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硝酸

硝酸 化学構造式
7697-37-2
CAS番号.
7697-37-2
化学名:
硝酸
别名:
硝酸 (67%) [一般有機合成用];硝酸 1.38;硝酸 1.40;硝酸 1.42;濃硝酸;硝酸 Sp.Gr. 1.38;硝酸 Sp.Gr. 1.40;硝酸 Sp.Gr. 1.42;硝酸 (67%);0.1MOL/L硝酸(N/10);1MOL/L硝酸(1N);溶離液(1MMOL/L硝酸);0.05MOL/L(N/20) 硝酸;0.1MOL/L(N/10) 硝酸;0.2MOL/L(N/5) 硝酸;0.3W/W% 硝酸;0.4MOL/L(0.4N) 硝酸;0.5MOL/L(N/2) 硝酸;10W/V% 硝酸;20W/V% 硝酸
英語化学名:
Nitric acid
英語别名:
HNO3;Rfna;HONO2;NITAL;azotowykwas;Nitric acid;AZOTIC ACID;AQUA FORTIS;acidonitrico;Azotowy kwas
CBNumber:
CB7687864
化学式:
HNO3
分子量:
63.01
MOL File:
7697-37-2.mol

硝酸 物理性質

融点 :
-42 °C
沸点 :
120.5 °C(lit.)
比重(密度) :
1.41 g/mL at 20 °C
蒸気密度:
1 (vs air)
蒸気圧:
8 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
闪点 :
120.5°C
貯蔵温度 :
2-8°C
溶解性:
Miscible with water.
酸解離定数(Pka):
-1.3(at 25℃)
外見 :
Liquid, Double Sub-Boiling Quartz Distillation
色:
colorless to deep yellow
比重:
d 20/4 1.4826
臭い (Odor):
Suffocating fumes detectable at <5.0 ppm
PH:
<1 (H2O, 20℃)
水溶解度 :
>100 g/100 mL (20 ºC)
Sensitive :
Hygroscopic
Merck :
14,6577
暴露限界値:
TLV-TWA 2 ppm (5 mg/m3) (ACGIH, MSHA, OSHA, and NIOSH); STEL 4 ppm (~10 mg/m3) (ACGIH).
CAS データベース:
7697-37-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NISTの化学物質情報:
Nitric acid(7697-37-2)
EPAの化学物質情報:
Nitric acid(7697-37-2)
安全性情報
  • リスクと安全性に関する声明
  • 危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
主な危険性  C,O,Xi,T+
Rフレーズ  8-35-34-20-41-37/38-36/38-26/27
Sフレーズ  23-26-36-45-36/37/39-39-60-28
RIDADR  UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK Germany  1
RTECS 番号 QU5900000
8
TSCA  Yes
HSコード  2808 00 00
国連危険物分類  8
容器等級  II
有毒物質データの 7697-37-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
毒性 LC50 inhal (rat)
2500 ppm (1 h)
PEL (OSHA)
2 ppm (5 mg/m3)
TLV-TWA (ACGIH)
2 ppm (5.2 mg/m3)
STEL (ACGIH)
4 ppm (10 mg/m3)
消防法 危-6-I
化審法 (1)-394
安衛法 特化則 特定化学物質(第3類)
毒劇物取締法 劇物
絵表示(GHS)
注意喚起語 Danger
危険有害性情報
コード 危険有害性情報 危険有害性クラス 区分 注意喚起語 シンボル P コード
H272 火災助長のおそれ;酸化性物質 酸化性液体; 酸化性固体 2
3
危険
警告
P210, P220, P221P280, P370+P378,P501
H290 金属腐食のおそれ 金属腐食性物質 1 警告 P234, P390, P404
H314 重篤な皮膚の薬傷?眼の損傷 皮膚腐食性/刺激性 1A, B, C 危険 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H315 皮膚刺激 皮膚腐食性/刺激性 2 警告 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 重篤な眼の損傷 眼に対する重篤な損傷性/眼刺激 性 1 危険 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H319 強い眼刺激 眼に対する重篤な損傷性/眼刺激 性 2A 警告 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H330 吸入すると生命に危険 急性毒性、吸入 1, 2 危険 P260, P271, P284, P304+P340, P310,P320, P403+P233, P405, P501
H335 呼吸器への刺激のおそれ 特定標的臓器毒性、単回暴露; 気道刺激性 3 警告
注意書き
P210 熱/火花/裸火/高温のもののような着火源から遠ざ けること。-禁煙。
P220 衣類/.../可燃物から遠ざけること。
P221 可燃物と混合を回避するために予防策をとること。
P260 粉じん/煙/ガス/ミスト/蒸気/スプレーを吸入しないこ と。
P280 保護手袋/保護衣/保護眼鏡/保護面を着用するこ と。
P303+P361+P353 皮膚(または髪)に付着した場合:直ちに汚染された衣 類をすべて脱ぐこと/取り除くこと。皮膚を流水/シャワー で洗うこと。
P304+P340 吸入した場合:空気の新鮮な場所に移し、呼吸しやすい 姿勢で休息させること。
P305+P351+P338 眼に入った場合:水で数分間注意深く洗うこと。次にコ ンタクトレンズを着用していて容易に外せる場合は外す こと。その後も洗浄を続けること。
P310 ただちに医師に連絡すること。
P370+P378 火災の場合:消火に...を使用すること。

