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安息香酸

安息香酸 化学構造式
65-85-0
CAS番号.
65-85-0
化学名:
安息香酸
别名:
安息香酸;ベンゼンカルボン酸;レタルデックス;サルボ-パウダー;サルボ-リキッド;フェニルぎ酸;テン-プラス;ドラシクル酸;ベンゼンぎ酸;ドラシル酸;カルボキシベンゼン;安息香酸 (カロリー測定用);安息香酸標準品;安息香酸 溶液;安息香酸, 2.0 mg/mL in CH2Cl2;安息香酸 (JP17)
英語化学名:
Benzoic acid
英語别名:
ha1;e210;210;KRT31;and he;KRTHA1;NSC 149;NA-9094;PUROX B;Retardex
CBNumber:
CB8698780
化学式:
C7H6O2
分子量:
122.12
MOL File:
65-85-0.mol

安息香酸 物理性質

融点 :
121-125 °C(lit.)
沸点 :
249 °C(lit.)
比重(密度) :
1.08
蒸気密度:
4.21 (vs air)
蒸気圧:
10 mm Hg ( 132 °C)
FEMA :
2131 | BENZOIC ACID
屈折率 :
1.504
闪点 :
250 °F
貯蔵温度 :
Store at RT.
溶解性:
soluble, clear, colorless (95% ethanol, 1gm/3mL)
酸解離定数(Pka):
4.19(at 25℃)
外見 :
Solid
色:
White to yellow-beige to orange
PH:
2.5-3.5 (H2O, 20℃)(saturated solution)
水溶解度 :
Slightly soluble. 0.34 g/100 mL
JECFA Number:
850
Merck :
14,1091
BRN :
636131
Henry's Law Constant:
(x 10-8 atm?m3/mol): 7.02 (calculated, U.S. EPA, 1980a)
安定性::
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong bases, strong oxidizing agents, alkalies.
InChIKey:
WPYMKLBDIGXBTP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS データベース:
65-85-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NISTの化学物質情報:
Benzoic acid(65-85-0)
EPAの化学物質情報:
Benzoic acid (65-85-0)
安全性情報
  • リスクと安全性に関する声明
  • 危険有害性情報のコード(GHS)
主な危険性  Xn,T,Xi
Rフレーズ  22-36-42/43-36/37/38-40-63-43-23/24/25-45-41-37/38-20/21/22-48/23-38-67-37
Sフレーズ  26-45-37/39-24-22-36/37-24/25-23-53-36-63-39
RIDADR  UN 3077 9/PG 3
WGK Germany  1
RTECS 番号 DG0875000
21
自然発火温度 570 °C
Hazard Note  Harmful
TSCA  Yes
HSコード  2916 31 00
有毒物質データの 65-85-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
毒性 LD50 orally in Rabbit: 1700 mg/kg LD50 dermal Rabbit > 5000 mg/kg
化審法 (3)-1397
絵表示(GHS)
注意喚起語 Danger
危険有害性情報
コード 危険有害性情報 危険有害性クラス 区分 注意喚起語 シンボル P コード
H302 飲み込むと有害 急性毒性、経口 4 警告 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H315 皮膚刺激 皮膚腐食性/刺激性 2 警告 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 重篤な眼の損傷 眼に対する重篤な損傷性/眼刺激 性 1 危険 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H319 強い眼刺激 眼に対する重篤な損傷性/眼刺激 性 2A 警告 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 呼吸器への刺激のおそれ 特定標的臓器毒性、単回暴露; 気道刺激性 3 警告
H336 眠気やめまいのおそれ 特定標的臓器毒性、単回暴露; 麻酔作用 3 警告 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 発がんのおそれの疑い 発がん性 2 警告 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H372 長期にわたる、または反復暴露により臓器の障 害 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 1 危険 P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H373 長期にわたる、または反復暴露により臓器の障 害のおそれ 特定標的臓器有害性、単回暴露 2 警告 P260, P314, P501
注意書き
P260 粉じん/煙/ガス/ミスト/蒸気/スプレーを吸入しないこ と。
P261 粉じん/煙/ガス/ミスト/蒸気/スプレーの吸入を避ける こと。
P264 取扱い後は皮膚をよく洗うこと。
P264 取扱い後は手や顔をよく洗うこと。
P270 この製品を使用する時に、飲食または喫煙をしないこ と。
P280 保護手袋/保護衣/保護眼鏡/保護面を着用するこ と。
P281 指定された個人用保護具を使用すること。
P305+P351+P338 眼に入った場合:水で数分間注意深く洗うこと。次にコ ンタクトレンズを着用していて容易に外せる場合は外す こと。その後も洗浄を続けること。
P314 気分が悪い時は、医師の診断/手当てを受けること。
P501 内容物/容器を...に廃棄すること。

