epinephrine; stop drinking.
You can take the following precautions to avoid poisoning:
1. Strengthen the ventilation equipment of production device.
2. It can be used for metal degreasing and cleaning metal device.
3. Pay attention to personal protection, avoid direct skin contact with trichlorethylene, and wear rubber gloves when necessary.
4. Check before work; for patients with disease in nervous system, respiratory, circulatory system should not engage in the work of trichlorethylene.
Uses1. Cleaner
As a cleaning agent, it has a rapid development in the market of the cleaning of metal parts and electronic components market, mainly used in the various kinds of fields including color TV sets, refrigerators, cars, air conditioners, precision machinery and microelectronics industries for being used for cleaning metal parts and electronic components.
2. Chemical Intermediates
It is currently used for the consumption of chemical intermediate areas. The domestic industrialized downstream products of trichlorethylene include tetrachlorethylene, hexachloroethane, dichloroacetyl chloride, octachlorodipropylether, HFC-134a, etc. It is mainly driven by the production of HFC-134a. Owing to the rapid industrialization of domestic production of HFC-134a, the ratio of trichlorethylene in the consumption structure as chemical intermediates has increased substantially.
3. Other
As the solvent, extracting agent, its consumption is about 15% of total consumption, mainly used for the production of caprolactam, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Pesticides with trichlorethylene as the solvent include trichlorfon and dimethoate which are popular pesticides in China. The application of trichloroethylene being used as the extractant agent for purification of the pharmaceutical intermediates-methoxy-phthalic acid has also increased largely in recent years.Application of trichlorethylene in other areas of consumption includes expanding agent, coating of unsaturated resin, which accounts for 5%; application of PCE and refrigeration agents accounts about 10%.
ToxicityFAO/WHO (2001): ADI not specified (use the lowest amount of process as limitation).
LD50: 3670mg/kg (rat, oral).
Chemical PropertiesIt is colorless, stable heavy oily liquid with low-boiling point and chloroform-like odor. It is generally miscible with organic solvent and slight soluble in water.
CategoryPesticide
Toxicity gradingpoisoning
Acute toxicityOral-rat LD50: 5650 mg/kg; Oral-Mouse LD50: 2402 mg/kg
Irritation dataSkin-Rabbit 2 mg/24 hours, severe; Eyes-rabbit 20 mg/24 hours, moderate.
Hazardous characteristics of explosiveit can be explosive when mixed with air
Flammability hazard characteristicsit is combustible in case of fire and heat combustible with combustion releasing toxic chloride
Storage characteristicsTreasury: ventilation, low-temperature and drying; store it separately from food additives.
Extinguishing agentWater spray, foam, CO2, sand
Professional standardsTWA 270 mg/m³; STEL 405 mg/m3
Chemical PropertiesTrichloroethylene, CHC1:CC12, is a colorless, heavy, stable toxic liquid with a chloroform aroma. It is slightly soluble in water, is soluble in greases and common organic solvents, and boils at 87°C (190 OF). 
On contact with air, it slowly decomposes and forms phosgene, hydrogen chloride, and dichloroacetyl chloride. Trichloroethylene in contact with water becomes corrosive and forms dichloroacetic acid and hydrochloric acid. It is soluble in methanol, diethyl ether, and acetone.
Chemical PropertiesTrichloroethylene, a colorless (often dyed blue), nonflammable, noncorrosive liquid that has the “sweet” odor characteristic of some chlorinated hydrocarbons. The Odor Threshold is 25-50 ppm.
DefinitionChEBI: A member of the class of chloroethenes that is ethene substituted by chloro groups at positions 1, 1 and 2.
UsesSolvent for fats, waxes, resins, oils, rubber, paints, and varnishes. Solvent for cellulose esters and ethers. Used for solvent extraction in many industries. In degreasing, in dry cleaning. In the manufacture of organic chemicals, pharmaceuticals, such as chloroacetic acid.
General DescriptionA clear colorless volatile liquid having a chloroform-like odor. Denser than water and is slightly soluble in water. Noncombustible. Used as a solvent, fumigant, in the manufacture of other chemicals, and for many other uses.
Air & Water ReactionsSlightly soluble in water.