硝酸 価格 もっと(139)

メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01W0114-0137 硝酸 (1.38) 60~61% (Titration)
Nitric Acid (1.38) 60~61% (Titration)
7697-37-2 500mL ¥900 2018-12-26 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01W0114-0137 硝酸 (1.38) 60~61% (Titration)
Nitric Acid (1.38) 60~61% (Titration)
7697-37-2 5kg ¥3850 2018-12-26 購入
東京化成工業 N0806 硝酸 (67%)
Nitric Acid (67%)
7697-37-2 300mL ¥1800 2018-12-04 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 28161-00 硝酸 1.42 69.0%~70.0%(T)
Nitric acid 1.42 69.0%~70.0%(T)
7697-37-2 500mL ¥1500 2018-12-13 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 14701-84 溶離液(1mmol/L硝酸)
Eluent (1mmol/L Nitric acid)
7697-37-2 10L ¥13000 2018-12-13 購入

硝酸 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

外観

無色澄明の液体

溶解性

水及びエタノールと任意の割合で混和する。

用途

ほう素定量用試料の前処理。

用途

有機合成?ニトロ化合物?セルロイド工業?火薬?爆薬?染料?香料冶金?人絹?硝酸塩製造?硫酸?電気メッキ?金属溶解用?写真製版医薬品?試薬?肥料?TDI?アジピン酸

用途

大量の酸を用いる試料の前処理、高感度比色分析、高感度機器分析等。

用途

ICP発光分光分析等超微量分析用試料の前処理。

用途

危険物第6類燃焼試験の標準物質。

用途

有害金属の定量用試料の前処理、pH調整等。

用途

汎用試薬、有機及び無機合成原料。

用途

塩基性物質の定量(容量分析)(ハロゲン化物の混入を避ける場合)。

効能

酸性化剤

使用上の注意

光にさらすと、徐々に黄又は赤みの黄に変わる。

説明

Nitric acid is a colorless, corrosive liquid that is the most common nitrogen acid. It has been used for hundreds of years. Nitric acid is a mineral acid that was called spirit of nitre and aqua fortis, which means strong water.
Fuming nitric acid is named because of the fumes emitted by acid when it combines with moist air. Fuming nitric acid is highly concentrated and is labeled either red fuming nitric acid or white fuming nitric acid. Red fuming nitric acid, as the name implies, emits a reddishbrown fume on exposure to air. The color comes from nitrogen dioxide, which is liberated on exposure to air. The nitric acid concentration of red fuming nitric acid is approximately 85% or greater, with a substantial amount of dissolved nitrogen dioxide. White fuming nitric acid is highly concentrated anhydrous nitric acid with concentrations of 98–99%; the remaining 1–2% is water and nitrogen dioxide. Most commercial grade nitric acid has a concentration of between 50% and 70%.

化学的特性

Nitricacid,HN03, is a strong,fire-hazardous oxidant. It is a colorless or yellowish liquid that is miscible with water and boils at 86℃ (187 ℉). Nitric acid, also known as aqua fortis, is used for chemical synthesis, explosives, and fertilizer manufacture, and in metallurgy, etching, engraving, and ore flotation.

化学的特性

Nitric acid is a colorless to light brown fuming liquid with an acrid, suffocating odor. Fuming nitric acid is a reddish fuming liquid. Fumes in moist air. Often used in an aqueous solution. Fuming nitric acid is concentrated nitric acid that contains dissolved nitrogen dioxide. Nitric acid is a solution of nitrogen dioxide, NO2, in water and so-called fuming nitric acid contains an excess of NO2 and is yellow to brownish-red in color.

物理的性質

Colorless liquid; highly corrosive; refractive index 1.397 at 16.5°C; density 1.503 g/L; freezes at –42°C; boils at 83°C; completely miscible with water; forms a constant boiling azeotrope with water at 68.8 wt% nitric acid; the azeotrope has density 1.41 g/mL and boils at 121°C.

