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Phenothiazine

description Chemical Properties side effects Uses Synthesis

CAS No. 92-84-2
Chemical Name: Phenothiazine
Synonyms: ent38;Feeno;XL-50;Biverm;ENT 38;Orimon;Reconox;PHENOXUR;VERMITIN;Antiverm
CBNumber: CB2272320
Molecular Formula: C12H9NS
Formula Weight: 199.27
MOL File: 92-84-2.mol
Phenothiazine Property
Melting point : 184 °C
Boiling point : 371 °C(lit.)
density : 1.362
refractive index : 1.6353
Fp : 202°C
storage temp. : Store below +30°C.
solubility : 0.127mg/l
PH: 6 (10g/l, H2O, 20℃)(aqueous suspension)
Water Solubility : 2 mg/L (25 ºC)
Sensitive : Light Sensitive
Merck : 14,7252
BRN : 143237
Stability:: Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids. May discolour upon exposure to light.
CAS DataBase Reference: 92-84-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference: Phenothiazine(92-84-2)
EPA Substance Registry System: 10H-Phenothiazine(92-84-2)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes : Xi,N,Xn
Risk Statements : 36/37/38-43-51/53-36/38-40-20/21/22-52/53-48/22-22
Safety Statements : 26-36-61-36/37/39-29-22-36/37
WGK Germany : 1
RTECS : SN5075000
F : 8-23
TSCA : Yes
HS Code : 29343090
Hazardous Substances Data: 92-84-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Warning
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction Sensitisation, Skin Category 1 Warning P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P314, P501
H402 Harmful to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 3
H412 Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 3 P273, P501
Precautionary statements:
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P321 Specific treatment (see … on this label).
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P333+P313 IF SKIN irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention.