安息香酸 価格 もっと(77)

メーカー 製品番号 製品説明 CAS番号 包装 価格 更新時間 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01CHDASB-00001702 安息香酸
Benzoic Acid
65-85-0 1g ¥10100 2018-12-26 購入
富士フイルム和光純薬株式会社(wako) W01MAS097905 安息香酸
Benzoic acid
65-85-0 100g ¥41800 2018-12-26 購入
東京化成工業 B2635 安息香酸 >99.0%(GC)
Benzoic Acid >99.0%(GC)
65-85-0 25g ¥1600 2018-12-04 購入
東京化成工業 B0062 安息香酸 >99.0%(GC)
Benzoic Acid Zone Refined (number of passes:20) >99.0%(GC)
65-85-0 1sample ¥7000 2018-12-04 購入
関東化学株式会社(KANTO) 04115-01 安息香酸 >99.5%(T)
Benzoic acid >99.5%(T)
65-85-0 500g ¥4300 2018-12-13 購入

安息香酸 化学特性,用途語,生産方法

外観

白色、結晶性粉末~粉末

定義

本品は、次の化学式で表される芳香族カルボン酸である。

溶解性

水に難溶 (0.29g/100ml水, 20℃)。エタノール, エーテル, 有機溶媒に易溶。エタノール及びジエチルエーテルに溶けやすく、水に溶けにくい。

用途

有機合成原料、防腐剤、医薬品原料、安息香酸塩の原料。

用途

防腐剤,アニリン染料原料,食品添加物(香料),医薬

用途

防腐剤、殺菌剤

用途

有機合成原料、調製液原料(防腐剤)、医薬品原料。

化粧品の成分用途

pH調整剤、防腐剤、香料

効能

抗真菌薬, 消毒薬

商品名

安息香酸 (小堺製薬)

使用上の注意

揮散する。

説明

Benzoic acid is a colorless, crystalline solid also known as benzenecarboxylic acid. It is the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid, with a carboxyl group (-COOH) bonded directly to the benzene ring. It is found naturally in the benzoin resin of a number of plants.

化学的特性

Benzoic acid occurs as feathery, light, white or colorless crystals or powder. It is essentially tasteless and odorless or with a slight characteristic odor suggestive of benzoin.

化学的特性

Benzoic acid is a white crystalline or flaky solid with a faint, pleasant odor.

化学的特性

Benzoic acid,C6H5COOH, also known as benzene carboxylic acid and phenyl formic acid,is a colorless, monoclinic crystalline solid that has a melting point of 122.4"C and sublimes readily at 100·C. It is an aromatic carboxylic acid that is slightly soluble in water and moderately soluble in alcohol and ether. It is used as a preservative and its derivatives are valuable in medicine, commerce, and industry.

化学的特性

Benzoic acid (pronunciation : C7H6O2 or C6H5COOH , is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid. The name derived from gum benzoin, which was for a long time the only source for benzoic acid. Its salts are used as a food preservative and benzoic acid is an important precursor for the synthesis of many other organic substances. The salts and esters of benzoic acid are known as benzoates .

