Antibiotics

The first discovered antibiotic is penicillin. It was developed during World War II, due to the demand for effective anti-infective agent. In fact, people had realized the effects of these substances at as early as 1870s when people had observed the antagonistic phenomena between microorganisms. However, it was not until 1942 when S. A. Waksman observed these activities that people began to adopt the term of antibiotic. Although in 1928, A. Fleming had discovered the penicillin, however, people didn’t realize the importance of it due to that people hadn’t yet confirmed that this kind of natural-derived anti-microbial agents is capable of taking effect against systemic infection in humans and animals. It was not until the war pressure stimulated the research to combat infectious diseases agent, H. W. Florey and his colleagues E. B. Chain had extracted the refined products of penicillin and successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of penicillin treatment. In 1943, Waxman found a second antibiotic - streptomycin, and then proceeded to observe the antimicrobial effects of isolated bacitracin, neomycin, polymyxin, chloramphenicol, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and some other antibiotics, the importance of all antibiotics has shown up. With the success of the antibiotics in the chemical treatment, people have also further found that they also had wide applications in plant protection, animal husbandry, food preservation and other aspects.

Antibiotics generally refer to a class of substances produced during the life process of bacteria, fungi and other microbes with anti-pathogen properties. It is also important drugs for controlling the human and livestock diseases, anti-tumor as well as treatment of plant pest diseases. Antibiotic is a kind of secondary metabolites of microorganisms with small amount and low concentrations usage being able inhibit and kill another kind of microorganism. There are also some antibiotics having anti-tumor or other kinds of effect. Since the application of penicillin in medical treatment in the beginning of 1940, it had discovered and invented of several thousands of species of antibiotics, however there is no more than 100 kinds having been used in clinical application. These antibiotics are extracted from a microbial culture medium or manufactured through semi-synthesis or synthesis. Antibiotics, according to their origin and effect, are generally divided into penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, and macrolide, anti-fungal and anti-tumor. There are divided to broad spectrum and narrow spectrum based on the antimicrobial spectrum range.

The antibacterial mechanism and the role of various antibiotics also vary. For example, penicillin and bacitracin can hinder the bacterial cell wall synthesis; peptide antibiotics can destroy the bacterial plasma membrane; chloramphenicol and streptomycin can interfere with the protein synthesis or nucleic acid synthesis. Some antibiotics have small spectrum; for example, penicillin is only effective against gram-positive bacteria, and thus being called narrow spectrum antibiotics. Some antibiotics have broader spectrum for example tetracycline has inhibitory effect on most bacteria and is called broad-spectrum antibiotics.

There are about 100 kinds of antibiotics that have been get applied. For example, penicillin, streptomycin, and gentamicin have been widely used for medical treatment. In agriculture kasugamycin and Jinggangmycin have been widely used in the prevention and treatment of rice germs. Blasticidin has been used for the control of rice blast; GA is used for promoting the growth of plants and so on. However, the use of antibiotics be according to the condition used and should be avoided of using indiscriminately. Some antibiotics can produce some side effects for example continuous application of streptomycin and gentamicin can cause deafness while overdose of chloramphenicol can cause leukopenia. Some people are allergic to certain antibiotics with fatal effect in serious conditions. Therefore, “skin test” is needed for some antibiotics (such as penicillin) before use.

Rational application of antibiotics is the key issue during antibiotic application. Blindly misuse of antibiotics, especially long-term use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, will not only lead to resistant strains, and many antibiotics have side effects that can’t be ignored. They can even cause severe consequence of “secondary infection” due to the destruction of the body's normal flora. Therefore, we must strictly apply them in accordance with the prescription.