Reactivity ProfileTrichloroethylene has been determined experimentally that mixtures of finely divided barium metal and a number of halogenated hydrocarbons possess an explosive capability. Specifically, impact sensitivity tests have shown that granular barium in contact with monofluorotrichloromethane, trichlorotrifluoroethane, carbon tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene, or tetrachloroethylene can detonate (ASESB Pot. Incid. 39. 1968; Chem. Eng. News 46(9):38. 1968). Trichloroethylene has been determined experimentally that a mixture of beryllium powder with carbon tetrachloride or with Trichloroethylene will flash or spark on heavy impact (ASESB Pot. Incid. 39. 1968). A mixture of powdered magnesium with Trichloroethylene or with carbon tetrachloride will flash or spark under heavy impact (ASESB Pot. Incid, 39. 1968).
Health HazardINHALATION: symptoms range from irritation of the nose and throat to nausea, an attitude of irresponsibility, blurred vision, and finally disturbance of central nervous system resulting in cardiac failure. Chronic exposure may cause organic injury. INGESTION: symptoms similar to inhalation. SKIN: defatting action can cause dermatitis. EYES: slightly irritating sensation and lachrymation.
Fire HazardSpecial Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic and irritating gases are produced in fire situations.
Fire HazardFlash Point (°F): 90 ℃; practically nonflammable; Flammable Limits in Air (%): 8.0-10.5; Fire Extinguishing Agents: Water fog; Fire Extinguishing Agents Not To Be Used: Not pertinent; Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic and irritating vapors are produced in fire situations; Behavior in Fire: Not pertinent; Ignition Temperature (°F): 770; Electrical Hazard: Not pertinent; Burning Rate: Not pertinent.
Chemical ReactivityReactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
Industrial usesTrichloroethylene is used widely by industry as a metal degreaser. It is especially valuable because of its cleaning properties, low flammability, and lack of a measurable flash point. Trichloroethylene also is used as a chemical process intermediate in fluorochemical and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production. It has been used worldwide for more than 70 years. It is a colorless, volatile liquid, and is an unsaturated aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbon. In the United States, it is produced by The Dow Chemical Company and PPG Industries, Inc. In 1998, U.S. demand was about 171 million pounds (77,700 metric tons) of which about 15 million pounds (6,800 metric tons) were imported. About 84 million pounds (38,000 metric tons) were exported. The use of trichloroethylene in 1999 can be broken down into the following categories:
chemical intermediate (~54%)
metal cleaning and degreasing (-42%)
miscellaneous (~4%)
High-purity grades of trichloroethylene are used as a feedstock in the synthesis of the refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon 134a. In this process, the trichloroethylene molecule is destroyed to form the new fluorinated compound.
Trichloroethylene's advantages for metal cleaning include the ability to degrease more thoroughly and several times faster than alkaline cleaners, and its compatibility with smaller equipment that consumes less energy. Trichloroethylene is an important solvent for degreasing aluminum and for cleaning sheet and strip steel prior to galvanizing. Trichloroethylene also is used for cleaning liquid oxygen and hydrogen tanks. Commercial trichloroethylene formulations include a stabilizer system to help prevent solvent breakdown caused by contaminants, such as acids, metal chips, and fines, and exposure to oxygen, light, and heat.
Trichloroethylene is also used as a solvent in some nonflammable adhesive and aerosol formulations, and as a low temperature heat-transfer medium. Other applications of trichloroethylene include its use as a solvent in the metal processing, electronics, printing, pulp and paper, and textile industries.
Contact allergensTrichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon used as a detergent or solvent for metals, oils, resins, sulfur, and as general degreasing agent. It can cause irritant contact dermatitis, generalized exanthema, Stevens-Johnson- like syndrome, pustular or bullous eruption, scleroderma, as well as neurological and hepatic disorders.
Safety ProfileConfirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, tumorigenic, and teratogenic data. Experimental poison by intravenous and subcutaneous routes. Moderately toxic experimentally by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic to humans by ingestion and inhalation. Mildly toxic experimentally by inhalation. Human systemic effects by ingestion and inhalation: eye effects, somnolence, hallucinations or distorted perceptions, gastrointestinal changes, and jaundice. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. An eye and severe skin irritant. Inhalation of high concentrations causes narcosis and anesthesia. A form of addiction has been observed in exposed workers. Prolonged inhalation of moderate concentrations causes headache and drowsiness. Fatalities following severe, acute exposure have been attributed to ventricular fibrdlation resulting in cardiac failure. There is damage to liver and other organs from chronic exposure. A common air contaminant. Nonflammable, but high concentrations of trichloroethylene vapor in hightemperature air can be made to burn mildly if plied with a strong flame. Though such a condition is difficult to produce, flames or arcs should not be used in closed equipment that contains any solvent residue or vapor. Reacts with alkali, epoxides, e.g., l-chloro- 2,3-epoxypropane, 1,4-butanediol mono-2,3- epoxypropylether, 1,4-butanediol di-2,3- epoxypropylether, 2,2-bis [(4(2',3'- epoxypropoxy)phenyl)propane] to form the spontaneously flammable gas dichloroacetylene. Can react violently with Al, Ba, N2O4, Li, Mg, liquid O2, O3, KOH, KNO3, Na, NaOH, Ti. Reacts with water under heat and pressure to form HCl gas. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-. See also CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, ALIPHATIC.
