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Maleic anhydride

Maleic anhydride
Maleic anhydride structure
CAS No.
108-31-6
Chemical Name:
Maleic anhydride
Synonyms
MA;MAN;mala;BM-10;Maleic;NSC 9568;108-31-6;Lytron 820;NSC 137651;NSC 137652
CBNumber:
CB3188060
Molecular Formula:
C4H2O3
Formula Weight:
98.05688
MOL File:
108-31-6.mol

Maleic anhydride Properties

Melting point:
51-56 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
200 °C(lit.)
Density 
1.48
vapor density 
3.4 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
0.16 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index 
1.4688 (estimate)
Flash point:
218 °F
storage temp. 
Store at RT.
form 
powder
color 
White
PH
0.8 (550g/l, H2O, 20℃)Hydrolysis
explosive limit
1.4-7.1%(V)
Water Solubility 
79 g/100 mL (25 ºC)
Sensitive 
Moisture Sensitive
Merck 
14,5704
BRN 
106909
Stability:
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with water, strong oxidizing agents, alkali metals, strong bases, amines, most common metals, polymerization catalysts and accelerators.
InChIKey
FPYJFEHAWHCUMM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
108-31-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
2,5-Furandione(108-31-6)
EPA Substance Registry System
2,5-Furandione(108-31-6)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • NFPA
Hazard Codes  C
Risk Statements  22-34-42/43
Safety Statements  22-26-36/37/39-45
RIDADR  UN 2215 8/PG 3
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  ON3675000
21
Autoignition Temperature 870 °F
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  2917 14 00
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  III
Hazardous Substances Data 108-31-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 orally in Rabbit: 1090 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rabbit 2620 mg/kg
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage Skin corrosion/irritation Category 1A, B, C Danger P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction Sensitisation, Skin Category 1 Warning P261, P272, P280, P302+P352,P333+P313, P321, P363, P501
H334 May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled Sensitisation, respiratory Category 1 Danger P261, P285, P304+P341, P342+P311,P501
H370 Causes damage to organs Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H372 Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P314, P501
H402 Harmful to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 3
Precautionary statements:
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P272 Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P284 Wear respiratory protection.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P307+P311 IF exposed: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P342+P311 IF experiencing respiratory symptoms: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P405 Store locked up.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
1
1
Health  
Flammability   1 Materials that require considerable preheating, under all ambient temperature conditions, before ignition and combustion can occur. Includes some finely divided suspended solids that do not require heating before ignition can occur. Flash point at or above 93.3 °C (200 °F). (e.g. mineral oil, ammonia)
Instability   1 Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures (e.g. propene)
Special  

(NFPA, 2010)

Maleic anhydride price More Price(21)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 63200 Maleic anhydride puriss., ≥99.0% (NT) 108-31-6 100g-f $33.2 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 63200 Maleic anhydride puriss., ≥99.0% (NT) 108-31-6 500g-f $39.4 2018-11-13 Buy
TCI Chemical M0005 Maleic Anhydride >99.0%(GC)(T) 108-31-6 25g $17 2018-11-22 Buy
TCI Chemical M0005 Maleic Anhydride >99.0%(GC)(T) 108-31-6 500g $20 2018-11-22 Buy
Alfa Aesar A12178 Maleic anhydride, 98+% 108-31-6 1000g $23.6 2018-11-13 Buy

Maleic anhydride Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Description

Maleic anhydride (butenedioic anhydride , toxilic anhydride , 2,5- dioxofuran ) is an organic compound with the formula C2H2(CO)2O. It is the acid anhydride of maleic acid and in its pure state it is a colourless or white solid with an acrid odour.

Chemical Properties

Maleic anhydride is colorless needles, white lumps, or pellets. Irritating, choking odor.

Chemical Properties

White solid

Uses

Maleic Anhydride is heterocyclic compound used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins. Maleic Anhydride has a wide range of other applications; it is used in synthetic tensides, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides.

Uses

In Diels-Alder syntheses (as a dienophile), manufacture of alkyd-type of resins, dye intermediates, pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals (maleic hydrazide, malathion), in copolymerization reactions.

Definition

ChEBI: A cyclic dicarboxylic anhydride that is the cyclic anhydride of maleic acid.

Production Methods

Maleic anhydride was traditionally manufactured by the oxidation of benzene or other aromatic compounds. As of 2006, only a few smaller plants continue to use benzene; due to rising benzene prices, most maleic anhydride plants now use n-butane as a feedstock.
In both cases, benzene and butane are fed into a stream of hot air, and the mixture is passed through a catalyst bed at high temperature. The ratio of air to hydrocarbon is controlled to prevent the mixture from catching on fire. Vanadium pentoxide and molybdenum trioxide are the catalysts used for the benzene route, whereas vanadium and phosphorus oxides are used for the butane route.
2 CH3CH2CH2CH3 + 7 O2 → 2 C2H2(CO)2O + 8 H2O.

Definition

maleic anhydride: A colourlesssolid, C4H2O3, m.p. 53°C, the anhydrideof cis-butenedioic acid (maleicacid). It is a cyclic compound with aring containing four carbon atomsand one oxygen atom, made by thecatalytic oxidation of benzene or itsderivatives at high temperatures. It isused mainly in the manufacture ofalkyd and polyester resins andcopolymers.

