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Minocycline

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Products Intro: Product Name:Minocycline
CAS:10118-90-8
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CAS:10118-90-8
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CAS:10118-90-8
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CAS:10118-90-8
Purity:98.00% Package:1kg,10kg,50kg,100kg
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Products Intro: Product Name:Minocycline dihydrochloride
CAS:10118-90-8
Purity:96% Package:1g
Minocycline Basic information
Description References
Product Name:Minocycline
Synonyms:minocyclin;7-DIMETHYLAMINO-6-DEMETHYL-6-DEOXYTETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE;7-DIMETHYLAMINO-6-DEMETHYL-6-DEOXYTETRACYCLINE, HCL;[4s-(4alpha,4aalpha,5aalpha,12aalpha)]-4,7-bis(dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxonaphthacene-2-carboxamide monohydrochloride;(2e,4s,4ar,5as,12ar)-2-(amino-hydroxy-methylidene)-4,7-bis(dimethylamino)-10,11,12a-trihydroxy-4a,5,5a,6-tetrahydro-4h-tetracene-1,3,12-trione;MYNOCINE;MINOCIN;MINOCYCLINE
CAS:10118-90-8
MF:C23H27N3O7
MW:457.48
EINECS:800-277-5
Product Categories:
Mol File:10118-90-8.mol
Minocycline Structure
Minocycline Chemical Properties
alpha D25 -166° (c = 0.524)
Boiling point 563.31°C (rough estimate)
density 1.3283 (rough estimate)
refractive index 1.6500 (estimate)
pkapKa 2.8 (Uncertain);5.0 (Uncertain);7.8 (Uncertain);9.5 (Uncertain)
CAS DataBase Reference10118-90-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry System2-Naphthacenecarboxamide, 4,7-bis(dimethylamino)-1,4, 4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro- 3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy- 1,11-dioxo-, (4S,4aS,5aR,12aS)-(10118-90-8)
Safety Information
Hazardous Substances Data10118-90-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
MSDS Information
ProviderLanguage
Minocycline English
Minocycline Usage And Synthesis
DescriptionMinocycline belongs to the class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics, who has a broader spectrum than the other members of the group. Identified as a long-acting type, it is used to treat infections induced by certain kinds of bacteria. Minocycline is commonly used in the treatment of skin infections, such as inflammatory lesions of non-nodular moderate-to-severe acne vulgaris. It is also used for other skin infections, such as MRSA and Lyme disease. Besides, minocycline is effective to treat urinary tract infections, gallbladder infections, and respiratory tract infections like bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis and it is also used for treating Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus and other infections caused by the typhus group of bacteria and tick fevers caused by rickettsiae, etc.
Patented in 1961, minocycline was put into commercial use in 1971. It is not a naturally occurring antibiotic, but was synthesized semi-synthetically from natural tetracycline antibiotics by Lederle Laboratories in 1966.
Referenceshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minocycline
http://www.medicinenet.com/minocycline-oral/article.htm
http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/drug/getdrug/ratio-minocycline
UsesMinocycline is a semi-synthetic tetracycline prepared by sequential hydrogenolysis, nitration and reductive methylation. Minocycline, together with doxycycline, is regarded as a ‘third generation’ tetracycline largely replacing the natural products and pro-drugs produced in the early 1950s for mainstream antibiotic applications. Like all tetracyclines, minocycline shows broad spectrum antibacterial and antiprotozoan activity and acts by binding to the 30S and 50S ribosomal sub-units, blocking protein synthesis. Minocycline has been extensively cited in the literature with over 5,000 references.
DefinitionChEBI: A tetracycline analogue having a dimethylamino group at position 7 and lacking the methyl and hydroxy groups at position 5.
Brand nameDynacin (Medicis); Minocin (Lederle); Minocin (Triax); Solodyn (Medicis).
Antimicrobial activityIt exhibits the broad-spectrum activity typical of the group, but retains activity against some strains of Staph. aureus resistant to older tetracyclines. It is active against β-hemolytic streptococci and some tetracycline- resistant pneumococci. It is also active against some enterobacteria resistant to other tetracyclines, probably because some Gram-negative efflux pumps remove minocycline less effectively than other tetracyclines. Some strains of H. influenzae resistant to other tetracyclines are susceptible. Sten. maltophilia is susceptible, as are most strains of Acinetobacter spp. and L. pneumophila.