化学的特性

Benzoic acid is almost odorless or exhibits a faint urine, almond odor and a sweet–sour to acrid taste. Sodium benzoate as an article of commerce is in the form of a white powder or flakes. It can be mixed dry into bulk liquids and dissolves promptly. The pH range for optimum microbial inhibition by benzoic acid is 2.5 to 4.0, which is lower than that of sorbic acid or propionic acid. Thus, benzoates are well adapted for the preservation of food, which are acid, or readily acidified, such as carbonated beverages, fruit juices, cider, pickles and sauerkraut.

物理的性質

Colorless to white needles, scales, or powder with a faint benzoin or benzaldehyde-like odor. Shaw et al. (1970) reported a taste threshold in water of 85 ppm.

天然物の起源

Reported found in fresh apple, apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), strawberry fruit, cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), butter, boiled and cooked beef, pork fat, white wine, black tea, green tea, fresh plum, mushroom, Bourbon vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews), and other natural sources. Reported as being a constituent of various oils, resins and flower absolutes; hyacinth, tuberose, neroli bigarade, Chinese cinnamon, cinnamon leaves, anise, vertiver, ylang-ylang, Tolu balsam and clove; it is contained in fairly sizable amounts in gum benzoin, from which benzoic acid is extracted by sublimation.

来歴

Benzoic acid was first isolated from the dry distillation of benzoin by Blaise de Vigenère (1523–1596) in the 16th century. Friedrich W?hler (1800–1882) and Justus von Liebig (1803–1873) prepared benzoic acid from oxidizing bitter almond oil (benzaldehyde) in 1832 and determined the formula for each of these compounds. They proposed that bitter almond oil, C7H6O, and benzoic acid were derivatives from the benzoyl radical, C7H5O; the radical theory was a major early theory in the development of organic chemistry.

使用

benzoic acid is a preservative primarily for use against molds and yeasts. Its performance is classified only as fair against bacteria. Benzoic acid is used in concentrations of 0.05 to 0.1 percent. Although it has a low sensitizing rate, it may cause an allergic reaction in persons sensitive to similar chemicals.

使用

Benzoic Acid is a preservative that occurs naturally in some foods such as cranberries, prunes, and cinnamon. it is most often used in the form of sodium benzoate because of the low aqueous solubility of the free acid. sodium benzoate is 180 times as soluble in water at 25°c as benzoic acid. the salt in solution is converted to the acid which is the active form. the optimum ph range for microbial inhi- bition is ph 2.5–4.0. it is used in acid foods such as carbonated bev- erages, fruit juices, and pickles. it is also termed benzoate of soda.

使用

keratolytic

使用

Sodium benzoate is an important benzoic acid derivative produced industrially by neutralization of benzoic acid using sodium hydroxide or sodium bicarbonate solution. Calcium benzoate, potassium benzoate, and other benzoate salts are also produced. Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate (C6H5COONa) are used as food preservatives and added to foods, juices, and beverages that are acidic.

使用

Calorimetry
Benzoic acid is the most commonly used chemical standard to determine the heat of capacity of a bomb calorimeter.
Feed stock
Benzoic acid is used to make a large number of chemicals, important examples of which are :
Benzoyl chloride, C6H5C(O)Cl, is obtained by treatment of benzoic with thionyl chloride, phosgene or one of the chlorides of phosphorus. C6H5C(O) Cl is an important starting material for several benzoic acid derivates like benzyl benzoate, which is used in artificial flavours and insect repellents.
Food preservative
Benzoic acid and its salts are used as a food preservatives, represented by the E-numbers E210 , E211 , E212 , and E213 . Benzoic acid inhibits the growth of mold, yeast and some bacteria. It is either added directly or created from reactions with its sodium, potassium, or calcium salt. The mechanism starts with the absorption of benzoic acid in to the cell.
Medicinal
Benzoic acid is a constituent of Whitfiel's ointment which is used for the treatment of fungal skin diseases such as tinea, ringworm, and athlete's foot. As the principal component of benzoin resin, benzoic acid is also a major ingredient in both tincture of benzoin and Fria's balsam. Such products have a long history of use as topical antiseptics and inhalant decongestants.
Benzoic acid was used as an expectorant, analgesic, and antiseptic in the early 20th century.

