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Benzoic acid

description Chemical Properties history food preservatives Uses Hazard Preparation

CAS No. 65-85-0
Chemical Name: Benzoic acid
Synonyms: ha1;210;e210;KRT31;KRTHA1;and he;PUROX B;NA-9094;ai3-0310;Nipacide
CBNumber: CB8698780
Molecular Formula: C7H6O2
Formula Weight: 122.12
MOL File: 65-85-0.mol
Benzoic acid Property
Melting point : 121-125 °C(lit.)
Boiling point : 249 °C(lit.)
density : 1.08
vapor density : 4.21 (vs air)
vapor pressure : 10 mm Hg ( 132 °C)
refractive index : 1.504
FEMA : 2131
Fp : 250 °F
storage temp. : Store at RT.
solubility : soluble, clear, colorless (95% ethanol, 1gm/3mL)
form : Solid
pka: 4.19(at 25℃)
color : White to yellow-beige to orange
PH: 2.5-3.5 (H2O, 20℃)(saturated solution)
Water Solubility : Slightly soluble. 0.34 g/100 mL
Merck : 14,1091
BRN : 636131
Stability:: Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong bases, strong oxidizing agents, alkalies.
CAS DataBase Reference: 65-85-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference: Benzoic acid(65-85-0)
EPA Substance Registry System: Benzoic acid(65-85-0)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes : Xn,T,Xi
Risk Statements : 22-36-42/43-36/37/38-40-63-43-23/24/25-45-41-37/38-20/21/22-48/23-38-67-37
Safety Statements : 26-45-37/39-24-22-36/37-24/25-23-53-36-63-39
RIDADR : UN 3077 9/PG 3
WGK Germany : 1
RTECS : DG0875000
F : 21
Hazard Note : Harmful
TSCA : Yes
Hazardous Substances Data: 65-85-0(Hazardous Substances Data)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 Causes serious eye damage Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 1 Danger P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness Specific target organ toxicity,single exposure; Narcotic effects Category 3 Warning P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 Suspected of causing cancer Carcinogenicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H372 Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P314, P501
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure Category 2 Warning P260, P314, P501
Precautionary statements:
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P281 Use personal protective equipment as required.
P314 Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

Benzoic acid Chemical Properties,Usage,Production

Benzoic acid is the simplest member of the aromatic carboxylic acid family. It is a weak acid that is a precursor for the synthesis of many important organic compounds. More than 90 percent of commercial benzoic acid is converted directly to phenol and caprolactam. Its use in the production of glycol benzoates for the application of plasticizer in adhesive formulations is increasing. The organic compound is also used in the manufacture of alkyd resins and drilling mud additive for crude oil recovery applications. It is also used as a rubber polymerization activator, retardant, resins, alkyd paint, plasticizers, dyestuffs, and fibers. Benzoic acid and its esters occur in apricots, cranberries, mushrooms and jasmine plants. The history of benzoic acid dates back to sixteenth century. In the year of 1875 Salkowski a prominent scientist discovered its antifungal abilities. In medicine, benzoic acid is the principal component of benzoin resin, and is a constituent of Whitfield’s ointment which is used for the treatment of fungal skin diseases such as tinea, ringworm, and athlete’s foot.
Chemical Properties
Scaly or needle like crystals. With the smell of formaldehyde or benzene. Slightly soluble in water, soluble in ethanol, methanol, diethyl ether, chloroform, benzene, toluene, CS2, CCl4 and turpentine.
Benzoic acid was found in the 16th century. In 1556, Nostradamus first described carbonization effect of benzoin; After the Alexius Pedemontanus and Brian blessed decipher were discovered in 1560 and 1596. In 1875, the salkowski discovered the antifungal potency of benzoic acid, so benzoic acid is used for long term preservation cloudberry.
1. Used as a chemical reagent and preservative.
2. Benzoic acid is important type food preservative. Under acidic conditions, It has inhibitory effects to mold, yeast and bacteria , but the effect is weak acid producing bacteria. The most appropriate antimicrobial pH values is ranging from 2.5 to 4, generally lower, the pH value is appropriate from 4.5 to 5. In the food industry with plastic barrels concentrated fruit and vegetable juice, the maximum use amount shall not be over 2.0g/kg; in jam (excluding canned), (taste) juice drink, soy sauce, vinegar in the maximum dose of 1.0g/kg; in soft candy, wine, wine in the maximum dose of 0.8 g/kg separately; in the low salt pickled vegetables, the sauce, candied fruit, maximum dose is 0.5 g/kg; in carbonated drinks in the largest amount of use is 0.2g/kg. due to benzoic acid, slightly soluble in water, its use can be a small amount of ethanol enable dissolved.