来歴

Nitric acid was known to alchemists in ancient times. Cavendish in 1784 synthesized the acid by applying an electric spark to humid air. Earlier in 1776, Lavoisier determined that the acid contained oxygen. In 1798, Milner prepared nitric acid from ammonia along with nitrogen oxides by oxidation of ammonia vapor over red-hot manganese dioxide. In 1816, Gay-Lussac and Berthollet established its composition.
Nitric acid is one of the most important industrial chemicals in the world. Its largest use is in the fertilizer industry for producing various nitrate fertilizers. Such fertilizers include ammonium-, sodium-, potassium-, and calcium nitrates. Other major applications of nitric acid are in making nitrates and nitrooganics for use in explosives, gunpowder, and fireworks. Ammonium nitrate, nitroglycerine, nitrocellulose, and trinitrotoluenes are examples of such explosives, while barium and strontium nitrates are used in fireworks. NITRIC ACID 635Another major application is in producing cyclohexanone, a raw material for adipic acid and caprolactam to produce nylon.
Nitric acid is a common laboratory reagent. It also is one of the most used oxidizing agents, applied in several organic and inorganic syntheses. Some synthetic applications of nitric acid include the production of diazo dyes, varnishes, lacquers, plastics, polyurethanes, and detergents. Other applications are in metal etching, ore extractions, pickling of stainless steel, rocket propellant, for processing nuclear fuel, as a solvent in aqua regia, for sample digestion in metal analysis by AA or ICP, and in preparing analytical standards.
Concentrated nitric acid used in commerce is not 100% pure nitric acid. It is the constant boiling mixture containing 68% pure acid.

使用

This heavy, clear or slightly yellowish fluid is very poisonous and causes severe burns on contact with the skin. It was made by the distillation of an alkali-metal nitrate combined with sulfuric acid. The combination of nitric and sulfuric acids was used to convert plain cotton to cellulose nitrate. Nitric acid was used in the wet plate process as an additive to ferrous sulfate developers to promote a whiter image color for ambrotypes and ferrotypes. It was also added to lower the pH of the silver bath for collodion plates. Adding acid to the silver bath made collodion plates less sensitive to light, which had the beneficial effect of reducing the occurrence non-image fog.

使用

Nitric acid is an important starting material for the production of fertilizers and chemicals. Diluted nitric acid is used for dissolving and etching metals Product Data Sheet

使用

Nitric acid is an important material for the production of explosives. Concentrated nitric acid, usually mixed with sulfuric acid (mixed acid), is used for nitrating organic compounds. Product Data Sheet

使用

Nitric acid is one of the most widely usedindustrial chemicals. It is employed in the production of fertilizers, explosives, dyes, synthetic fibers, and many inorganic and organicnitrates; and as a common laboratory reagent..

使用

The main use of nitric acid is for the production of fertilizer, with approximately threefourthsof nitric acid production being used for this purpose. Ammonium nitrate is the preferred nitrogen fertilizer owing to itsease in production, economics, and high nitrogen content, which is 35%. Nitric acid can alsobe used for the acidulation of phosphate rock to produce nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers.Nitric acid is a strong oxidizer, which makes it useful in explosives and as a rocketpropellant.
Nitric acid is used for nitrating numerous other compounds to produce nitrates. Nitricacid is used to produce adipic acid (C6H4O10), which is used in the production of nylon (seeNylon).
Additional uses of nitric acid are for oxidation, nitration, and as a catalyst in numerousreactions. Salts of nitric acid are collectively called nitrates, which are soluble in water. Nitricacid is used in the production of many items such as dyes, pharmaceuticals, and syntheticfabrics.It is also used in a variety of processes including print making.
Nitric acid is used extensively in the metal industries. Nitric acid is used to pickle steel and brass surfaces in metal processing.

調製方法

Nitric acid can be prepared by several methods, but the primary method is by the oxidationof ammonia using the Ostwald method, which was named for Wilhelm Ostwald(1853–1932). The Ostwald method enabled the Germans to produce explosives in World War I after their nitrate supplies were cut off. The first step in nitric acid production involves theoxidation of ammonia at a temperature of approximately 900°C to produce nitric oxide, NO,and water: 4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) → 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g).This process is carried out in the presence ofa 90% platinum/10% rhodium catalyst in the form of wire gauze. The nitric oxide producedis further oxidized noncatalytically at a low temperature (less than 50°C) to form nitrogendioxide and its dimer nitrogen tetroxide, N2O4: 2NO(g) + O2 → 2NO2(g) N2O4(g).Thefinal step involves absorbing the nitrogen dioxide-dimer in water to produce nitric acid:3NO2(g) + 2H2O(l) → 2HNO3(aq) + NO(g).