Potential ExposureTrichloroethylene is used as a vapor degreaser of metal parts, as a solvent; and as a drug; It is also used for extracting caffeine from coffee, as a dry-cleaning agent; and as a chemical intermediate in the production of pesticides; in making waxes, gums, resins, tars, paints, varnishes, and specific chemicals; such as chloroacetic acid.
First aidIf this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.
Metabolic pathwayFrom the photooxidation reaction medium (1) of trichloroethylene, the formation of dichloroacetyl chloride, CO, phosgene, and pentachloroethane and their conversion to the final product, CO2, are identified. By the second TiO2 photocatalyst reaction (2), trichloroacetaldehyde, dichloroacetyl chloride, CO, and phosgene with the new identified intermediates oxalyl chloride, trichloroacetyl chloride, and trichloroacetic acid are observed.
ShippingUN1710 Trichloroethylene, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.
Purification MethodsTricloroethylene undergoes decomposition in a similar way as CHCl3, giving HCl, CO, COCl2 and organic products. It reacts with KOH, NaOH and 90% H2SO4, and forms azeotropes with water, MeOH, EtOH, and acetic acid. It is purified by washing successively with 2M HCl, water and 2M K2CO3, then dried with K2CO3 and CaCl2, then fractionally distilled before use. It has also been steam distilled from 10% Ca(OH)2 slurry, most of the water being removed from the distillate by cooling to -30o to -50o and filtering off the ice through chamois skin: the trichloroethylene is then fractionally distilled at 250mm pressure and collected in a blackened container. [Carlisle & Levine Ind Eng Chem (Anal Ed) 24 1164 1932, Beilstein 1 IV 712.]
IncompatibilitiesContact with strong caustics causes decomposition and the production of highly toxic and flammable dichloroacetylene. Violent reaction with chemically active metals; powders, or shavings, such as aluminum, barium, lithium, sodium, magnesium, and titanium. Violent reaction with aluminum in the presence of dilute hydrochloric acid. Thermal decomposition of trichloroethylene, due to contact with hot metal or UV radiation, forms hazardous products including chlorine gas, hydrogen chloride; and phosgene. Keep this chemical away from high temperatures, such as arc welding or cutting, unshielded resistance heating; open flames; and high intensity UV light. Slowly decomposed by light in presence of moisture, with formulation of hydrochloric acid.
Waste DisposalConsult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced. An alternative to disposal for TCE is recovery and recycling.
Tag:Trichloroethylene(79-01-6) Related Product Information
2,3,3-TRICHLOROACRYLAMIDE N1-[1-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-1-METHYL-1-OXO-LAMBDA6-SULFANYLIDENE]-2,3,3-TRICHLOROACRYLAMIDE 2,3,3-trichloroacryloyl chloride TRICHLOROETHYLENE, [1,2-14C(U)],TRICHLOROETHYLENE [1,2-14C],TRICHLOROETHYLENE [1,2-14C],TRICHLOROETHYLENE, [1,2-14C(U)] Clorsulon 1-CHLORO-1-(TRICHLOROVINYL) CYCLOPROPANE 5-(3-THIENYL)-3-[(2,3,3-TRICHLOROACRYLOYL)AMINO]THIOPHENE-2-CARBOXAMIDE Hexachloro-1,3-butadiene N'4-(2,3,3-TRICHLOROACRYLOYL)-1-PHENYL-5-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-1H-PYRAZOLE-4-CARBOHYDRAZIDE N1-[2-(4-CHLORO-3,5-DIMETHYLPHENOXY)-5-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)PHENYL]-2,3,3-TRICHLOROACRYLAMIDE Tetrachloroethylene HEXACHLOROPROPENE 1,1,2-TRICHLORO-3,3,3-TRIFLUOROPROPENE Chloroacetic acid Difluorochloromethane Epichlorohydrin Trichloroethylene VINYL CHLORIDE