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인산 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
Phosphoric acid
NFB;Sonac;EVITs;H3PO4;Marphos;linsuan;U.N. 1805;PHOS ACID;FEMA 2900;Phosphoric
포뮬러 무게:
MOL 파일:

인산 속성

~40 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
158 °C(lit.)
1.685 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
3.4 (vs air)
2.2 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
n20/D 1.433
저장 조건
no restrictions.
H2O: soluble
산도 계수 (pKa)
2.1-7.2-12.3(at 25℃)
물리적 상태
Solid or Viscous Liquid
Specific Gravity
pH 범위
<0.5 (100g/l, H2O, 20℃)
최대 파장(λmax)
λ: 260 nm Amax: ≤0.05
λ: 280 nm Amax: ≤0.04
노출 한도
TLV-TWA 1 mg/m3 (ACGIH, MSHA, and OSHA); TLV-STEL 3 mg/m3 (ACGIH).
CAS 데이터베이스
7664-38-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
Phosphoric acid(7664-38-2)
Phosphoric acid (7664-38-2)
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 C,Xn,T,F
위험 카페고리 넘버 34-35-22-39/23/24/25-36/38-23/24/25-11
안전지침서 7-16-26-36/37-45-36/37/39-1/2-24/25
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3453 8/PG 3
WGK 독일 3
RTECS 번호 TB6300000
F 고인화성물질 3-10
HS 번호 2809 20 00
위험 등급 8
포장분류 III
유해 물질 데이터 7664-38-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 ADI 0 to 70 mg / kg (total phosphate content in terms of phosphorus, FAO / WHO, 2001).
GRAS (FDA, § 182.1073, 2000).
LD501530mg / kg (rat, oral).
In case of daily intake of 2 ~ 4 g, it can cause mild diarrhea. The amount of sour agent used as a cola drink is 0.02% to 0.06%.
기존화학 물질 KE-27427
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H290 금속을 부식시킬 수 있음 금속 부식성물질 구분 1 경고 P234, P390, P404
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P310 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오. 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 도움을 받으시오.
P301+P330+P331 삼켰다면 입을 씻어내시오. 토하게 하려 하지 마시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
NFPA 704
3 0


Phosphorous acid

인산 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산


• 무색투명한 액체로서 냄새가 없음; • 흡습성이 극히 강하며 진한 용액은 피부와 옷을 부식시키므로 주의


인산은 양성자가 세 개나 붙어있는(H3PO4) 다양성자산인데, 다양성자산이면서 pKa값이 절묘하기 때문에 완충용액으로 널리 쓰인다. 특히 화학물질 판매상에서 값이 싸고 생체내에 많이 포함되어 있다는 특징 때문에 마땅한 버퍼를 찾기 힘든 생물질의 완충용액으로 사용할 수 있다.


콜라 등 청량음료에도 많이 들어있어 충치의 원인으로 지목받는다. 또한 녹 제거나 변기 세척용으로도 요긴하게 쓰인다.ATP, DNA, RNA, 뼈의 구성성분이며, 그렇기 때문에 지구상의 모든 유기생명체의 필수요소다. 


• 식품분야: 산도조절제, pH조절제, 영양강화제, 과실음료, 착향탄산음료, 혼합음료, 마요네즈, 샐러드드레싱, 코코아가공품, 당류가공품, 과실류, 채소류, 가공품 등. • 공업분야: 인산암모늄/과인산석회 등 인산질비료, 녹제거를 비롯한 화학연마, 방식 피막형성, 전기분해연마 등 금속표면처리제, 도금, 탈수/축합중합/유기합 성촉매, 염료공업과 인산염/축합인산염의 제조원료, 의약, 직물공업, 염색 등.


Phosphoric acid was prepared first by Robert Boyle in 1694 by dissolving phosphorus pentoxide in water. Phosphoric acid is probably the most important compound of phosphorus. It is the second largest inorganic chemical by volume, after sulfuric acid, marketed in the United States.
The single most important application of Phosphoric acid is manufacturing phosphate salts for fertilizers. Such fertilizer phosphates include sodium, calcium, ammonium, and potassium phosphates. Other applications are in metal pickling and surface treatment for removal of metal oxides from metal surfaces; electropolishing of aluminum; as a bonding agent in various refractory products such as alumina and magnesia; as a catalyst in making nylon and gasoline; as a dehydrating agent; in fireproofing wood and fabrics; in lithographic engraving; in textile dyeing; in dental cement; in coagulating rubber latex; in purifying hydrogen peroxide; and as a laboratory reagent. Dilute solutions of phosphoric acid are used as additives to carbonated beverages for a pleasing sour taste. Also, dilute acid is used in refining sugar; as a nutrient; and as a buffering agent in preparing jam, jelly, and antibiotics. The commercial phosphoric acid is 85% (w/w) in strength.