3.Preservative; anti microbial agents.
Due to the low solubility of benzoic acid and use shall be stirring, or dissolved in a small amount of hot water or ethanol. When used in the soft drink with fruit juice concentrate, for benzoic acid easy volatile with the water vapor, so often used in the sodium salt, besides the above sodium equivalent to benzoic acid 0.847g.
4.Often used as a fixative agent or preservative. Also used as a fruit juice aroma conservation agents. As a perfume with perfume fragrance. Can also be used for chocolate, lemon, orange, berries, nuts, candied fruit type edible essence. Tobacco flavor is also commonly used.
5.Benzoic acid and its sodium salt are food preservatives. Under acidic conditions, it has inhibition of yeasts and molds. When pH 3, antibacterial strength and when pH 6, many fungi effect is very poor, so the antibacterial optimum pH is 2.5-4.0. Benzoic acid is mainly used for the production of sodium benzoate preservatives, dyes intermediates, pesticides, plasticizers, mordant, medicine, spice and also can be used as alkyd resin and polyamide resin modifier for the production of polyester, terephthalic acid and used equipment, iron and steel anti rust agent.
6.Mainly used for antifungal and antiseptic.
7.Used in medicine, dye carriers, plasticizer, spices and food preservatives such as production, and can also be used to paint of alkyd resin performance improvement; used as pharmaceutical and dye intermediates, used for the preparation of plasticizer and spices etc., as well as equipment, iron and steel anti rust agent.
food preservatives
Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate are commonly used food preservative. In acidic conditions, it has inhibitory effect on yeast and mold. When pH value is 3 antibacterial strength, when pH was 6 for a lot of mould effect is very poor, so the inhibition the optimum pH value is 2.5-4.0. In the food industry with plastic barrels concentrated fruit and vegetable juice, the maximum usage shall not exceed 2.0g/kg; in the jam (not including canned), fruit juice (taste) drinks, soy sauce, vinegar in the maximum amount is 1.0g/kg; in Wine, candy, wine in the maximum amount of 0.8g/kg in the low salt; pickles, sauces, candied fruit, use the largest 0.5g/kg in carbonate; use the largest beverage 0.2g/kg. because of solubility of benzoic acid, when used will be stirring, or dissolved in a small amount of hot water or ethanol. The use of concentrated fruit juice in the soft drink used for benzoic acid easily volatile with steam, it is commonly used in the sodium salt. Benzoic acid in food industry is a common preservative in dairy products, but not allowed to be added. In general, benzoic acid is considered to be safe. But for some special populations, including infants, long-term intake of benzoic acid may lead to asthma, urticaria, metabolic acidosis and other adverse reactions. Paul deodorant benzoic acid is also used as a beverage. As the cream sweet perfume fragrance. Can also be used for chocolate, lemon, orange, sub berries, nuts, candied fruit and other edible flavor type. Tobacco flavor also commonly used. In addition of benzoic acid is also used as a pesticide, medicine, dye, mordant and plasticizer agent for the production of raw materials, polyamide resin and alkyd resin modifying agent and steel equipment anti rust agent.
Benzoic acid accumulation is less, low toxicity in the body involved and metabolism. If the excessive consumption of benzoic acid, the body's liver and kidney will be jeopardized. Maximum safety of carbonated drinks of benzoic acid usage is 5mg/kg of body weight, then calculated according to the weight of 60kg, daily limit is 300mg, benzoic acid for carbonated drinks, the maximum amount of use is 0.2g/kg, then drank 1.5kg of beverage is safe.
It has strong toxic effects on microorganisms, but the toxicity of the sodium salt is very low. A daily dose of 0.5g, has no toxicity to the body , even in an amount of not more than 4g of health also has no harm. In human and animal tissues it can bind with protein components of the glycine and detoxification, formed hippuric acid excreted in the urine. Benzoic acid crystallites or dust on the skin, eyes, nose, and throat has stimulating effect. Even if its sodium salt, if you take a lot, also can damage to the stomach. The operator should wear protective equipment. Need to be stored in a dry and ventilated place moisture, heat, away from the fire source.
Industrial preparation method
The industrial benzoic acid is mainly by toluene liquid phase air oxidation preparation. The process was with cobalt naphthenate as catalyst, in response to temperature is 140-160 ℃ and operating pressure is 0.2-0.3MPa and response generation benzoic acid. Reaction after steaming to toluene, and vacuum distillation and recrystallization to obtain the product. The process uses cheap raw materials, high yield. Therefore, it is industrial uses mainly the method.