調製方法

Nitric acid may be produced by several methods. In the laboratory, it is prepared by distilling a solution of potassium nitrate in concentrated sulfuric acid containing equal amounts (by weight) of each.
KNO3 + H2SO4 → KHSO4 + HNO3
Nitric acid decomposes to nitrogen dioxide. Therefore, the temperature must be kept as low as possible. During this preparation, nitric acid condenses as a fuming liquid. The pure acid may be obtained when it is collected at –42°C, its freezing point. When nitric acid is collected by condensation at room temperature, it may decompose partially to nitrogen pentaoxide, N2O5, which fumes in moist air. Early commercial processes were based on reaction of Chile saltpeter (NaNO3) with sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid was obtained by distilling the reaction mixture.
Nitric acid also may be obtained by rapid passage of air through an electric 636 NITRIC ACIDarc. The method is based on Cavendish’s first preparation of nitric acid. In this method, nitrogen and oxygen first combine to form nitric oxide. The gaseous product mixture usually containing about 2% nitric oxide is combined with excess oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen pentoxide. Dissolution of these gases in water forms nitric acid. The process, however, is expensive and unsuitable for commercial application.
Currently, nitric acid is manufactured exclusively by catalytic oxidation of ammonia. Platinum or platinum-rhodium is an effective catalyst of this oxidation (Ostwald process). Three basic steps in such ammonia oxidation process are: (1) oxidation of ammonia to form nitric oxide:
4NH3 + 5O2 → 4NO + 6H2O
The above reaction is rapid and shifts almost fully to the product side. (2) oxidation of nitric oxide to form nitrogen dioxide:
2NO + O2 → 2NO2
The above reaction also is rapid and goes almost to completion below 150°C. (3) dissolution of nitrogen dioxide in water:
3NO2 + H2O → 2HNO3 + NO
This reaction is moderately exothermic, releasing 32.4 kcal/mol.
Several mechanisms have been proposed for absorption of nitrogen dioxide in water. Nitrogen dioxide readily dimerizes to tetroxide, N2O4, at low temperatures and increasing pressure.
2NO2 ↔ N2O4 ?Hrxn = –13.7 kcal/mol
Absorption of tetroxide in water also could form nitric acid and nitric oxide:
3N2O4 + 2H2O → 4HNO3 + 2NO
Several modifications in plant design and process conditions for ammonia oxidation processes have taken place in recent years. These variations are more or less based on operating pressures and temperatures, reduction of NOx emission and other environmental regulations, and the desired plant production capacity.
Nitric acid obtained in standard ammonia oxidation is usually 50 to 70% by weight aqueous solution. Pure nitric acid of 98-99% may be obtained either by extractive distillation or by direct strong nitric (DSN) processes. In the distillation method, concentrated nitric acid of 50-70% is distilled with 93% sulfuric acid in a steam-heated tower. Sulfuric acid acts as a dehydrating agent. The distilled nitric acid vapor is condensed to pure nitric acid, while sulfuric acid absorbing water from 50-70% nitric acid loses its strength to about 70% and collects at the bottom. The 70% sulfuric acid is concentrated back to 93% NITRIC ACID 637for reuse by removal of water in a sulfuric acid concentrator.
In the DSN process, nitrogen tetroxide, N2O4 obtained from ammonia oxidation is absorbed by concentrated nitric acid in the presence of air or oxygen to yield pure nitric acid. Alternatively, N2O4 may be separated from the product gases of the ammonia oxidation process by refrigeration and then is treated with dilute nitric acid in air or oxygen.

定義

A colorless fuming corrosive liquid that is a strong acid. Nitric acid can be made in a laboratory by the distillation of a mixture of an alkali metal nitrate and concentrated sulfuric acid. Commercially it is prepared by the catalytic oxidation of ammonia and is supplied as concentrated nitric acid, which contains 68% of the acid and is often colored yellow by dissolved oxides of nitrogen. Nitric acid is a strong oxidizing agent. Most metals are converted to their nitrates with the evolution of oxides of nitrogen (the composition of the mixture of the oxides depends on the temperature and on the concentration of the nitric acid used).
Some non-metals (e.g. sulfur and phosphorus phosphorus) react to produce oxyacids. Organic substances (e.g. sawdust and ethanol) react violently, but the more stable aromatic compounds, such as benzene and toluene, can be converted to nitro compounds in controllable reactions.

