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발연황산

발연황산
발연황산 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
8014-95-7
한글명:
발연황산
동의어(한글):
발연황산;오레움;올륨
상품명:
FUMING SULFURIC ACID
동의어(영문):
H2SO4;OLEUM;BETZ 0231;BETZ 0202;BETZ 0256;BETZ 0283;SICACIDE(R);BATTERY ACID;dithionicacid;NP C SOLUTION
CBNumber:
CB0391001
분자식:
H2O7S2
포뮬러 무게:
178.14
MOL 파일:
8014-95-7.mol

발연황산 속성

녹는점
2 °C
끓는 점
~290 °C(lit.)
밀도
1.925 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
<0.3 (25 °C, vs air)
증기압
1 mm Hg ( 146 °C)
저장 조건
Store below +30°C.
용해도
H2O: soluble
산도 계수 (pKa)
1.92(at 25℃)
물리적 상태
Liquid
색상
Colorless
Specific Gravity
1.925
수소이온지수(pH)
<1 (100g/l, H2O, 20℃)
수용성
Miscible with water.
감도
Hygroscopic
Merck
14,8974
BRN
2037554
안정성
Stable. Incompatible with organic materials, powdered metals, bases, halides. Reacts violently with water. Very hygroscopic.
CAS 데이터베이스
8014-95-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA
Fuming sulfuric acid (8014-95-7)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 C
위험 카페고리 넘버 36/38-37-35-14-34
안전지침서 26-30-45-36/37/39
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3264 8/PG 3
WGK 독일 1
RTECS 번호 WS5600000
F 고인화성물질 3
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 8
포장분류 II
HS 번호 28070000
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H330 흡입하면 치명적임 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 1, 2 위험 P260, P271, P284, P304+P340, P310,P320, P403+P233, P405, P501
H331 흡입하면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 3 위험 P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
예방조치문구:
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P284 호흡 보호구를 착용하시오.
P310 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오. 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 도움을 받으시오.
P301+P330+P331 삼켰다면 입을 씻어내시오. 토하게 하려 하지 마시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.

발연황산 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

물성

수분을 흡수하면 황산은 검게 변하는 경우가 많다. 약간의 점성을 띤 산성 액체이다. 물에 녹으면 발열하지만, 의외로 얼음과 혼재하면 한제로 사용되기도 한다. 염산과 달리 비휘발성이기 때문에 농도가 낮은 황산이라도 황산에 함유된 수분이 증발하면 농축될 위험이 있다.

용도

황산은 주로 공업용품, 의약품, 비료, 폭약 등의 제조와 전지의 전해액으로 사용된다. 진한 황산과 진한 질산을 혼합한 혼산과 유기물이 반응하여 니트로화 반응을 일으킨다. 대표적인 예가 톨루엔과 반응하여 TNT를 제조할 수 있다.

독성

황산의 성질은 농도와 습도에 따라 크게 달라진다. 농도가 낮은 황산 (질량 퍼센트 농도가 약 90% 미만)을 희황산 또는 묽은 황산이라고 한다. 묽은 황산은 강산성이다. 농도가 높은 황산 (질량 퍼센트가 약 90% 이상)을 농황산 또는 진한 황산이라고 한다. 진한 황산은 산으로서의 성질이 약하다. 그 대신 흡습성이 강하기 때문에 강한 탈수작용을 한다. 만약 유기물에 접촉하면 수소와 산소를 물분자의 형태로 빨아 들인다. 황산이 피부에 닿으면 화상을 입는다. 화상을 입는 것은 이 같은 탈수작용과 발열때문이다.

화학적 성질

viscous liquid, is a mixture of sulfur trioxide dissolved in sulfuric acid. The SO3 content may range between 15 and 30%.

화학적 성질

Sulfuric acid is a colorless to dark brown, odorless, oily liquid which is commercially sold @ 93% to 98% H2SO4, the remainder being water.

물리적 성질

Dithionic acid, H2S2O6, is a chemical compound known only in solution. This acid is dibasic and salts called dithionates are known. All dithionates are readily soluble in water. They are mild oxidizing and mild reducing agents.

용도

In manufacture of fertilizers, explosives, dyestuffs, other acids, parchment paper, glue, purification of petroleum, pickling of metal.

일반 설명

Thick fuming yellow liquid. Density 16.5 lb / gal. Very toxic by inhalation. Corrosive to metals and tissue, quickly causing severe burns. Used to make chemicals, dyes, explosives and in petroleum refining.

공기와 물의 반응

Fumes in air. Soluble in water; dissolution generates dangerous amounts of heat that can cause localized boiling and spattering of the acidic mixture and generate heavy fumes. During sulfonation of mononitrobenzene with fuming sulfuric acid, a leak from an internal cooling coil permitted water to enter the reaction tank. A violent eruption occurred due to the heat of solution [MCA Case History 944(1963)].