화학적 성질

Phosphoric acid is a colorless, odorless, crystalline solid or a thick syrupy liquid. Physical state is strength and temperature dependent.
Concentrated phosphoric acid occurs as a colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid. It has a pleasing acid taste when suitably diluted.
Pure phosphoric acid, also called orthophosphoric acid, is a clear, colorless, mineral acid with moderate strength. It is normally marketed as an aqueous solution of 75–85% in which it exists as a clear, viscous liquid.
Phosphoric acid
Food-grade phosphoric acid is used to acidify foods and beverages. It provides a tangy or sour taste and, being a mass-produced chemical, is available cheaply and in large quantities. Phosphoric acid, used in many soft drinks, has been linked to lower bone density in epidemiological studies. In brief, phosphoric acid is a strong acid and common industrial chemical used in the manufacture of a wide number of products, notably porcelain and metal cleaners, detergents, and fertilisers. It is also used as a food additive and is a major constituent of many soft drinks. Low phosphate concentrations are found in drinking water to which it is added in some areas in order to reduce lead solubility.

물리적 성질

Chemists refer to orthophosphoric acid as phosphoric acid, which is the IUPAC name for this compound. The prefix “ortho” is used to distinguish the acid from other phosphoric acids, which are generally called polyphosphoric acids. Orthophosphoric acid is a nontoxic, rather weak triprotic acid. When pure, it is a solid at STP. Orthophosphoric acid is a very polar molecule which makes it highly soluble in water. The valence state of phosphorous in orthophosphoric acid and other phosphoric acids is +5. Triprotic means that the orthophosphoric acid molecule can dissociate up to three times, producing a hydrogen cation, H+, each time.


Phosphoric acid is a natural constituent of many fruits and their juices.


Phosphoric acid was produced but not identified by alchemists in ancient times. It derives its name from the element phosphorus, which was discovered in 1669 by Henning Brand (1630 1710).Scheele subsequently isolated phosphorus from bone ash and produced phosphoric acid by reacting phosphorus and nitric acid. Scheele's method replaced bone as the main source of phosphorus rather than urine.
John Bennett Lawes (1814 1900) patented a process in 1841 of making superphosphate from bones and later extended his process to phosphates obtained from rock. Superphosphates are made by treating Ca3(PO4)2 with sulfuric acid to make more soluble calcium hydrogen phosphates: Ca3(PO4)2 + 2H2SO4 Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2CaSO4. In this reaction Ca(H2PO4)2 is monobasic calcium phosphate, which is also called superphosphate. Calcium hydrogen phosphates (superphosphates) are more water soluble and therefore more readily available to plants.


Phosphoric acid is second only to sulfuric acid as an industrial acid and consistently ranksin the top 10 chemicals used globally.States, but it is used in a number of other applications. Phosphateswere used as builders and water softeners. A builder is a substance added to soaps or detergentsto increase their cleansing power.
Phosphoric acid is used as an intermediate in the production of animal feed supplements,water treatment chemicals, metal surface treatments, etching agent, and personal care productssuch as toothpaste. It is used as a catalyst in the petroleum and polymer industry. Phosphoricacid is used in food as a preservative, an acidulant, and flavor enhancer; it acidifies carbonateddrinks such as Coca Cola and Pepsi, giving them a tangy flavor. Phosphoric acid is used as arust remover and metal cleaner. Naval Jelly is approximately 25% phosphoric acid. Other usesfor phosphoric acid include opacity control in glass production, textile dyeing, rubber latexcoagulation, and dental cements.


Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is the most important oxoacid of phosphorus and its main use is in the manufacture of fertilisers.
Within the human body, phosphate is the main phosphorus-containing compound. Phosphate is an inorganic compound and is the salt of phosphoric acid. It can form organic esters with a variety of compounds and these are important in many biochemical processes. Phosphate has the empirical formula PO43-. It is a tetrahedral molecule, where the central phosphorus atom is surrounded by four oxygen atoms.
In biological systems, phosphate is often found either as the free ion (inorganic phosphate) or as an ester after reaction with organic compounds (often referred to as organic phosphates). Inorganic phosphate (mostly denoted as Pi) is a mixture of HPO42- and H2PO4- at physiological pH.


Phosphoric Acid is an acidulant that is an inorganic acid produced by burning phosphorus in an excess of air, producing phosphorus pentoxide which is dissolved in water to form orthophosphoric acid of varying concentrations. it is a strong acid which is soluble in water. the acid salts are termed phosphates. it is used as a flavoring acid in cola and root beer beverages to provide desirable acidity and sourness. it is used as a synergistic antioxidant in vegetable shorten- ings. in yeast manufacture, it is used to maintain the acidic ph and provide a source for phosphorus. it also functions as an acidulant in cheese. it is also termed orthophosphoric acid.