調製方法

Industrial preparations
Benzoic acid is produced commercially by partial oxidation of toluene with oxygen. The process is catalyzed by cobalt or manganese naphthenates. The process uses cheap raw materials, proceeds in high yield, and is considered environmentally green.
Laboratory synthesis
Benzoic acid is cheap and readily available, so the laboratory synthesis of benzoic acid is mainly practiced for its pedagogical value. It is a common undergraduate preparation.
For all syntheses, benzoic acid can be purified by recrystallization from water because of its high solubility in hot water and poor solubility in cold water. The avoidance of organic solvents for the recrystallization makes this experiment particularly safe. Other possible recrystallization solvents include acetic acid (anhydrous or aqueous), benzene, acetone, petroleum ether, and a mixture of ethanol and water. The solubility of benzoic acid in over 40 solvents with references to original sources can be found as part of the Open Notebook Science Challenge.

製造方法

By oxidation of toluene with nitric acid or sodium bichromate or from benzonitrile.

定義

ChEBI: A compound comprising a benzene ring core carrying a carboxylic acid substituent.

調製方法

Benzoic acid can be synthesized using a number of processes. The industrial method is by the partial oxidation of toluene (C6H5CH3) in liquid phase using manganese, cobalt, vanadium-titanium, or other catalysts. The reaction is carried out at temperatures between 150°C and 200°C. It can also be prepared by the oxidation of benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol (C6H5CH2OH), and cinnamic acid (C6H5CHCHO2) or by the oxidation of benzene with concentrated sulfuric acid. The hydrolysis of benzonitrile (C6H5CN) produces benzoic acid. It is also produced by the carboxylation of a Grignard reagent followed by acidification; typically carbonation occurs by pouring a Grignard ether over dry ice.

調製方法

Although benzoic acid occurs naturally, it is produced commercially by several synthetic methods. One process involves the continuous liquid-phase oxidation of toluene in the presence of a cobalt catalyst at 150–2008℃ and 0.5–5.0 MPa (5.0–50.0 atm) pressure to give a yield of approximately 90% benzoic acid.
Benzoic acid can also be produced commercially from benzotrichloride or phthalic anhydride. Benzotrichloride, produced by chlorination of toluene, is reacted with 1 mole of benzoic acid to yield 2 moles of benzoyl chloride. The benzoyl chloride is then converted to 2 moles of benzoic acid by hydrolysis. Yield is 75–80%.
In another commercial process, phthalic anhydride is converted to benzoic acid, in about an 85% yield, by hydrolysis in the presence of heat and chromium and disodium phthalates.
Crude benzoic acid is purified by sublimation or recrystallization.

反応性

Reactions of benzoic acid can occur at either the aromatic ring or the carboxyl group :
Aromatic ring
Electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction will take place mainly in 3- position due to the electron-withdrawing carboxylic group; i.e. benzoic acid is meta directing.
The second substitution reaction (on the right) is slower because the first nitro group is deactivating. Conversely, if an activating group (electron - donating) was introduced (e.g., alkyl), a second substitution reaction would occur more readily than the first and the disubstituted product might accumulate to a significant extent.
Carboxyl group
All the reactions mentioned for carboxylic acids are also possible for benzoic acid.
Benzoic acid esters are the product of the acid catalysed reaction with alcohols. Benzoic acid amides are more easily available by using activated acid derivatives (such as benzoyl chloride) or by coupling reagents used in peptide synthesis like DCC and DMAP.
The more active benzoic anhydride is formed by dehydration using acetic anhydride or phosphorus pentoxide.
Highly reactive acid derivatives such as acid halides are easily obtained by mixing with halogenation agents like phosphorus chlorides or thionyl chloride.
Ortho esters can be obtained by the reaction of alcohols under acidic water free conditions with benzonitrile.
Reduction to benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol is possible using DIBAL- H , Li Al H4 or sodium boro hydride.
The copper catalyzed decarboxylation of benzoate to benzene may be effected by heating in quinoline. Also, Hunsdiecker decarboxylation can be achieved by forming the silver salt and heating. Benzoic acid can also be decarboxylated by heating with an alkali hydroxide or calcium hydroxide.

