Natriumcarbonat

Sodium carbonate Struktur
497-19-8
CAS-Nr.
497-19-8
Bezeichnung:
Natriumcarbonat
Englisch Name:
Sodium carbonate
Synonyma:
SODIUM THIOSULPHATE;Disodium carbonate;ANHYDROUS SODIUM CARBONATE;Sodium carbonate anhydrous;ASH;Disodium salt;Sodium carbonate solution;Carbonic acid sodium salt;HYPO;Natriumcarbonat
CBNumber:
CB9853672
Summenformel:
CH2O3.2Na
Molgewicht:
105.99
MOL-Datei:
497-19-8.mol

Natriumcarbonat Eigenschaften

Schmelzpunkt:
851 °C (lit.)
Siedepunkt:
1600°C
Dichte
2.53
Brechungsindex
1.535
storage temp. 
15-25°C
Löslichkeit
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
Aggregatzustand
Solid
Wichte
2.532
Farbe
White
PH
10.52(1 mM solution);10.97(10 mM solution);11.26(100 mM solution);
pka
(1) 6.37, (2) 10.25 (carbonic (at 25℃)
Wasserlöslichkeit
22 g/100 mL (20 ºC)
Sensitive 
Hygroscopic
maximale Wellenlänge (λmax)
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.01
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.01
Merck 
14,8596
BRN 
4154566
Stabilität:
Stable. Incompatible with powdered alkaline earth metals, aluminium, organic nitro compounds, fluorine, alkali metals, nonmetallic oxides, concentrated sulfuric acid, oxides of phosphorus.
InChIKey
CDBYLPFSWZWCQE-UHFFFAOYSA-L
CAS Datenbank
497-19-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST chemische Informationen
Sodium carbonate(497-19-8)
EPA chemische Informationen
Sodium carbonate (497-19-8)
Sicherheit
  • Risiko- und Sicherheitserklärung
  • Gefahreninformationscode (GHS)
Kennzeichnung gefährlicher Xn,Xi
R-Sätze: 32-36-51/53-36/37/38-41-37/38
S-Sätze: 36/37-26-22-36-39
WGK Germany  2
RTECS-Nr. XN6476000
3
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  28362000
Giftige Stoffe Daten 497-19-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxizität LD50 orally in Rabbit: 4090 mg/kg
Bildanzeige (GHS) GHS hazard pictograms
Alarmwort Warnung
Gefahrenhinweise
Code Gefahrenhinweise Gefahrenklasse Abteilung Alarmwort Symbol P-Code
H319 Verursacht schwere Augenreizung. Schwere Augenreizung Kategorie 2 Warnung P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
Sicherheit
P264 Nach Gebrauch gründlich waschen.
P264 Nach Gebrauch gründlich waschen.
P280 Schutzhandschuhe/Schutzkleidung/Augenschutz tragen.
P305+P351+P338 BEI KONTAKT MIT DEN AUGEN: Einige Minuten lang behutsam mit Wasser spülen. Eventuell vorhandene Kontaktlinsen nach Möglichkeit entfernen. Weiter spülen.
P337+P313 Bei anhaltender Augenreizung: Ärztlichen Rat einholen/ärztliche Hilfe hinzuziehen.

Natriumcarbonat Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

ERSCHEINUNGSBILD

WEISSES HYGROSKOPISCHES PULVER.

CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN

Mittelstarke Base in wässriger Lösung. Reagiert sehr heftig mit Säuren. Reagiert mit Magnesium, Phosphorpentoxid unter Explosionsgefahr. Reagiert mit Fluor unter Feuergefahr.

ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE

TLV nicht festgelegt (ACGIH 2005).
MAK nicht festgelegt (DFG 2005).

INHALATIONSGEFAHREN

Eine gesundheitsschädliche Partikelkonzentration in der Luft kann schnell erreicht werden, vor allem als Pulver.

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION

WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
Die Substanz reizt die Augen, die Haut und die Atemwege.

WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION

Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf die Atemwege. Führt zu Perforation der Nasenscheidewand. Wiederholter oder andauernder Hautkontakt kann Dermatitis hervorrufen.

LECKAGE

Verschüttetes Material in abdichtbaren Behältern sammeln; falls erforderlich durch Anfeuchten Staubentwicklung verhindern. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Atemschutzgerät, P2-Filter für schädliche Partikel.