In the manufacture of superphosphates for fertilizers, other phosphate salts, polyphosphates, detergents. Acid catalyst in making ethylene, purifying hydrogen peroxide. As acidulant and flavor, synergistic antioxidant and sequestrant in food. Pharmaceutic aid (solvent). In dental cements; process engraving; rustproofing of metals before painting; coagulating rubber latex; as analytical reagent.


ChEBI: A phosphorus oxoacid that consits of one oxo and three hydroxy groups joined covalently to a central phosphorus atom.

제조 방법

Low-purity technical grade phosphoric acid for use in fertilizers is produced from phosphate rocks by digestion with concentrated sulfuric acid. The apatite types, primarily consisting of calcium phosphate phosphate rocks, are used: Ca3(PO4)2 + 3H2SO4 + 6H2O → 2H3PO4 + 3(CaSO4•2H2O)
The insoluble calcium sulfate slurry is filtered out. Acid from this wet process is impure but can be purified by various methods. Purification steps involve precipitation, solvent extraction, crystallization, and ion exchange techniques.
Phosphoric acid also can be made by many different methods. Dissolution of phosphorus pentoxide in water and boiling yields phosphoric acid. Pure phosphoric acid can be obtained by burning phosphorus in a mixture of air and steam:
P4 (l) + 5O2 (g) →P4O10 (s)
P4O10 (s) + H2O (g) → 4H3PO4 (l)
The acid also may be prepared by heating violet phosphorus with 33% nitric acid:
4P + 10HNO3 + H2O → 4H3PO4 + 5NO ↑ + 5NO2 ↑
or by heating red phosphorus with nitric acid (1:1). The overall equation is:
P + 3HNO3 → H3PO4 + NO + 2NO2

생산 방법

The majority of phosphoric acid is made by digesting phosphate rock (essentially tricalcium phosphate) with sulfuric acid; the phosphoric acid is then separated by slurry filtration. Purification is achieved via chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, crystallization, or ion exchange.

생산 방법

The major sources of H3PO4 traditionally have been mineral deposits of phosphate rock. Mining operations are extensive in a number of locations, including the United States (Florida), the Mediterranean area, and Russia, among others. The major constituent of most phosphate rocks is fluorapatite, 3Ca3(PO4)2·CaF2. The supply of high-grade phosphates, the raw material of choice for producing high-purity phosphoric acid by the wet process, is rapidly decreasing in some areas.
Two major methods are utilized for the production of phosphoric acid from phosphate rock. The wet process involves the reaction of phosphate rock with sulfuric acid to produce phosphoric acid and insoluble calcium sulfates. Many of the impurities present in the phosphate rock are also solubilized and retained in the acid so produced. While they are of no serious disadvantage when the acid is to be used for fertilizer manufacture, their presence makes the product unsuitable for the preparation of phosphatic chemicals.
In the other method, the furnace process, phosphate rock is combined with coke and silica and reduced at high temperature in an electric furnace, followed by condensation of elemental phosphorus. Phosphoric acid is produced by burning the elemental phosphorus with air and absorbing the P2O5 in water. The acid produced by this method is of high purity and suitable for nearly all uses with little or no further treatment.


Pharmaceutic aid (solvent).

일반 설명

A clear colorless liquid or transparent crystalline solid. The pure solid melts at 42.35°C and has a density of 1.834 g / cm3. Liquid is usually an 85% aqueous solution. Shipped as both a solid and liquid. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Used in making fertilizers and detergents and in food processing.

공기와 물의 반응

Soluble in water with small release of heat.

반응 프로필

Phosphorous acid reacts exothermically with bases. May react with active metals, including such structural metals as aluminum and iron, to release hydrogen, a flammable gas. Can initiate the polymerization of certain classes of organic compounds. Reacts with cyanide compounds to release gaseous hydrogen cyanide. May generate flammable and/or toxic gases in contact with dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, nitriles, sulfides, and strong reducing agents. Forms explosive mixture with nitromethane. Reacts violently with sodium tetrahydroborate. In the presence of chlorides can corrode stainless steel to form explosive hydrogen gas. Emits toxic and irritating fumes of oxides of phosphorus when heated to decomposition [Lewis, 3rd ed., 1993, p. 1029].


Phosphoric acid is water soluble and absorbs oxygen readily, and the specific gravity is 1.89, which is heavier than water. It is toxic by ingestion and inhalation and an irritant to the skin and eyes, with a TLV of 1 mg/m3 of air. The four-digit UN identification number is 1805. The NFPA 704 designation is health 3, flammability 0, and reactivity 0. The primary use of phosphoric acid is in chemical analysis and as a reducing agent.