定義

nitric acid: A colourless corrosivepoisonous liquid, HNO3; r.d. 1.50;m.p. –42°C; b.p. 83°C. Nitric acid maybe prepared in the laboratory by thedistillation of a mixture of an alkalimetalnitrate and concentratedsulphuric acid. The industrial productionis by the oxidation of ammoniato nitrogen monoxide, theoxidation of this to nitrogen dioxide,and the reaction of nitrogen dioxidewith water to form nitric acid and nitrogenmonoxide (which is recycled).The first reaction (NH3 to NO) iscatalysed by platinum or platinum/rhodium in the form of fine wiregauze. The oxidation of NO and theabsorption of NO2 to form the productare noncatalytic and proceedwith high yields but both reactionsare second-order and slow. Increasesin pressure reduce the selectivity ofthe reaction and therefore ratherlarge gas absorption towers are required.In practice the absorbing acidis refrigerated to around 2°C and acommercial ‘concentrated nitric acid’at about 67% is produced.Nitric acid is a strong acid (highlydissociated in aqueous solution) anddilute solutions behave much likeother mineral acids. Concentrated niniobium tric acid is a strong oxidizing agent.
Most metals dissolve to form nitratesbut with the evolution of nitrogenoxides. Concentrated nitric acid alsoreacts with several nonmetals to givethe oxo acid or oxide. Nitric acid isgenerally stored in dark brown bottlesbecause of the photolytic decompositionto dinitrogen tetroxide. Seealso nitration.

一般的な説明

Nitric acid is a colorless to yellow or red liquid sometimes fuming reddish brown vapors with a suffocating odor. Nitric acid is soluble in water with release of heat. Nitric acid is corrosive to metals or tissue. Nitric acid will accelerate the burning of combustible materials and Nitric acid may even cause ignition upon contact with combustible material. Nitric acid is fully soluble in water and may react violently upon contact with water with the evolution of heat, fumes and spattering. Prolonged exposure to low concentrations or short term exposure to high concentrations may result in adverse health effects. Density 10.4 lb / gal.

空気と水の反応

Fumes in air. Fully soluble in water with release of heat. Reacts violently with water with the production of heat, fumes, and spattering.

反応プロフィール

Nitric acid; ignites upon contact with alcohols, amines, ammonia, beryllium alkyls, boranes, dicyanogen, hydrazines, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, nitroalkanes, powdered metals, silanes, or thiols [Bretherick 1979. p.174]. The reaction of finely divided antimony and nitric acid can be violent [Pascal 10:504. 1931-34]. Bromine pentafluoride reacts violently with strong nitric acid and strong sulfuric acid [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:172. 1956]. Experiments show that mixtures of over 50% nitric acid by weight in acetic anhydride may act as detonating explosives [BCISC 42:2. 1971]. An etching agent of equal portions of acetone, nitric acid, and 75% acetic acid exploded 4 hours after Nitric acid was prepared and placed in a closed bottle. This is similar to a formulation for the preparation of tetranitromethane a sensitive explosive [Chem. Eng. News 38: 56. 1960]. Phosphine is violently decomposed by concentrated nitric acid, and flame is produced. Warm fuming nitric acid, dropped in a container of phosphine gas produces an explosion [Edin. Roy. Soc. 13:88. 1835]. An explosion occurs when nitric acid is brought into contact with phosphorus trichloride [Comp. Rend. 28:86]. The reaction of sodium azide and strong nitric acid is energetic [Mellor 8, Supp 2:315. 1967]. Reacts violently with water with the production of heat, fumes, and spattering.

危険性

Because it is a strong oxidizing agent, nitric acid may undergo violent reactions with powerful reducing agents. Many nitration reactions of organics yield explosive products. Pure nitric acid is highly corrosive to skin causing severe injury. Concentrated acid (68.8 wt %) is moderately corrosive to skin. The acid may decompose under heating or photochemically, liberating toxic nitrogen dioxide gas.

健康ハザード

Nitric acid is a corrosive substance causingyellow burns on the skin. It corrodes the bodytissues by converting the complex proteinsto a yellow substance called xanthoproteicacid (Meyer 1989). Ingestion of acid canproduce burning and corrosion of the mouthand stomach. A dose of 5–10 mL can befatal to humans.
Chronic exposure to the vapor and mist ofnitric acid may produce bronchitis and chemical pneumonitis (Fairhall 1957). It emitsNO2, a highly toxic gas formed by its decomposition in the presence of light. Nitric acidis less corrosive than sulfuric acid. Its vaporand mist may erode teeth..

健康ハザード

Concentrated nitric acid and its vapors are highly corrosive to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Dilute solutions cause mild skin irritation and hardening of the epidermis. Contact with concentrated nitric acid stains the skin yellow and produces deep painful burns. Eye contact can cause severe burns and permanent damage. Inhalation of high concentrations can lead to severe respiratory irritation and delayed effects, including pulmonary edema, which may be fatal. Ingestion of nitric acid may result in burning and corrosion of the mouth, throat, and stomach. An oral dose of 10 mL can be fatal in humans.
Tests in animals demonstrate no carcinogenic or developmental toxicity for nitric acid. Tests for mutagenic activity or for reproductive hazards have not been performed.

火災危険

Not a combustible substance, but a strong oxidizer. Contact with easily oxidizible materials including many organic substances may result in fires or explosions.

火災危険

Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Vapors may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars etc.). Substance will react with water (some violently), releasing corrosive and/or toxic gases and runoff. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water.