R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

R32:Entwickelt bei Berührung mit Säure sehr giftige Gase.
R36:Reizt die Augen.
R51/53:Giftig für Wasserorganismen, kann in Gewässern längerfristig schädliche Wirkungen haben.
R36/37/38:Reizt die Augen, die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
R41:Gefahr ernster Augenschäden.
R37/38:Reizt die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.

S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:

S36/37:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzkleidung tragen.
S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S22:Staub nicht einatmen.
S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.
S39:Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.

Aussehen Eigenschaften

Na2CO3; Kohlensäuredinatriumsalz, wasserfreie Soda. Farbloser Festsoff.

Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt

Reizt die Augen.
Nicht mit Aluminium, Erdalkalimetallen in Pulverform, organischen Nitroverbindungen, Alkalimetallen, Fluor, Nichtmetalloxiden in der Hitze und konz. Schwefelsäure in Berührung bringen.
LDLo (Ratte, oral): 4000 mg/kg

Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln

Schutzhandschuhe als kurzzeitiger Staubschutz.

Verhalten im Gefahrfall

Persönliche Maßnahmen: Staubentwicklung vermeiden. Stäube nicht einatmen.
Trocken aufnehmen. Der Entsorgung zuführen. Nachreinigen.
Auf Umgebung abstimmen.
Nicht brennbar.

Erste Hilfe

Nach Hautkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser abwaschen.
Nach Augenkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser bei geöffnetem Lidspalt mindestens 15 Minuten ausspülen. Sofort Augenarzt hinzuziehen.
Nach Einatmen: Frischluft.
Nach Verschlucken: Reichlich Wasser trinken lassen. Erbrechen auslösen. Arzt hinzuziehen.
Nach Kleidungskontakt: Kontaminierte Kleidung entfernen.
Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

Sachgerechte Entsorgung

In Wasser lösen und zu den wässrigen, basischen Lösemittelabfällen geben.

Beschreibung

Sodium carbonate is known as soda ash or washing soda and is a heavily used inorganic compound. Approximately 45 million tons of soda ash are produced globally both naturally and synthetically. Soda ash is obtained naturally primarily from the mineral trona, but it can also be obtained from nahcolite (NaHCO3) and salt brine deposits. Trona is a freshwater sodium carbonate-bicarbonate evaporite, with the formula Na3CO3HCO3 .2H2O. The largest known deposit of trona is located in the Green River area of Wyoming, and other large deposits are found in Egypt’s Nile Valley and California’s Searles basin around the city of Trona. Soda ash is produced from mined trona by crushing and screening the ore and then heating it. Th is produces a soda ash mixed with impurities. Pure soda ash is obtained by dissolving the product and precipitating impurities combined with filtering processes.

Chemische Eigenschaften

Sodium carbonate, Na2C03, also known as soda or soda ash,is the most important of the industrial alkalis. It is a white or grayish-white, lumpy, water-soluble powder that loses its water of crystallization when heated. It decomposes at a temperature of about 852°C (1560°F). It exists in solution only. It is prepared by the combination of carbon dioxide and water.

Occurrence

Ash is a tree found in regions of North America

History

Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, has been used historically for making glass, soap, and gunpowder. Along with potassium carbonate, known as potash, sodium carbonate was the basis of the alkali industry, which was one of the first major chemical industries. Throughout history, alkalis were obtained from natural sources. Soda ash was also produced by burning wood and leaching the ashes with water to obtain a solution that yielded soda ash when the water was boiled off. The name soda ash originates from the barilla plant, which was used to produce soda ash. The scientific name of this plant is Salsola soda, but it goes by the common names of sodawort or glasswort because the soda produced from it was used in making glass. Barilla is a common plant found in saline waters along the Mediterranean Sea in Spain and Italy. Barilla was dried and burned to produce soda ash. The depletion of European forests and international disputes made the availability of alkali salts increasingly uncertain during the latter part of the 18th century. LeBlanc proposed a procedure in 1783, and a plant based on LeBlanc’s method was opened in 1791. Unfortunately, LeBlanc’s association with French Royalty led to the confi scation of the plant at the time of the French Revolution. Furthermore, confl icting claims for LeBlanc’s method were made by several other chemists and he never received the reward.