It is notable for its activity against Bacteroides and Fusobacterium spp., and is more active than other tetracyclines against C. trachomatis, brucellae and nocardiae. It inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. kansasii and M. intracellulare at 5–6 mg/L. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis are also slightly susceptible.
Pharmaceutical ApplicationsA semisynthetic tetracycline derivative supplied as the hydrochloride for oral administration.
PharmacokineticsOral absorption: 95–100%
Cmax 150 mg oral: 4 mg/L after 2h
300 mg oral: 2 mg/L after 2 h
Plasma half-life: 12–24 h
Volume of distribution: 80–115 L
Plasma protein binding: 76%
Absorption
Food does not significantly affect absorption, which is depressed by co-administration with milk. It is chelated by metals and suffers the effects of antacids and ferrous sulfate common to tetracyclines. On a regimen of 100 mg every 12 h, steady-state concentrations ranged between 2.3 and 3.5 mg/L.
Distribution
The high lipophilicity of minocycline provides wide distribution and tissue concentrations that often exceed those of the plasma. The tissue:plasma ratio in maxillary sinus and tonsillar tissue is 1.6: that in lung is 3–4. Sputum concentrations may reach 37–60% of simultaneous plasma levels. In bile, liver and gallbladder the ratios are 38, 12 and 6.5, respectively.
Prostatic and seminal fluid concentrations range from 40% to 100% of those of serum. CSF penetration is poor, especially in the non-inflamed state. Concentrations in tears and saliva are high, and may explain its beneficial effect in the treatment of meningococcal carriage.
Metabolism
Biotransformation to three microbiologically inactive metabolites occurs in the liver: the most abundant is 9-hydroxyminocycline.
Excretion
Only 4–9% of administered drug is excreted in the urine, and in renal failure elimination is little affected. Neither hemodialysis nor peritoneal dialysis affects drug elimination. Fecal excretion is relatively low and evidence for enterohepatic recirculation remains uncertain. Despite high hepatic excretion, dose accumulation does not occur in liver disease, such as cirrhosis. Type IIa and type IV hyperlipidemic patients show a decreased minocycline clearance of 50%, suggesting that dose modification may be necessary.
Clinical UseThere appear to be few situations in which it has a unique therapeutic advantage over other tetracyclines. Its use has been tempered by the high incidence of vestibular side effects.
Although used in the long-term management of acne, the potential for skin pigmentation must be considered. Because of its high tissue concentrations, it may occasionally provide a useful alternative to other agents for the treatment of chronic prostatitis. It has a role in the treatment of sexually transmitted chlamydial infections.
Side effectsMinocycline shares the untoward reactions common to the group with gastrointestinal side effects being most common, and more prevalent in women. Diarrhea is relatively uncommon, presumably as a result of its lower fecal concentrations. Hypersensitivity reactions, including rashes, interstitial nephritis and pulmonary eosinophilia, are occasionally seen.
Staining of the permanent dentition occurs with all tetracyclines; a side effect that appears to be unique to minocycline is that of tissue discoloration and skin pigmentation. Tissues that may become pigmented include the skin, skull and other bones and the thyroid gland, which at autopsy appears blackened. The pigmentation tends to resolve slowly with discontinuation of the drug and is related to the length of therapy.
Three types of pigmentation have been identified:
? A brown macular discoloration (‘muddy skin syndrome’), which occurs in sun-exposed parts and is histologically associated with melanin deposition.
? Blue–black macular pigmentation occurring within inflamed areas and scars associated with hemosiderin deposition.
? Circumscribed macular blue–gray pigmented areas occurring in sun-exposed and unexposed skin, which appears to be linked to a breakdown product of minocycline.
CNS toxicity has been prominent, notably benign intracranial hypertension, which resolves on discontinuation of the drug, and, more commonly, dizziness, ataxia, vertigo, tinnitus, nausea and vomiting, which appear to be more frequent in women. These primarily vestibular side effects have ranged in frequency from 4.5% to 86%. They partly coincide with plasma concentration peaks, but their exact pathogenesis has yet to be determined.
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