반응 프로필

SULFURIC ACID reacts as a strong acid, as an oxidizing agent and as a dehydrating agent. Chars wood, sugar and many other organic materials on contact. The heat from these reactions may ignite the wood, sugar or organic matter. May react explosively with acetic acid, acetic anhydride, acetonitrile, acrolein, acrylic acid, acrylonitrile, allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, ammonium hydroxide, aniline, cresol, butyraldehyde, cumene, ethyl acetate, ethylene diamine, ethylene glycol, glyoxal, isoprene, isopropyl alcohol, methyl ethyl ketone, propylene oxide, pyridine, styrene, vinyl acetate; strong bases (sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide) or mineral acids (nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid) [Lewis, 3rd ed., 1993, p. 1195]. Mixing in equal molar portions with any of the following substances in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide (28%), chlorosulfonic acid, ethylenediamine, ethyleneimine, ethylene cyanohydrin, hydrochloric acid (36%), hydrofluoric acid (48.7%), isopropyl alcohol, nitric acid (70%), 2-nitropropane, propiolactone, propylene oxide, pyridine, styrene monomer, sodium hydroxide, sulfolane, vinyl acetate, vinylidene chloride [NFPA 1991]. Extremely hazardous in contact with carbides, bromates, chlorates, fulminates, picrates, and powdered metals. May induce violent polymerization in polymerizable organic compounds such as allyl chloride. Reacts exothermically with sodium hypochlorite to produce chlorine gas.

위험도

Reacts violently with water. Strong irritant to tissue.

건강위험

Acid mist is irritating to eyes, nose and throat. Liquid causes severe burns of skin and eyes.

건강위험

Oleum is an extremely corrosive substance. It emits suffocating fumes of sulfur trioxide that can cause severe lung damage. Skin contact can cause severe burns.
LC50 value, inhalation (rats): 347 ppm/L/h.

화재위험

Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic and irritating vapors are generated.

Safety Profile

Confirmed human carcinogen. A poison. Moderately toxic by inhalation. A corrosive irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. A very dangerous fire hazard by chemical reaction with reducing agents and carbohydrates. A severe explosion hazard by chemical reaction with acetic acid, acetic anhydride, acetonitrile, acrolein, acrylic acid, acrylonitrile, allylalcohol, allyl chloride, 2-amino ethanol, NH4OH, aniline, cresol, n-butyraldehyde, cumene, dichloroethyl ether, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, diisobutylene, epichlorohydrin, ethyl acetate, ethylene cyanohydrin, ethylene diamine, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, ethylene imine, glyoxal, HCl, HF, isoprene, isopropyl alcohol, mesityl oxide, methyl ethyl ketone, HNO3, 2-nitropropane7 p-propiolacetone, propylene oxide, pyridine, NaOH, styrene monomer, vinylidene chloride, sulfolane, vinyl acetate. Will react with water or steam to produce heat and toxic and corrosive fumes. Can react vigorously with reducing materials. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of SOx. See also SULFUROUS ACID.

잠재적 노출

Used as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of acetic acid, hydrochloric acid; citric acid; phosphoric acid; aluminum sulfate; ammonium sulfate;barium sulfate; copper sulfate; phenol, superphosphates, titanium dioxide; as well as synthetic fertilizers, nitrate explosives; artificial fibers; dyes, pharmaceuticals, detergents, glue, paint, and paper. It finds use as a dehydrating agent for esters and ethers due to its high affinity for water; as an electrolyte in storage batteries; for the hydrolysis of cellulose to obtain glucose; in the refining of mineral and vegetable oil; and in the leather industry. Other uses include fur and food processing; carbonization of wool fabrics; gas drying; uranium extraction from pitchblende; and laboratory analysis. Sulfuric acid is among the highestvolume produced chemical in the United States.

운송 방법

UN1830 Sulfuric acid with >51% acid or sulfuric acid with not >51% acid, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material. UN1831 Sulfuric acid, fuming with 30% or more free sulfur trioxide and Sulfuric acid, fuming, with <30% free sulfur trioxide, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material. UN1832 Sulfuric acid, spent, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

비 호환성

A strong acid and oxidizer. Reacts violently with water with dangerous spattering and evolution of heat. Reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials; bases, organic materials; chlorates, carbides, picrates, fulminates, water, powdered metals. Corrosive to most common metals forming explosive hydrogen gas.

폐기물 처리

Add slowly to solution of soda ash and slaked lime with stirring; flush to drain with large volumes of water. Recovery and reuse of spent sulfuric acid may be a viable alternative to disposal, and processes are available.

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