Biotechnological Production

Benzoic acid is exclusively chemically synthesized on an industrial scale. Toluene from petrochemical routes is oxidized in the presence of the catalyst potassium permanganate to benzoic acid . However, a recent study described for the first time a benzoic acid production process by fermentation using Streptomyces maritimus. The production of benzoic acid during cultivation on glucose, starch, and cellobiose has been investigated. The best results have been achieved with product concentrations of 460 mg.L-1 in 6 days using starch as substrate. Additionally, a genetically modified S. maritimus optimized for endo-glucanasesecretion has been tested on phosphoric acid swollen cellulose. A final product concentration of 125 mg.L-1 was observed after 4 days of cultivation.

Aroma threshold values

85 ppm.

一般的な説明

Boric acid,H3B03, also known as boracic acid, orthoboric acid, and sassolite, is a white solid composed of triclinic crystals.It is a derivative of barium oxide and is soluble in water. A white crystalline solid. Slightly soluble in water. The primary hazard is the potential for environmental damage if released. Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment. Used to make other chemicals, as a food preservative, and for other uses.

空気と水の反応

Vapor from molten Benzoic acid may form explosive mixture with air. The finely powdered dry acid is a significant dust explosion hazard [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 884]. In air very rapid combustion occurs [Wilson, L.Y. et al., J. Chem. Ed., 1985, 62(10), p. 902]. Slightly soluble in water.

反応プロフィール

At high temperature Benzoic acid can react with oxidizing reagents.

危険性

Moderately toxic by ingestion. Use restricted to 0.1% in foods.

健康ハザード

Dust may be irritating to nose and eyes. At elevated temperatures, fumes may cause irritation of eyes, respiratory system, and skin.

火災危険

Behavior in Fire: Vapor from molten Benzoic acid may form explosive mixture with air. Concentrated dust may form explosive mixture.

农业用途

Fungicide, Insecticide: Used in the manufacture of benzoates; plasticizers, benzoyl chloride, alkyd resins, in the manufacture of food preservatives, in use as a dye binder in calico printing; in curing of tobacco, flavors, perfumes, dentifrices, standard in analytical chemistry. Not currently registered for use in the U.S. Benzoic acid is currently used in about a dozen European countries.

応用例(製薬)

Benzoic acid is widely used in cosmetics, foods, and pharmaceuticals, as an antimicrobial preservative. Greatest activity is seen at pH values between 2.5–4.5.
Benzoic acid also has a long history of use as an antifungal agent in topical therapeutic preparations such as Whitfield’s ointment (benzoic acid 6% and salicylic acid 3%).

製品名

RETARDER BA®; MICROL® Preservative; TENN-PLAS®; RETARDEX®; SALVO LIQUID®; SALVO POWDER®; TULSA®

臨床応用

Benzoic acid is a metabolite of benzyl alcohol and sodium benzoate is the sodium salt of benzoic acid. These three related compounds are used as preservatives in a variety of products, such as cosmetics, toothpastes, hair products, medication preparations, and emollients, and in foods. They are well-recognized to cause nonimmunological CoU and reactions are concentration-dependent.Both oral intake and cutaneous contact of benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid, or sodium benzoate can cause immediate reactions; however, there is a lack of correlation between the two and skin tests should not be used to predict sensitivity to oral intake of these preservatives.
Immediate reactions to the oral ingestion of these preservatives are rare. Nettis et al. investigated 47 patients with a history of urticaria after the ingestion of meals or products containing sodium benzoate, and only one patient had a generalized urticarial reaction to an oral challenge test of 50 mg of sodium benzoate.