Phenothiazine Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

description
Phenothiazine is a class of agents exhibiting antiemetic, antipsychotic, antihistaminic, and anticholinergic activities. Phenothiazines antagonize the dopamine D2-receptor in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) of the brain, potentially preventing chemotherapy-induced emesis. In addition, these agents have peripherally or centrally antagonistic activity against alpha adrenergic, serotonergic, histaminic, and muscarinic receptors.
Phenothiazines are used to treat serious mental and emotional disorders, including schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Some are used also to control agitation in certain patients, severe nausea and vomiting, severe hiccups, and moderate to severe pain in some hospitalized patients. Chlorpromazine is used also in the treatment of certain types of porphyria, and with other medicines in the treatment of tetanus. Phenothiazines may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Chemical Properties
It is clean gray-green powder with the melting point of 185.5 ℃, boiling point of 371 ℃, 290 ℃ (5.33kPa). It is insoluble in petroleum ether, chloroform and water, and soluble in ether and hot acetic acid. It will be oxidized upon exposure to light in the air.
side effects
For more than a decade, phenothiazine drugs have been used to treat a variety of disorders and have proved particularly effective in the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical experience indicates that initial extremely high dosages are necessary to effect improvement of patients with schizophrenic illnesses.
During 1964, several sequelae have been reported following prolonged high dosage of these drugs. These recent reports refer to side effects which are apparently permanent, in contrast to earlier communications of transient deleterious effects. For example, it has been known for several years that extrapyramidal disorders occur frequently in patients taking phenothiazines; however, a reduction in dosage or cessation of medication appeared to produce a return to the normal state.
Phenothiazines may cause unwanted, unattractive, and uncontrolled face or body movements that may not go away when you stop taking the medicine. They may also cause other serious unwanted effects. You and your doctor should talk about the good this medicine will do as well as the risks of using it. Also, your doctor should look for early signs of these effects at regular visits. Your doctor may be able to stop or decrease some unwanted effects, if they do occur, by changing your dose or by making other changes in your treatment.
These medicines are available only with your doctor's prescription.
Levoprome(R) (methotrimeprazine) is no longer available in the United States. At the end of May 1998, Immunex Corporation stopped marketing it.
Once a medicine has been approved for marketing for a certain use, experience may show that it also is useful for other medical problems. Although these uses are not included in product labeling, phenothiazines are used in certain patients with the following medical conditions:
  • Chronic neurogenic pain (certain continuing pain conditions)
  • Huntington's chorea (hereditary movement disorder)
  • Migraine headaches
Uses
  • Phenothiazine is a relatively widely used anthelmintic reagent with excellent efficacy in treating the Haemonchus contortus of cattle, horse and sheep, nodular worm, Bunostomum and Plasmodium chabaudi.
  • Phenothiazine is the intermediates of fine chemicals such as dyes and drugs with itself being a auxiliary material for synthetic material (the anti-polymerization reagent for production of vinylon), fruit pesticides and veterinary anthelmintic.
  • It is mainly used as the polymerization inhibitor for acrylic acid, acrylic esters, and methacrylic aicd as well as ester monomer.
Synthesis
22 g of diphenylamine, 8.2 g of sulfur, and 3.2 gms. of anhydrous aluminum chloride are melted together. The reaction sets 140-150° C with the rapid evolution of hydrogen sulfide; by lowerg the temperature, a few degrees the reaction can be slackened. Wen the reaction has moderated, the temperature is raised to 160° C for a time. The melt, when cool, is ground up and extracted, first with water and then with dilute alcohol. The residue consists of almost pure phenothiazine. It can be recrystallised from alcohol. Yield 93%, yellowish leaflets; m.p. 180° C.
Preparation of phenothiazine
Systematic organic chemistry, by W. M. Cumming, 325-326, 1937.
Chemical Properties
yellow or pale green powder
Uses
A key component of antipsychotic and antihistaminic drugs.
Uses
Employed in the preparation of carbazoles and piperazines,1 and charge-transfer semiconducting complexes.2
Uses
A rigid, tricyclic thiazine useful as an electron donor.
Definition
ChEBI: The 10H-tautomer of phenothiazine.
General Description
Light green to steel-blue powder. Acquires a greenish-brown tint under exposure to sunlight.
Air & Water Reactions
Insoluble in water.
Reactivity Profile
Phenothiazine is slowly decomposed by sunlight. . Organosulfides are incompatible with acids, diazo and azo compounds, halocarbons, isocyanates, aldehydes, alkali metals, nitrides, hydrides, and other strong reducing agents. Reactions with these materials generate heat and in many cases hydrogen gas. Many of these compounds may liberate hydrogen sulfide upon decomposition or reaction with an acid.
Fire Hazard
Flash point data for Phenothiazine are not available, but Phenothiazine is probably combustible.
Phenothiazine Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
Sulfur Benzene Iodine Diphenylamine Hexamethylenetetramine
Preparation Products
SODIUM PHENOTHIAZINE-10-YL-PROPYLSULFONATE Promethazine hydrochloride CARBAMIC ACID, [10-[3-(4-MORPHOLINYL)-1-OXOPROPYL]-10H-PHENOTHIAZIN-2-YL]-, ETHYL ESTER Acrylamide
Phenothiazine Suppliers      Global( 250)Suppliers     
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Shanghai TongYuan Chemical Co., Ltd. 021-69182866 69186366
021-69182022 tongyuanchem@126.com China 5184 58
Shanghai LanRun Chemical Co., Ltd. 021-69515658 ; 69515628
021-69515998 longrunchem@163.com China 5966 50
Shanghai XiZhi Chemical Co., Ltd. 021-69005855
021-69005955 xizhichem@163.com China 4254 55
Shanghai Xilong Biochemical Technology Co., Ltd. 021-52907766-8042
021-52906523 order@drmaolab.com China 10070 58
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. 400-666-7788 +86-10-82848833
+86-10-82849933 jkinfo@jkchemical.com;market6@jkchemical.com China 96831 76
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. +86-(0)21-61259100(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170099(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-62670440(Beijing)
+86-(0)21-61259102(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170066(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-88580358(Beijing) sh@meryer.com China 40403 62
3B Pharmachem (Wuhan) International Co.,Ltd. 86-21-50328103 * 801、802、803、804 Mobile:18930552037
86-21-50328109 3bsc@sina.com China 15950 69
future industrial shanghai co., ltd 021-61552785,400-0066-400
021-55660885 sales@jonln.com China 2091 65
Alfa Aesar 400-610-6006; 021-67582000
021-67582001/03/05 saleschina@alfa-asia.com China 30314 84
TCI (Shanghai) Development Co., Ltd. 800-988-0390
021-67121385 sales@tcishanghai.com.cn China 22833 81
 
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