Phosphoric acid is less corrosive and hazardous than is concentrated sulfuric or nitricacid. Its concentrated solutions are irritantsto the skin and mucous membranes. Thevapors (P2O5 fumes) can cause irritation tothe throat and coughing but could be tolerated at <10 mg/m3.The acute oral toxicity in rats is reported tobe low, the LD50 value being 1530 mg/kg(NIOSH 1986).


Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.


Phosphoric acid (H3PO4), also known as orthophosphoric acid, is the most significant source of phosphate fertilizers. Phosphoric acid based fertilizers mainly include ammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate and monoammonium phosphate.
Phosphoric acid is deliquescent and commercially the most important derivative of phosphorus, accounting for over 90% of the phosphate rock mined. The white rhombic solid is highly soluble in water and ethanol, and the concentrated aqueous solution is generally available for use.
Phosphoric acid is used in several industries other than the fertilizer industry. Most elemental phosphorus is converted into phosphoric acid for non-fertilizer use. There are two basic processes for the production of phosphoric acid.
Metaphosphoric acid is obtained by heating phosphoric acid until dense white fumes begin to appear. The product is highly deliquescent and glassy in appearance. Its salts are known as metaphosphates. Orthophosphoric acid is the most common and is used as an important phosphate ingredient in commercial fertilizers.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Phosphoric acid is widely used as an acidifying agent in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations. It is used in pharmaceutical products as part of a buffer system when combined with a phosphate salt such as sodium phosphate, monobasic or dibasic. It is also widely used in food preparations as an acidulant, flavor, and synergistic antioxidant (0.001–0.005%) and sequestrant.
Therapeutically, dilute phosphoric acid has been used welldiluted in preparations used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. Phosphoric acid 35% gel has also been used to etch tooth enamel and to enhance delivery of drugs through the nail.
) Nanosized hydroxyapatite powder was made by combining phosphoric acid with egg shells.

공업 용도

As a cleanser for metals, phosphoric acid produces a light etch on steel, aluminum, or zinc, which aids paint adhesion. Deoxidine is a phosphoric acid cleanser for metals. Nielite D is phosphoric acid with a rust inhibitor, used as a nonfuming pickling acid for steel. Albrite is available in 75, 80, and 85% concentrations in food and electronic grades, both high-purity specifications. DAB and Phosbrite are called Bright Dip grades, for cleaning applications. Phosphoric anhydride, or phosphorus pentoxide, P2O5, is a white, water-soluble powder used as a dehydrating agent and also as an opalizer for glass. It is also used as a catalyst in asphalt coatings to prevent softening at elevated temperatures and brittleness at low temperatures.

Safety Profile

Human poison by ingestion. Moderately toxic by skin contact. A corrosive irritant to eyes, skin, and mucous membranes, and a systemic irritant by inhalation. A common air contaminant. A strong acid. Mixtures with nitromethane are explosive. Reacts with chlorides + stainless steel to form explosive hydrogen gas. Potentially violent reaction with solum tetrahydroborate. Dangerous; when heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of POx


In the concentrated form, phosphoric acid is an extremely corrosive and harmful acid. However, when used in pharmaceutical formulations it is usually very diluted and is generally regarded as an essentially nontoxic and nonirritant material.
The lowest lethal oral dose of concentrated phosphoric acid in humans is reported to be 1286 mL/kg.
(rabbit, skin): 2.74 g/kg
(rat, oral): 1.53 g/kg

Chemical Synthesis

The elemental phosphorus is burned to produce phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5), which is then hydrated. The heat is then removed and the phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is collected as a fine mist. Another important source of phosphoric acid is from phosphate rocks by treatment with sulfuric acid; this is the so-called wet-acid process. The synthesis of pure phosphoric acid involves several steps including a time-consuming, expensive step, the sublimation of white phosphorus.

잠재적 노출

Phosphoric acid is used in the manufacture of fertilizers, phosphate salts; polyphosphates, detergents, activated carbon; animal feed; ceramics, dental cement; pharmaceuticals, soft drinks; gelatin, rust inhibitors; wax, and rubber latex. Exposure may also occur during electropolishing, engraving, photoengraving, lithographing, metal cleaning; sugar refining; and water-treating.


Phosphoric acid was not mutagenic in bacterial assays.


When stored at a low temperature, phosphoric acid may solidify, forming a mass of colorless crystals, comprising the hemihydrate, which melts at 28°C. Phosphoric acid should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry place. Stainless steel containers may be used.

운송 방법

UN1805 Phosphoric acid solution, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material. UN3543 Phosphoric acid solid, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

비 호환성

Phosphoric acid is a strong acid and reacts with alkaline substances. Mixtures with nitromethane are explosive.

폐기물 처리

Add slowly to solution of soda ash and slaked lime with stirring, then flush to sewer with large volumes of water.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Accepted as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (infusions, injections, oral solutions, topical creams, lotions, ointments and solutions, and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

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