副作用

Benzoic acid occurs naturally free and bound as benzoic acid esters in many plant and animal species. Appreciable amounts have been found in most berries (around 0.05 %). Ripe fruits of several Vaccinium species (e.g., cranberry, V. vitis idaea; bilberry, V. macrocarpon) contain as much as 0.03 – 0.13 % free benzoic acid. Benzoic acid is also formed in apples after infection with the fungus Nectria galligena. Among animals, benzoic acid has been identified primarily in omnivorous or phytophageous species, e.g., in viscera and muscles of the Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) as well as in gland secretions of male muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) or Asian bull elephants (Elephas maximus).
Gum benzoin contains up to 20 % of benzoic acid and 40% benzoic acid esters.

毒性学

Four-generation reproductive and developmental toxicities of benzoic acid were examined using diets containing 0, 0.5, and 1% of benzoic acid fed to male and female rats housed together for eight weeks. The second generation was observed through its entire life cycle and the third and fourth generations were examined by autopsy. No changes in normal patterns of growth, reproduction, or lactation during life were recorded and no morphological abnormalities were observed from the autopsies.
Degradation pathways for benzoic acid also have been studied in detail and the results have supported the harmlessness of this substance. The total dose of benzoic acid is excreted within 10 to 14 hours and 75 to 80% is excreted within 6 hours. After conjugation with glycine, 90% of benzoic acid appears in the urine as hippuric acid. The rest forms a glucuronide,1-benzoylglucuronic acid. The lower aliphatic esters of benzoic acid are first hydrolyzed by esterase, which abounds in the intestinal wall and liver. The resulting benzoic acid subsequently is degraded in the usual manner.

安全性

Ingested benzoic acid is conjugated with glycine in the liver to yield hippuric acid, which is then excreted in the urine; care should be taken when administering benzoic acid to patients with chronic liver disease. Benzoic acid is a gastric irritant, and a mild irritant to the skin. It is also a mild irritant to the eyes and mucous membranes. Allergic reactions to benzoic acid have been reported, although a controlled study indicated that the incidence of urticaria in patients given benzoic acid is no greater than in those given a lactose placebo. It has been reported that asthmatics may become adversely affected by benzoic acid contained in some antiasthma drugs.
The WHO acceptable daily intake of benzoic acid and other benzoates, calculated as benzoic acid, has been set at up to 5 mg/kg body-weight. The minimum lethal human oral dose of benzoic acid is 500 mg/kg body-weight.
LD50 (cat, oral): 2 g/kg
LD50 (dog, oral): 2 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IP): 1.46 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 1.94 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 1.7 g/kg

職業ばく露

Benzoic acid is used in production of plasticizers, benzoyl chloride, sodium benzoate and alkyl resins; in the manufacture of benzoates; in the manufacture of food preservatives; as a dye binder in calico printing; in curing of tobacco, flavors, perfumes, dentifrices; standard in analytical chemistry; antifungal agent.

Source

Naturally occurs in cranberries, ligonberries (1,360 ppm), peppermint leaves (20–200 ppb), tea leaves, cassia bark, carob, blessed thistle, purple foxglove, jasmine, hyacinth, apples, tobacco leaves, daffodils, autumn crocus, prunes, anise seeds, ripe cloves, and wild black cherry tree bark (Duke, 1992; quoted, Verschueren, 1983).
Schauer et al. (1999) reported benzoic acid in diesel fuel at a concentration of 1,260 μg/g. Identified as an oxidative degradation product in the headspace of a used engine oil (10–30W) after 4,080 miles (Levermore et al., 2001).
The gas-phase tailpipe emission rate from California Phase II reformulated gasoline-powered automobile equipped with a catalytic converter was 124 μg/km (Schauer et al., 2002). Benzoic acid is a by-product of benzoyl peroxide used in the bleaching of freshly milled wheat flour. A maximum benzoic acid concentration of 16 ppm was reported after 12 h of bleaching. The concentration decreased to 6 ppm after 3 months (Saiz et al., 2001).
A liquid swine manure sample collected from a waste storage basin contained benzoic acid at a concentration of 4.0 mg/L (Zahn et al., 1997).

