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Maleic acid

Maleic acid
Maleic acid structure
Chemical Name:
Maleic acid
NA 2215;Maleicaci;MALEIC ACID;malenicacid;TOXILIC ACID;maleinicacid;Malenic acid;MaleicAcidGr;MaleicAcidBp;Maleic acid 0
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Maleic acid Properties

Melting point:
137-140 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
1.59 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
refractive index 
1.5260 (estimate)
Flash point:
127 °C
storage temp. 
Store at RT.
1.83(at 25℃)
Specific Gravity
1.3 (100g/l, H2O, 20℃)
Water Solubility 
790 g/L (25 ºC)
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, bases.
CAS DataBase Reference
110-16-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
2-Butenedioic acid (Z)-(110-16-7)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  Xn
Risk Statements  22-36/37/38-43
Safety Statements  26-28-37-28A-46-24
RIDADR  3261
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  OM9625000
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  29173990
Hazardous Substances Data 110-16-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction Sensitisation, Skin Category 1 Warning P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H318 Causes serious eye damage Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 1 Danger P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
Precautionary statements:
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and Keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P405 Store locked up.

Maleic acid price More Price(13)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 92816 Maleic acid Standard for quantitative NMR, TraceCERT 110-16-7 1g $148 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1374500 Maleic acid United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard 110-16-7 300mg $1110 2018-11-13 Buy
TCI Chemical M0006 Maleic Acid >99.0%(T) 110-16-7 25g $17 2018-11-22 Buy
TCI Chemical M0006 Maleic Acid >99.0%(T) 110-16-7 500g $23 2018-11-22 Buy
Alfa Aesar A14596 Maleic acid, 98+% 110-16-7 250g $19.3 2018-11-13 Buy

Maleic acid Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Chemical Properties

Maleic acid, HOOCCH:CHCOOH, also known as maleinic acid and toxilic acid,is a colorless crystalline dibasic acid. It is soluble in water and alcohol. Maleic acid is used in manufacturing synthetic resins, in textile processing, and in preserving oils and fats.

Chemical Properties

Maleic acid is a white crystalline solid. Faint, acid like odor.

Chemical Properties

Maleic acid occurs as a white crystalline (monoclinic) powder and possesses a faint acidulous odor and an astringent taste.
Fumaric acid and maleic acid are the simplest unsaturated carboxylic diacids. These acids experience two-step dissociation in aqueous solutions.They have the same structural formula but different spatial configurations. Fumaric acid is the trans and maleic acid the cis isomer. The physical properties of maleic acid and fumaric acid are very different. The cis isomer is less stable. Maleic acid is used in the preparation of fumaric acid by catalytic isomerization.

Production Methods

Maleic anhydride is the main source of maleic acid produced by hydration. Maleic anhydride is prepared commercially by the oxidation of benzene or by the reaction of butane with oxygen in the presence of a vanadium catalyst.


ChEBI: A butenedioic acid in which the double bond has cis- (Z)-configuration.


manufacture of artificial resins; to retard rancidity of fats and oils in 1:10,000 (these are said to keep 3 times longer than those without the acid); dyeing and finishing wool, cotton, and silk; preparing the maleate salts of antihistamines and similar drugs.

General Description

Maleic acid is a colorless crystalline solid having a faint odor. Maleic acid is combustible though Maleic acid may take some effort to ignite. Maleic acid is soluble in water. Maleic acid is used to make other chemicals and for dyeing and finishing naturally occurring fibers.

Air & Water Reactions

Soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Maleic acid is a colorless to white crystalline solid. Moderately toxic. When heated to decomposition Maleic acid emits irritating fumes and acrid smoke [Lewis, 3rd ed., 1993, p. 790].


Toxic by ingestion.

Health Hazard

Inhalation causes irritation of nose and throat. Contact with eyes or skin causes irritation.

Fire Hazard

Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Irritating smoke containing maleic anhydride may form in fire.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Maleic acid is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a pH modifier and a buffering agent.It is also used to prevent rancidity of oils and fats; a ratio of 1 : 10 000 is usually sufficient to retard rancidity. Maleic acid is commonly used as a pharmaceutical intermediate to form the maleate salts of several categories of therapeutic agents, such as salts of antihistamines and other drug substances.

Safety Profile

Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin contact. Passes through intact skin. A skin and severe eye irritant and a corrosive. Believed to be more toxic than its isomer, fumeric acid. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.


Maleic acid is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material when used at low levels as an excipient. Maleic acid is used in oral, topical, and parenteral pharmaceutical formulations in addition to food products.
LD50 (mouse, oral): 2.40g/kg(7)
LD50 (rabbit, skin): 1.56g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 0.708g/kg

Potential Exposure

Maleic acid is used to make artificial resins, antihistamines, and to preserve (retard rancidity) of fats and oils

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 30 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. If victim is conscious, administer water or milk. Do not induce vomiting. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.


Maleic acid converts into the much higher-melting fumaric acid (mp: 287°C) when heated to a temperature slightly above its melting point.
Maleic acid is combustible when exposed to heat or flame. The bulk material should be stored in airtight glass containers and protected from light. It is recommended not to store it above 25°C.


UN2215 Maleic acid, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

Purification Methods

Crystallise the acid from acetone/pet ether (b 60-80o) or hot water. Dry it at 100o. [Beilstein 2 H 748, 2 I 303, 2 II 641, 2 III 1911, 2 IV 2199.]


Dust may form explosive mixture with air, Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, amines, reducing agents; alkali metals


Maleic acid can react with oxidizing materials. Aqueous solutions are corrosive to carbon steels.

Waste Disposal

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. Liquid: incinerate after mixing with a flammable solvent. Use afterburner for complete combustion. Solid: dissolve in a flammable solvent or package in paper and burn. See above

Regulatory Status

Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IM and IV injections; oral tablets and capsules; topical applications). Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK.

Maleic acid Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Maleic acid Suppliers

Global( 354)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Capot Chemical Co.,Ltd.
+86 (0)571-855 867 18
+86 (0)571-858 647 95 China 19954 60
Shanghai Bojing Chemical Co.,Ltd.
+86-21-37127788 CHINA 500 55
Henan Tianfu Chemical Co.,Ltd.
0371-55170693 CHINA 20786 55
Shanghai Time Chemicals CO., Ltd.
+86-021-57951555 CHINA 1374 55
Mainchem Co., Ltd.
+86-0592-6210733 CHINA 32651 55
Hefei TNJ Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd.
86-0551-65418684 18949823763
86-0551-65418684 China 1662 55
Chemwill Asia Co.,Ltd.
86-21-51861608;;; CHINA 24118 58
Hubei Jusheng Technology Co.,Ltd.
86-188-71490254 CHINA 20243 58
Haihang Industry Co.,Ltd
+86 531 8582 1093 CHINA 4525 58
(323) 306-3136
(626) 453-0409 United States 8430 58

View Lastest Price from Maleic acid manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2019-04-10 Maleic acid Factory in stock
US $1.00 / KG 1KG 99% Factory have in stock thousand metric tons capacity Factory Chemwill Asia Co.,Ltd.
2018-08-16 Maleic acid
US $11.00 / KG 1KG 99% 1000KG career henan chemical co

Maleic acid Spectrum

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