燃焼性と爆発性

Explosibility Not a combustible substance, but a strong oxidizer. Contact with easily oxidizible materials including many organic substances may result in fires or explosions.

农业用途

Nitric acid (HNO) is a mineral acid which combines with metals or alkalis to form nitrates. It can be made synthetically by passing ammonia and air over a metallic catalyst.
Nitric acid is used in the manufacture of ammonium nitrate for explosives and fertilizers. Two other types of nitric acid - red fuming nitric acid and white fuming nitric acid are known. White fuming nitric acid contains more than 97.5 % nitric acid, less than 2 % water and less than 0.5% oxides of nitrogen. Red fuming nitric acid contains more than 86% nitric acid, 6 to 15% oxides of nitrogen and less than 5 % water. It is used as a rocket fuel and nitrating agent. Important production process for the manufacture of nitric acid are elaborated in the entry Nitric acid production processes.
Nitric acid production processes2
About 75% of nitric acid produced in the world is used for producing fertilizers (and about 15% for explosives). The remaining acid is used in making synthetic fibers, dyes and plastic.
Nitric acid can be produced by (a) acidulation of natural sodium nitrate with sulphuric acid, (b) direct synthesis from nitrogen and oxygen, and (c) oxidation of ammonia.
Nitric acid is a strong acid and a powerful oxidizing agent. Concentrated nitric acid on distillation at atmospheric pressure starts boiling at 78.2℃ but decomposes eventually to give 68% nitric acid with a boiling point of 120.5℃. The standard limit of chlorine is less than 5 ppmw and that of nitrous acid (HNO2) less than 5 ppmw. Anhydrous nitric acid does not exist in liquid form.
Anhydrous ammonia and a platinum catalyst are required for the manufacture of nitric acid. The oxides of nitrogen that are used in the production of nitric acid are nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4). A mixture of nitrogen oxides, usually NO and NO2, is commonly referred to as NOx.
The production of weak nitric acid consists of the following three steps: (a) catalytic ammonia oxidation to nitric oxide, (b) oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen I dioxide, and (c)acidic absorption of nitrogen dioxide in water.
The absorber performance is improved by high pressure and low temperature, and a high oxygen content in the gas phase. However, in the ammonia converter, the oxidation of ammonia is favored by low pressure.
Methods of production: Many processes for producing nitric acid are now available. They differ not in fundamental principals, but primarily in design details of the plant, operating conditions for the plant size, cost considerations relating to raw materials, energy and installation.
The production of nitric acid by the oxidation of ammonia goes through the following steps or units: (a) ammonia preparation-vaporization, superheating and filtration of anhydrous ammonia, (b) process air preparation involving preheating, filtration and compression, (c) catalytic ammonia oxidation, (d) cooling of the reaction products with various media such as process air, boiler water, tail gas, etc., (e) oxidation of nitric oxide to higher oxides, (f) nitrogen oxides absorption in water to form nitric acid, (g) acid bleaching by additional air or other means, (h) tail gas treatment to reduce air pollution and to improve overall efficiency of the plant, (i) recovery of energy from the heated and compressed process gases, and (i) recovery of catalyst platinum.
The anhydrous ammonia and the process air used must be free both from the oil content and catalyst poisons to avoid fouling of the vaporizer and catalyst screens. The ratio of ammonia to air and the flow rate of each component must be carefully controlled to ensure maximum conversion efficiency, explosion prevention and plant output maximization.
The normal catalyst used in the process is a platinumrhodium gauze or mesh. It not only promotes reaction but also meets the other operating criteria such as those to counter the severe corrosive and oxidation atmosphere, etc. The usual rhodium percentage in the catalyst is in the range of 4 to 10%. To achieve higher efficiencies and smaller platinum losses, knitted gauzes are used. Chrome-nickel alloy grids are used to support the fine screens.
Platinum catalysts can be poisoned by such elements as As, Bi, P, Pb, S, Si and Sn. These elements lead to the formation of inactive compounds in the wires and thus decrease the catalytic activity. In some instances contamination with traces of Cr, Ni or Fe temporarily reduces the conversion efficiency which can often be restored by treatment with hydrochloric acid.

工業用途

Also called aqua fortis and azotic acid, nitricacid is a colorless to reddish fuming liquid ofthe composition HNO3, having a wide varietyof uses for pickling metals, etching, and in themanufacture of nitrocellulose, plastics, dyestuffs,and explosives. It has a specific gravityof 1.502 (95% acid) and a boiling point of 86°C,and is soluble in water. Its fumes have a suffocatingaction, and it is highly corrosive andcaustic. Fuming nitric acid is any water solutioncontaining more than 86% acid and having aspecific gravity above 1.480. Nitric acid is madeby the action of sulfuric acid on sodium nitrateand condensation of the fumes. It is also madefrom ammonia by catalytic oxidation, or fromthe nitric oxide produced from air.