環境運命予測

Biological. Benzoic acid may degrade to catechol if it is the central metabolite whereas, if protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) is the central metabolite, the precursor is 3- hydroxybenzoic acid (Chapman, 1972). Other compounds identified following degradation of benzoic acid to catechol include cis,cis-muconic acid, (+)-muconolactone, 3-oxoadipate enol lactone, and 3-oxoadipate (quoted, Verschueren, 1983). Pure microbial cultures hydroxylated benzoic acid to 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (Smith and Rosazza, 1974). In activated sludge, 65.5% mineralized to carbon dioxide after 5 d (Freitag et al., 1985). Photolytic. Titanium dioxide suspended in an aqueous solution and irradiated with UV light (λ = 365 nm) converted benzoic acid to carbon dioxide at a significant rate (Matthews, 1986). An aqueous solution containing chlorine and irradiated with UV light (λ = 350 nm) converted benzoic acid to salicylaldehyde and unidentified chlorinated compounds (Oliver and Carey, 1977). A carbon dioxide yield of 10.2% was achieved when benzoic acid adsorbed on silica gel was irradiated with light (λ >290 nm) for 17 h (Freitag et al., 1985).
Brubaker and Hites (1998) measured the OH radical rate constant for benzoic acid between 333 and 363 K. The rate constants (x 1012 cm3/sec) were 0.42 and 0.66 at 333 K (two determinations), 0.84 at 343 K, and 0.72 at 363 K. In water, benzoic acid reacted with OH radicals at a rate of 1.2 x 1013/M·h at 25 °C (Armbrust, 2000).
Chemical/Physical. At an influent concentration of 1.0 g/L, treatment with GAC resulted in an effluent concentration of 89 mg/L. The adsorbability of the carbon used was 183 mg/g carbon (Guisti et al., 1974). Ward and Getzen (1970) investigated the adsorption of aromatic acids on activated carbon under acidic, neutral, and alkaline conditions. The amount of benzoic acid (10-4 M) adsorbed by carbon at pH values of 3.0, 7.0, and 11.0 were 49.7, 11.2, and 2.5%, respectively. Similarly, at influent concentrations of 1.0, 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 mg/L, the respective GAC adsorption capacities were 130, 51, 19, and 7.3 mg/g at pH 3.0 and 54, 0.76, 0.01, and 0.002 mg/g at pH 7.0 At pH 9.0 and influent concentrations of 10 and 1.0 mg/L, the GAC adsorption capacities were 21 and 0.008, respectively (Dobbs and Cohen, 1980).

貯蔵

Aqueous solutions of benzoic acid may be sterilized by autoclaving or by filtration.
A 0.1% w/v aqueous solution of benzoic acid has been reported to be stable for at least 8 weeks when stored in polyvinyl chloride bottles, at room temperature.
When added to a suspension, benzoic acid dissociates, with the benzoate anion adsorbing onto the suspended drug particles. This adsorption alters the charge at the surface of the particles, which may in turn affect the physical stability of the suspension. The addition of sodium azide has been shown to increase the stability of benzoic acid in skin permeation experiments.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.

輸送方法

UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9—Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.

純化方法

For use as a volumetric standard, analytical reagent grade benzoic acid should be carefully fused to ca 130o (to dry it) in a platinum crucible, and then powdered in an agate mortar. Benzoic acid has been crystallised from boiling water (charcoal), aqueous acetic acid, glacial acetic acid, *C6H6, aqueous EtOH, pet ether (b 60-80o), and from EtOH solution by adding water. It is readily purified by fractional crystallisation from its melt and by sublimation in a vacuum at 80o. The S-benzylisothiuronium salt has m 167o (from EtOH/H2O). [Beilstein 9 IV 273.]

不和合性

Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, caustics, ammonia, amines, isocyanates. Dust forms an explosive mixture with air.

不和合性

Undergoes typical reactions of an organic acid, e.g. with alkalis or heavy metals. Preservative activity may be reduced by interaction with kaolin.

廃棄物の処理

Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed.

規制状況(Regulatory Status)

GRAS listed. Accepted as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IM and IV injections, irrigation solutions, oral solutions, suspensions, syrups and tablets, rectal, topical, and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

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65-85-0(安息香酸)キーワード:


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  • methanol (71.5 mg/ml)
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