Agricultural Antibiotics: Since in 1950s when people had found that blasticidin S is effective in treating rice blast, it has developed into a fairly large class of antibiotics to date. There are a lot of antibiotics of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal for treating crop diseases such as kasugamycin (kasugamycin), Jinggangmycin (i.e. validamycin), polyoxin and actidione and so on. Some pesticides such as aphid-killing agents such as tetranactin and piercicidin have excellent control effect on some crop pest diseases. Some antibiotics can also significantly promote the growth of plants such as GA (gibberellin) and so on.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
6-Aminopenicillanic acid 6-Aminopenicillanic acid 551-16-6 C8H12N2O3S
Oseltamivir phosphate Oseltamivir phosphate 204255-11-8 C16H31N2O8P
Bismuththiol Bismuththiol 1072-71-5 C2H2N2S3
2-Aminothiazol-4-acetic acid 2-Aminothiazol-4-acetic acid 29676-71-9 C5H6N2O2S
Geldanamycin Geldanamycin 30562-34-6 C29H40N2O9
Posaconazole Posaconazole 171228-49-2 C37H42F2N8O4
Hygromycin B Hygromycin B 31282-04-9 C20H37N3O13
Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Oxacillin sodium monohydrate 7240-38-2 C19H18N3NaO5S
Cefodizime sodium Cefodizime sodium 86329-79-5 C20H18N6Na2O7S4
Rifamycin O Rifamycin O 14487-05-9 C39H47NO14
Erythromycin Erythromycin 114-07-8 C37H67NO13
Sulfapyridine Sulfapyridine 144-83-2 C11H11N3O2S
Amorolfine hydrochloride Amorolfine hydrochloride 78613-38-4 C21H36ClNO
Enrofloxacin Enrofloxacin 93106-60-6 C19H22FN3O3
1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane 811-97-2 C2H2F4
7-Aminocephalosporanic acid 7-Aminocephalosporanic acid 957-68-6 C10H12N2O5S
Colistin sulfate Colistin sulfate 1264-72-8 2(C52H98N16O13).5(H2SO4)
Sulfadoxine Sulfadoxine 2447-57-6 C12H14N4O4S
FLORFENICOL FLORFENICOL 76639-94-6 C12H14Cl2FNO4S
Cefozopran Cefozopran 113359-04-9 C19H17N9O5S2
Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride hydrate Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride hydrate 86393-32-0 C17H21ClFN3O4
Darunavir Darunavir 206361-99-1 C27H37N3O7S
Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate 7179-49-9 C18H37ClN2O7S
Liranaftate Liranaftate 88678-31-3 C18H20N2O2S
Quinine hydrochloride dihydrate Quinine hydrochloride dihydrate 6119-47-7 C20H29ClN2O4
THIOSTREPTON THIOSTREPTON 1393-48-2 C72H85N19O18S5
Rifaximin Rifaximin 80621-81-4 C43H51N3O11
Cinchonidine Cinchonidine 485-71-2 C19H22N2O
Ampicillin Ampicillin 7177-48-2 C16H25N3O7S
CLINDAMYCIN HYDROCHLORIDE CLINDAMYCIN HYDROCHLORIDE 58207-19-5 C18H34Cl2N2O5S
Cemandil sodium salt Cemandil sodium salt 42540-40-9 C19H17N6NaO6S2
Ceftiofur hydrochloride Ceftiofur hydrochloride 103980-44-5 C19H18ClN5O7S3
7-Amino-3-vinyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid diphenylmethyl ester  monohydrochloride 7-Amino-3-vinyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid diphenylmethyl ester monohydrochloride 79349-67-0 C22H21ClN2O3S
Tigecycline Tigecycline 220620-09-7 C29H39N5O8
5-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methylbenzyl)-2,4-diaminopyrimidine 5-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methylbenzyl)-2,4-diaminopyrimidine 6981-18-6 C14H18N4O2
GCLH GCLH 64308-63-0 C29H25ClN2O4S
Ceftiofur sodium Ceftiofur sodium 104010-37-9 C19H16N5NaO7S3
Tilmicosin Tilmicosin 108050-54-0 C46H80N2O13
Amoxicillin trihydrate Amoxicillin trihydrate 61336-70-7 C16H25N3O8S
SULFACHLOROPYRIDAZINE SULFACHLOROPYRIDAZINE 80-32-0 C10H9ClN4O2S
CEFATHIAMIDINE CEFATHIAMIDINE 33075-00-2 C19H28N4O6S2
Tobramycin Tobramycin 32986-56-4 C18H37N5O9
OLIGOMYCIN OLIGOMYCIN 1404-19-9 C135H220O33
VALINOMYCIN VALINOMYCIN 2001-95-8 C54H90N6O18
Valienamine Valienamine 38231-86-6 C7H13NO4
WORTMANNIN WORTMANNIN 19545-26-7 C23H24O8
Estradiol Estradiol 57-91-0 C18H24O2
CORTICOSTERONE CORTICOSTERONE 50-22-6 C21H30O4
7-Amino-3-chloro cephalosporanic acid 7-Amino-3-chloro cephalosporanic acid 53994-69-7 C7H7ClN2O3S
Clindamycin phosphate Clindamycin phosphate 24729-96-2 C18H34ClN2O8PS