安全性プロファイル

Poison by inhalation. A corrosive irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. A very dangerous fire hazard and very powerful oxidizing agent. Can react explosively with many reducing agents. Wdl react with water or steam to produce heat and toxic, corrosive, and flammable vapors.When heated to decomposition it emits hghly toxic fumes of NOx. See also NITRIC ACID.

職業ばく露

Nitric acid is the second most important industrial acid and its production represents the sixth largest chemical industry in the United States. Nitric acid is used in chemicals, explosives, fertilizers, steel pickling; metal cleaning. The largest use of nitric acid is in the production of fertilizers. Almost 15% of the production goes into the manufacture of explosives, with the remaining 10% distributed among a variety of uses, such as etching, bright-dipping; electroplating, photoengraving, production of rocket fuel; and pesticide manufacture.

貯蔵

Splash goggles and rubber gloves should be worn when handling this acid, and containers of nitric acid should be stored in a well ventilated location separated from organic substances and other combustible materials.

輸送方法

UN2031 Nitric acid other than red fuming, with .70% nitric acid or Nitric acid other than red fuming, with at least 65%, but not >70% nitric acid, Hazard Class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material, 5.1-Oxidizer. UN2032 Nitric acid, red fuming, Hazard Class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material, 5.1-Oxidizer, 6.1-Poisonous material. Inhalation, Hazard Zone B. UN2031 Nitric acid other than red fuming, with >20% and <65% nitric acid or Nitric acid other than red fuming, with not >20% nitric acid, Hazard Class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

純化方法

The acid is obtained colourless (approx. 92%) by direct distillation of fuming HNO3 under reduced pressure at 40-50o with an air leak at the head of the fractionating column. Store it in a desiccator kept in a refrigerator. Nitrite-free HNO3 can be obtained by vacuum distillation from urea. [Ward et al. Inorg Synth III 13 1950, Kaplan & Schechter Inorg Synth IV 53 1953.]

不和合性

A strong oxidizer and strong acid. Reacts violently with combustible and reducing agents; carbides, hydrogen sulfide, turpentine, charcoal, alcohol, powdered metals; strong bases. Heat causes decomposition producing nitrogen oxides. Attacks some plastics. Corrosive to metals.

廃棄物の処理

Soda ash-slaked lime is added to form the neutral solution of nitrate of sodium and calcium. This solution can be discharged after dilution with water. Also, nitric acid can be recovered and reused in some cases as with acrylic fiber spin solutions. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.

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7697-37-2(硝酸)キーワード:


  • 7697-37-2
  • Acide nitrique
  • acidenitrique
  • NITRIC ACID, SUPERIOR REAGENT (ACS)NITRIC ACID, SUPERIOR REAGENT (ACS)NITRIC ACID, SUPERIOR REAGENT (ACS)NITRIC ACID, SUPERIOR REAGENT (ACS)
  • NITRIC ACID, VERITAS DOUBLE DISTILLEDNITRIC ACID, VERITAS DOUBLE DISTILLEDNITRIC ACID, VERITAS DOUBLE DISTILLEDNITRIC ACID, VERITAS DOUBLE DISTILLED
  • NITRIC ACID, 69%, VERITAS REDISTILLEDNITRIC ACID, REDISTILLEDNITRIC ACID, REDISTILLEDNITRIC ACID, REDISTILLED
  • NITRIC ACID, 70%, ENVIRONMENTAL GRADENITRIC ACID, 70%, ENVIRONMENTAL GRADENITRIC ACID, 70%, ENVIRONMENTAL GRADENITRIC ACID, 70%, ENVIRONMENTAL GRADE
  • NITRIC ACID, 90% FUMING, REAGENT (ACS)NITRIC ACID, 90% FUMING, REAGENT (ACS)NITRIC ACID, 90% FUMING, REAGENT (ACS)NITRIC ACID, 90% FUMING, REAGENT (ACS)
  • NITRIC ACID, GFS SELECT TRACE GRADE, MEETS ACS SPECIFICATIONSNITRIC ACID, GFS SELECT TRACE GRADE, MEETS ACS SPECIFICATIONSNITRIC ACID, GFS SELECT TRACE GRADE, MEETS ACS SPECIFICATIONSNITRIC ACID, GFS SELECT TRACE GRADE, MEETS ACS SPECIFICATIONS
  • NITRIC ACID, REAGENT (ACS)NITRIC ACID, REAGENT (ACS)NITRIC ACID, REAGENT (ACS)NITRIC ACID, REAGENT (ACS)
  • NITRIC ACID, REDISTILLED (7697-37-2) (7697-37-2)NITRIC ACID, REDISTILLED (7697-37-2) (7697-37-2)NITRIC ACID, REDISTILLED (7697-37-2) (7697-37-2)
  • NITRIC ACID, SOLUTION, 1.0 NNITRIC ACID, SOLUTION, 1.0 NNITRIC ACID, SOLUTION, 1.0 N
  • NITRIC ACID, SOLUTION, 10% W/WNITRIC ACID, SOLUTION, 10% W/WNITRIC ACID, SOLUTION, 10% W/W
  • NITRIC ACID, SOLUTION, 15% W/WNITRIC ACID, SOLUTION, 15% W/WNITRIC ACID, SOLUTION, 15% W/W
  • NITROSONITRIC ACID
  • clp aa/icp nitric acid
  • Contract Lab Program AA/ICP Nitric acid
  • nitric acid >69.5%
  • Nitric Acid 1.42 - ANALYPUR
  • Nitric Acid 1.42 -TECHNIQUE
  • nitric acid 65%
  • nitric acid 65% (hg <0.0000005%)
  • Nitric acid 70%
  • nitric acid fuming 100%
  • Nitric acid Solution
  • NITRIC ACID 70% A.C.S. REAGENT (POLY-&
  • Nitric acid 65 %
  • NITRIC ACID STD SOLUTION 2 MOL/L N44, 1 L
  • NITRIC ACID STANDARD SOLUTION,0.1 M (0.1 N)
  • NITRIC ACID 20% 1 L
  • NITRIC ACID 65% SEMICONDUCTOR GRADE PURA
  • 硝酸 (67%) [一般有機合成用]
  • 硝酸 1.38
  • 硝酸 1.40
  • 硝酸 1.42
  • 濃硝酸
  • 硝酸 Sp.Gr. 1.38
  • 硝酸 Sp.Gr. 1.40
  • 硝酸 Sp.Gr. 1.42
  • 硝酸 (67%)
  • 0.1MOL/L硝酸(N/10)
  • 1MOL/L硝酸(1N)
  • 溶離液(1MMOL/L硝酸)
  • 0.05MOL/L(N/20) 硝酸
  • 0.1MOL/L(N/10) 硝酸
  • 0.2MOL/L(N/5) 硝酸
  • 0.3W/W% 硝酸
  • 0.4MOL/L(0.4N) 硝酸
  • 0.5MOL/L(N/2) 硝酸
  • 10W/V% 硝酸
  • 20W/V% 硝酸
  • 25W/V% 硝酸
  • 2MOL/L(2N) 硝酸
  • 35W/V% 硝酸
  • 3MOL/L(3N) 硝酸
  • 50W/V% 硝酸
  • 5MOL/L(5N) 硝酸
  • 6MOL/L(6N) 硝酸
  • 濃硝酸 FOR 1L STANDARD SOLUTION,0.1 M HNO3 (0.1N)
  • 濃硝酸 FOR 1L STANDARD SOLUTION,1.0 M HNO3 (1.0N)
  • 硝酸 (1.38)
  • 硝酸 (1.40)
  • 硝酸 (1.42)
  • 硝酸 (1+1)
  • 硝酸 (1+10)
  • 硝酸 (1+6)
  • 硝酸 (1+65)
  • 硝酸 ≥69.0%,TRACESELECT,FOR TRACE ANALYSIS
  • 硝酸 65-71%,TRACESELECT ULTRA,FOR ULTRATRACE ANALYSIS
  • 硝酸 ACS REAGENT,70%
  • 硝酸 PURISS. P.A. PLUS,≥65% (T)
  • 硝酸 PURISS. P.A.,≥65% (T)
  • 硝酸 PURISS. P.A.,65% (HG 0.0000005%),≥65% (T)
  • 硝酸 PURISS. P.A.,ACS REAGENT,REAG. ISO,≥69%
  • 硝酸 PURISS. P.A.,REAG. ISO,REAG. PH. EUR.,FOR DETERMINATIONS WITH DITHIZONE,≥65%
  • 硝酸 SOLUTION VOLUMETRIC,0.1 M HNO3 (0.1N)
  • 硝酸 SOLUTION VOLUMETRIC,1 M HNO3 (1N)
  • 硝酸 SOLUTION VOLUMETRIC,2 M HNO3 (2N)
  • 1.38(60%)硝酸
  • 1MOL/L(1N)-硝酸
  • 0.1MOL/L 硝酸(N/10)
  • 1MOL/L 硝酸(1N)
  • 6MOL/L 硝酸(6N)
  • 硝酸(1.38)(60%)
  • 硝酸(1.40)(65%)
  • 硝酸(1.42)(70%)
  • 硝酸(1.38)
  • 硝酸(1.40)
  • 35% 硝酸 (1+1)
  • 1MOL/L 硝酸
  • 10% 硝酸
  • 90% 硝酸
  • 硝酸
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