Reactions

The chemistry of maleic anhydride is very rich, reflecting its ready availability and bifunctional reactivity. It hydrolyzes, producing maleic acid, cis-HOOC–CH=CH–COOH. With alcohols, the halfester is generated, e.g., cis-HOOC–CH=CH–COOCH3.
Maleic anhydride is a potent dienophile in Diels-Alder reactions. It is also a ligand for low-valent metal complexes, examples being Pt(PPh3)2(MA) and Fe(CO)4(MA).
Maleic anhydride dimerizes in a photochemical reaction to form cyclo butane tetra carboxylic dianhydride (CBTA). This compound is used in the production of polyimides and as an alignment film for liquid crystal displays.

General Description

Colorless crystalline needles, flakes, pellets, rods, briquettes, lumps or a fused mass. Melts at 113°F. Shipped both as a solid and in the molten state. Vapors, fumes and dusts strong irritate the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Flash point 218°F. Autoignition temperature 890°F. Used to make paints and plastics and other chemicals.

Air & Water Reactions

Soluble in water. Reacts slowly with water to form maleic acid and heat.

Reactivity Profile

Maleic anhydride react vigorously on contact with oxidizing materials. Reacts exothermically with water or steam. Undergoes violent exothermic decomposition reactions, producing carbon dioxide, in the presence of strong bases (sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide), alkali metals (lithium, sodium, potassium), aliphatic amines (dimethylamine, trimethylamine), aromatic amines (pyridine, quinoline) at temperatures above 150° C [Vogler, C. A. et al., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 1963, 8, p. 620]. A 0.1% solution of pyridine (or other tertiary amine) in Maleic anhydride at 185°C gives an exothermic decomposition with rapid evolution of gas [Chem Eng. News 42(8); 41 1964]. Maleic anhydride is known as an excellent dienophile in the Diels-Alder reaction to produce phthalate ester derivatives. These reactions can be extremely violent, as in the case of 1-methylsilacyclopentadiene [J. Organomet., Chem., 1979, 179, c19]. Maleic anhydride undergoes a potentially explosive exothermic Diels-Alder reaction with 1-methylsilacyclopenta-2,4-diene at 150C [Barton, T. J., J. Organomet. Chem., 1979, 179, C19], and is considered an excellent dieneophile for Diels-alder reactions [Felthouse, Timothy R. et al. "Maleic anhydride , Maleic Acid, and Fumaric Acid." Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005].

Hazard

Irritant to tissue. Dermal and respiratory sensitization. Questionable carcinogen.

Health Hazard

Inhalation causes coughing, sneezing, throat irritation. Skin contact causes irritation and redness. Vapors cause severe eye irritation; photophobia and double vision may occur.

Fire Hazard

Behavior in Fire: When heated above 300°F in the presence of various materials may generate heat and carbon dioxide. Will explode if confined.

Safety Profile

Poison by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by skin contact. A corrosive irritant to eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Can cause pulmonary edema. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Mutation data reported. A pesticide. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously on contact with oxidizing materials. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. Reacts with water or steam to produce heat. Violent reaction with bases (e.g., sodmm hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide), dkah metals (e.g., sodium, potassium), amines (e.g., dimethylamine, triethylamine), lithium, pyridine. To fight fire, use alcohol foam. Incompatible with cations. When heated to decomposition (above 150℃) it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also ANHYDRIDES.

Potential Exposure

Maleic anhydride is used in unsaturated polyester resins; Agricultural chemical, and lubricating additives; in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins; in the manufacture of fumaric acid; in alkyd resin manufacture; in the manufacture of pesticides e.g., malathion, maleic hydrazide, and captan).

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. If victim is conscious, administer water or milk. Do not induce vomiting. The symptoms of asthma may be delayed for several hours and are aggravated by physical effort. Rest and medical observation are highly recommended. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy

Shipping

UN2215 Maleic anhydride, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

Purification Methods

Crystallise it from *benzene, CHCl3, CH2Cl2 or CCl4. Sublime it under reduced pressure. [Skell et al. J Am Chem Soc 108 6300 1986, Beilstein 17 III/IV 5897, 17/11 V 55.]

Incompatibilities

Reacts slowly with water (hydrolyzes) to form maleic acid, a medium-strong acid. Dust may form explosive mixture with air. Reacts with strong oxidizers, oil, water, alkali metals; strong acids; strong bases. Violent reaction with alkali metals and amines above 66C. Dangerous reaction with oxidizers, amines, alkali metals, and hydroxides. Compounds of the carboxyl group react with all bases, both inorganic and organic (i.e., amines) releasing substantial heat, water and a salt that may be harmful. Incompatible with arsenic compounds (releases hydrogen cyanide gas), diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides (releasing heat, toxic, and possibly flammable gases), thiosulfates and dithionites (releasing hydrogen sulfate and oxides of sulfur)

Waste Disposal

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Controlled incineration: care must be taken that complete oxidation to nontoxic products occurs.

Maleic anhydride Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Maleic anhydride Suppliers

Global( 322)Suppliers
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View Lastest Price from Maleic anhydride manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2019-04-02 Maleic anhydride; 2,5-Furandione; MA Manufacturer; In stock GMP Factory
108-31-6
US $1.00 / KG 1KG High quality manufacturer TOP 3 largest production factory in China Chemwill Asia Co.,Ltd.
2018-12-21 Maleic anhydride
108-31-6
US $1.00 / kg 1g 99% 100KG career henan chemical co
2019-04-12 Maleic anhydride
108-31-6
US $10.00 / kg 1kg 99% 5000kg/month Hebei Chisure Biotechnology Co., Ltd.

Maleic anhydride Spectrum


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