Verwenden

Soda ash is used in glass making, in production of sodium chemicals (such as sodium chromates, phosphates, and silicates), in the wood pulp industry, in production of soaps and detergents, in oil refining, in water softening, and in refining of nonferrous metals. In its hydrous crystallized form (Na2C03.10H2O), it is known as sal soda,washing soda,or soda crystals, not to be confused with baking soda,which is sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate (NaHC03). Its monohydrate form(Na2C03·H20) is the standard compound for scouring solutions.
When in solution, sodium carbonate creates less alkalinity than the hydroxides. A 0.1% solution creates a pH of 11;a fully saturated solution is 35%, which has a pH of 12.5.
The safety requirements for sodium carbonate, because of its lower alkalinity, can be considered less demanding than those for the related bicarbonates.

Definition

sodium carbonate: Anhydrous sodium carbonate (soda ash, sal soda) is a white powder, which cakes and aggregates on exposure to air due to the formation of hydrates. The monohydrate, Na2COH2O, is a white crystalline material, which is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol; r.d. 2.532; loses water at 109°C; m.p. 851°C.
The decahydrate, Na2CO3·10H2O (washing soda), is a translucent efÛorescent crystalline solid; r.d. 1.44; loses water at 32–34°C to give the monohydrate; m.p. 851°C.
Sodium carbonate may be manufactured by the Solvay process or by suitable crystallization procedures from any one of a number of natural deposits, such as:
trona (Na2CO3·NaHCO3·2H2O),
natron (Na2CO3·10H2O),
ranksite (2Na2CO3·9Na2SO4·KCl),
pirsonnite (Na2CO3·CaCO3·2H2O),
gaylussite (Na2CO3·CaCO3·5H2O).
The method of extraction is very sensitive to the relative energy costs and transport costs in the region involved. Sodium carbonate is used in photography, in cleaning, in pH control of water, in textile treatment, glasses and glazes, and as a food additive and volumetric reagent.

Vorbereitung Methode

Sodium carbonate is produced on all continents of the world from its minerals. It is present in large deposits in Africa and the United States as either carbonate or trona, a mixed ore of equal molar amounts of carbonate and bicarbonate. However, about 70% of the world production of sodium carbonate is manufactured by the Solvay (ammonia soda) process, whereby ammonia is added to a solution of sodium chloride. Carbon dioxide is then bubbled through to precipitate the bicarbonate (NaHCO3) that is decomposed by heat-producing sodium carbonate. In the United States. all production is based on the minerals that contain sodium carbonate. Different qualities of sodium carbonate are produced: technical, food, and pharmaceutical grades.

Allgemeine Beschreibung

Sodium carbonate is a water soluble inorganic salt commonly used as a weak base. Its aqueous solution has the ability to uptake carbon dioxide. It can also catalyze the conversion of sewage sludge to liquid fuels.

Sicherheitsprofil

Poison by intraperitoneal route. Moderately toxic by inhalation and subcutaneous routes. Mlldly toxic by ingestion. Experimental reproductive effects. A skin and eye irritant. It migrates to food from packagmg materials. Can react violently with Al, P2O5, H2SO4, F2, Li, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Na2O

läuterung methode

It crystallises from water as the decahydrate which is redissolved in water to give a near-saturated solution. By bubbling CO2, NaHCO3 is precipitated. It is filtered off, washed and ignited for 2hours at 280o [MacLaren & Swinehart J Am Chem Soc 73 1822 1951]. Before being used as a volumetric standard, analytical grade material should be dried by heating at 260-270o for 0.5hour and allowed to cool in a desiccator. It has a transition point at 450o, and its solubility in water is 21.58% at 20o (decahydrate in solid phase), 49.25% at 35o (heptahydrate in solid phase) and 44.88% at 75o(monohydrate in solid phase) [D.nges in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 987-988 1963]. After three recrystallisations, technical grade Na2CO3 had Cr, Mg, K, P, Al, W, Sc and Ti at 32, 9.4, 6.6, 3.6, 2.4, 0.6, 0.2 and 0.2 ppm respectively; another technical source had Cr, Mg, Mo, P, Si, Sn and Ti at 2.6, 0.4, 4.2, 13.4, 32, 0.6, 0.8 ppm respectively.

Natriumcarbonat Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte

Upstream-Materialien

Downstream Produkte


Natriumcarbonat Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.

Global( 1348)Lieferanten
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