Laboratory preparation method of the main reaction:
1.C6H5CH3+ KMnO4+H2O-C6H5 COOK+KOH+MnO2+H2O(water in fron of the manganese dioxide is supplied with water reaction environment)
Drug and dosage:
Toluene 1.5g (1.7ml, 0.016mol), potassium permanganate 5g (0.032mol), CTAB(cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) 0.1g.
Experimental operation:
With 100 ml round bottom flask. Install a refluxing device. add 5g potassium permanganate, 0.1g of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, 1.7 ml of toluene and 50 ml of water to the reaction flask, stir heated boiling (vigorous stirring, violent boiling), keep the reactant solution stable boiling.
When large amounts of brown precipitate, potassium permanganate purple shallow or disappeared, the toluene layer disappeared, reaction has basically ended. Filter out of manganese dioxide precipitation, landfill leachate by concentrated hydrochloric acid, precipitation of benzoic acid precipitation, filtering to the crude product.
The crude product water recrystallization. In a boiling water bath for drying, weighing, measuring the melting point.
Chemical Properties
white crystals or powder
ChEBI: A compound comprising a benzene ring core carrying a carboxylic acid substituent.
General Description
A white crystalline solid. Slightly soluble in water. The primary hazard is the potential for environmental damage if released. Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment. Used to make other chemicals, as a food preservative, and for other uses.
Air & Water Reactions
Vapor from molten Benzoic acid may form explosive mixture with air. The finely powdered dry acid is a significant dust explosion hazard [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 884]. In air very rapid combustion occurs [Wilson, L.Y. et al., J. Chem. Ed., 1985, 62(10), p. 902]. Slightly soluble in water.
Reactivity Profile
At high temperature Benzoic acid can react with oxidizing reagents.
Health Hazard
Dust may be irritating to nose and eyes. At elevated temperatures, fumes may cause irritation of eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
Fire Hazard
Behavior in Fire: Vapor from molten Benzoic acid may form explosive mixture with air. Concentrated dust may form explosive mixture.
Benzoic acid Preparation Products And Raw materials
Raw materials
Hippuric acid Cobalt acetate Naphthalene Arsenic Benzyl alcohol Zinc oxide Lead monoxide Toluene Chlorine Formic acid Pathalic acid Benzotrichloride Cobalt naphthenate Phthalic anhydride
Preparation Products
(S)-(-)-N-Benzyl-1-phenylethylamine Ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate Benzoyl peroxide Sodium benzoate 3-Nitrobenzoic acid 4-tert-Butylphenol 2,5-DIPHENYL-1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE 3-Methyl-7-phenyl-6-oxa-3-azabicyclo[6.4.0]dodeca-8,10,12-triene 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid Phenolic resin paint Direct Yellow 12 3,5-Diaminobenzoic acid 3-Hydroxybenzoic acid Ammonium benzoate Isoamyl benzoate 2-METHYLBENZANILIDE Exemestane Direct Black 168 MCBE Amino resin paint 3,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid Methyl benzoate 3-SULFAMOYL-BENZOIC ACID Chorionic gonadotrophin Methyl acrylate Fluorescamine Benzoyl chloride Benzyl benzoate Potassium benzoate
Benzoic acid Suppliers      Global( 437)Suppliers     
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Shenzhen Sendi Biotechnology Co.Ltd. 0755-23311925 18102838259
0755-23311925 CHINA 3230 55
Shanghai Macklin Biochemical Co.,Ltd. 15221275939
021-51821727 China 13254 55
Jonny pharmaceutical co.,ltd Ship products from Netherlands. Pls contact for PGP or ECC ID to talk!
Wickr: chemjonny, Pls contact for PGP or ECC ID to talk! China 195 55
Shanghai Aladdin Bio-Chem Technology Co.,LTD 021-20337333/400-620-6333
021-50323701 China 25125 65
J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. 400-666-7788 +86-10-82848833
+86-10-82849933; China 96831 76
Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. +86-(0)21-61259100(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170099(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-62670440(Beijing)
+86-(0)21-61259102(Shanghai) +86-(0)755-86170066(ShenZhen) +86-(0)10-88580358(Beijing) China 40403 62
Alfa Aesar 400-610-6006; 021-67582000
021-67582001/03/05 China 30314 84
TCI (Shanghai) Development Co., Ltd. 800-988-0390
021-67121385 China 22833 81
Beijing dtftchem Technology Co., Ltd. 13651141086; 86(10)60275028、60275820
86 (10) 60270825 China 1443 62
BeiJing Hwrk Chemicals Limted 4006990298;010-57411839;0757-86311057;021-51691807
010-87653215;0757-86311057;021-55236763 China 15554 55
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