Oxolinic acid Oxolinic acid 14698-29-4 C13H11NO5
TRICHOSTATIN A TRICHOSTATIN A 58880-19-6 C17H22N2O3
Polymyxin B sulfate Polymyxin B sulfate 1405-20-5 C56H100N16O17S
Imipenem Imipenem 74431-23-5 C10H12N2O3S
Rosiglitazone maleate Rosiglitazone maleate 155141-29-0 C22H23N3O7S
ZANAMIVIR HYDRATE ZANAMIVIR HYDRATE 139110-80-8 C12H20N4O7
Tiamulin fumarate Tiamulin fumarate 55297-96-6 C32H51NO8S
Side chain for meropenem Side chain for meropenem 96034-64-9 C15H19N3O5S
Chondroitin sulfate A sodium salt Chondroitin sulfate A sodium salt 39455-18-0 (C14H19NO14SNa2)n
(Z)-2-Amino-alpha-[1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)]-1-methylethoxyimino-4-thiazolacetic acid (Z)-2-Amino-alpha-[1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)]-1-methylethoxyimino-4-thiazolacetic acid 86299-47-0 C13H19N3O5S
Phosphomycin calcium salt Phosphomycin calcium salt 26016-98-8 C3H5CaO4P
TAEM TAEM 158183-05-2 C20H22N4O4S3
Atazanavir Atazanavir 198904-31-3 C38H52N6O7
Doripenem hydrate Doripenem hydrate 364622-82-2 C15H26N4O7S2
Ciclopirox ethanolamine Ciclopirox ethanolamine 41621-49-2 C14H24N2O3
Rifabutin Rifabutin 72559-06-9 C46H62N4O11
Erythromycin thiocyanate Erythromycin thiocyanate 7704-67-8 C38H68N2O13S
Rifamycin S Rifamycin S 13553-79-2 C37H45NO12
Cefaclor monohydrate Cefaclor monohydrate 70356-03-5 C15H16ClN3O5S
2-Mercaptobenzothiazolyl-(Z)-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl) isopropoxyiminoacetate  2-Mercaptobenzothiazolyl-(Z)-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl) isopropoxyiminoacetate 89604-92-2 C20H22N4O4S3
Faropenem sodium hemipentahydrate Faropenem sodium hemipentahydrate 106560-14-9 C12H15NO5S
Teicoplanin Teicoplanin 61036-62-2 C78H77Cl2N8O32R
Dirithromycin Dirithromycin 62013-04-1 C42H78N2O14
7-Amino-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid 7-Amino-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid 36923-17-8 C7H8N2O3S
Sulbactam Sulbactam 68373-14-8 C8H11NO5S
Streptozotocin Streptozotocin 18883-66-4 C8H15N3O7
Telithromycin Telithromycin 191114-48-4 C43H65N5O10
Doripenem Doripenem 148016-81-3 C15H24N4O6S2
Tetracycline hydrochloride Tetracycline hydrochloride 64-75-5 C22H25ClN2O8
3-[[[(2S,4S)-4-Mercapto-1-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)carbonyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]carbonyl]amino]benzoic acid 3-[[[(2S,4S)-4-Mercapto-1-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)carbonyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]carbonyl]amino]benzoic acid 202467-69-4 C20H19N3O7S
BIAPENEM SIDE CHAIN BIAPENEM SIDE CHAIN 153851-71-9 C5H8ClN3S
Tilmicosin phosphate Tilmicosin phosphate 137330-13-3 C46H83N2O17P
STAUROSPORINE STAUROSPORINE 62996-74-1 C28H26N4O3
Kanamycin sulfate Kanamycin sulfate 25389-94-0 C18H38N4O15S
Gentamycin sulfate Gentamycin sulfate 1405-41-0 C60H127N15O26S
Cefprozil hydrate Cefprozil hydrate 121123-17-9 C18H21N3O6S
Cilastatin Cilastatin 82009-34-5 C16H26N2O5S
Ticarcillin disodium salt Ticarcillin disodium salt 4697-14-7 C15H14N2Na2O6S2
Ceftriaxone sodium Ceftriaxone sodium 104376-79-6 C18H16N8Na2O7S3.31/2H2O
Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol 56-75-7 C11H12Cl2N2O5
Tylosin tartrate Tylosin tartrate 74610-55-2 C49H81NO23
Atazanavir sulfate Atazanavir sulfate 229975-97-7 C38H52N6O7.H2SO4
Ceftiofur Ceftiofur 80370-57-6 C19H17N5O7S3
Cefeprime dihydrochloride Cefeprime dihydrochloride 107648-80-6 C19H25ClN6O5S2
Dalbavancin Dalbavancin 171500-79-1 C88H100Cl2N10O28
PUROMYCIN DIHYDROCHLORIDE PUROMYCIN DIHYDROCHLORIDE 58-58-2 C22H31Cl2N7O5
p-Nitrobenzyl-6-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1-azabicyclo(3.2.0)heptane-3,7-dione-2-carboxylate p-Nitrobenzyl-6-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1-azabicyclo(3.2.0)heptane-3,7-dione-2-carboxylate 74288-40-7 C16H16N2O7
AMPRENAVIR AMPRENAVIR 161814-49-9 C25H35N3O6S
TUNICAMYCIN TUNICAMYCIN 11089-65-9 C37H60N4O16
Cefoselis sulfate Cefoselis sulfate 122841-12-7 C19H24N8O10S3
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