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D-솔비톨

D-솔비톨
D-솔비톨 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
50-70-4
한글명:
D-솔비톨
동의어(한글):
D-소비톨;D-솔비톨;솔비톨
상품명:
Sorbitol
동의어(영문):
Sorbo;E 420;Diaka;Sionit;Sionon;Siosan;Sorban;KARION;Sorbit;Sorbol
CBNumber:
CB7183649
분자식:
C6H14O6
포뮬러 무게:
182.17
MOL 파일:
50-70-4.mol

D-솔비톨 속성

녹는점
98-100 °C(lit.)
알파
4 º (per eur. pharm.)
끓는 점
bp760 105°
밀도
1.28 g/mL at 25 °C
증기 밀도
<1 (vs air)
증기압
<0.1 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
굴절률
n20/D 1.46
FEMA
3029 | D-SORBITOL
인화점
>100°C
저장 조건
Store at RT.
용해도
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
물리적 상태
liquid
산도 계수 (pKa)
pKa (17.5°): 13.6
색상
White
Specific Gravity
1.28
수소이온지수(pH)
5.0-7.0 (25℃, 1M in H2O)
optical activity
[α]20/D 1.5±0.3°, c = 10% in H2O
수용성
SOLUBLE
감도
Hygroscopic
최대 파장(λmax)
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.04
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.045
Merck
14,8725
BRN
1721899
안정성
Stable. Avoid strong oxidizing agents. Protect from moisture.
InChIKey
FBPFZTCFMRRESA-JGWLITMVSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
50-70-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Sorbitol(50-70-4)
EPA
D-Glucitol(50-70-4)

안전

위험품 표기 Xi
위험 카페고리 넘버 36/37/38
안전지침서 8-36-26-24/25
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 LZ4290000
F 고인화성물질 3
자연 발화 온도 420 °C
TSCA Yes
HS 번호 29054491
유해 물질 데이터 50-70-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in Rabbit: 15900 mg/kg

D-솔비톨 MSDS


D-Sorbitol

D-솔비톨 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

물성

글리세린보다 보습력은 적지만, 실온에 고체라는 장점이 있다. 어묵에도 거의 대부분 들어간다. 게맛살에도 어육의 냉동과정에서 풍미를 지키기 위해 D-소르비톨이 들어간다. 감미도는 0.6 정도로, 소르비톨 세 숟갈은 설탕 두 숟갈과 같은 단맛이라 보면 된다.

개요

당알코올의 일종. 글리시톨, 솔비톨이라고도 한다. 사과, 복숭아에 함유되어 있다. 겉보기엔 설탕과 매우 흡사하며(당알코올이 다 그렇지만) 포도당을 수소로 환원시켜서 얻을 수 있다. 비타민C의 중간 물질이기도 하다. 또 다른 당알코올인 만니톨과 이성질체 관계다.

용도

당뇨병 환자를 위한 감미료로 쓰이는 경우가 많다. 이외에도 글리세린처럼 보습 효과가 있어 화장품, 비누의 첨가물로도 쓰이며 자일리톨처럼 단맛을 내면서도 세균이 분해를 할 수 없어 치약에도 쓰인다.

화학적 성질

White or almost white, crystalline powder.

화학적 성질

Sorbitol is D-glucitol. It is a hexahydric alcohol related to mannose and is isomeric with mannitol.
Sorbitol occurs as an odorless, white or almost colorless, crystalline, hygroscopic powder. Four crystalline polymorphs and one amorphous form of sorbitol have been identified that have slightly different physical properties, e.g. melting point. Sorbitol is available in a wide range of grades and polymorphic forms, such as granules, flakes, or pellets that tend to cake less than the powdered form and have more desirable compression characteristics. Sorbitol has a pleasant, cooling, sweet taste and has approximately 50–60% of the sweetness of sucrose.

화학적 성질

d-Sorbitol has a sweet taste. In comparison to sucrose, the relative sweetness of sorbitol is approximately 50%. Sorbitol can exist in any of several crystalline forms with melting points ranging from 89 to 101°C. For a detailed description of this compound, refer to Burdock (1997).

출처

Sorbitol is one of the most widely found sugar alcohols in nature with relatively high concentrations occurring in apples, pears, plums, peaches and apricots. Also reported found in several varieties of berries, seaweed and algae.

용도

Sorbitol is a humectant that is a polyol (polyhydric alcohol) produced by hydrogenation of glucose with good solubility in water and poor solubility in oil. It is approximately 60% as sweet as sugar, and has a caloric value of 2.6 kcal/g. It is highly hygroscopic and has a pleasant, sweet taste. It maintains moistness in shredded coconut, pet foods, and candy. In sugarless frozen desserts, it depresses the freezing point, adds solids, and contributes some sweetness. It is used in low-calorie beverages to provide body and taste. It is used in dietary foods such as sugarless candy, chewing gum, and ice cream. It is also used as a crystallization modifier in soft sugar-based confections.

용도

In manufacture of sorbose, ascorbic acid, propylene glycol, synthetic plasticizers and resins; as humectant (moisture conditioner) on printing rolls, in leather, tobacco. In writing inks to insure a smooth flow and to prevent crusting on the point of the pen. In antifreeze mixtures with glycerol or glycols. In candy manufacture of to increase shelf life by retarding the solidification of sugar; as humectant and softener in shredded coconut and peanut butter; as texturizer in foods; as sequestrant in soft drinks and wines. Used to reduce the undesirable aftertaste of saccharin in foodstuffs; as sugar substitute for diabetics. Pharmaceutic aid (flavor; tablet excipient); to increase absorption of vitamins and other nutrients in pharmaceutical preparations: Chem. Eng. News 36, 59 (Feb. 24, 1958).

정의

ChEBI: The D-enantiomer of glucitol (also known as D-sorbitol).

제조 방법

Sorbitol is manufactured by hydrogenation of glucose with hydrogen and active nickel catalyst. It is commercially available as 70% syrup or as a pure white powder.

생산 방법

Sorbitol occurs naturally in the ripe berries of many trees and plants. It was first isolated in 1872 from the berries of the Mountain Ash (Sorbus americana).
Industrially, sorbitol is prepared by high-pressure hydrogenation with a copper–chromium or nickel catalyst, or by electrolytic reduction of glucose and corn syrup. If cane or beet sugars are used as a source, the disaccharide is hydrolyzed to dextrose and fructose prior to hydrogenation.

정의

A hexahydric alcohol that occurs in rose hips and rowan berries. It can be synthesized by the reduction of glucose. Sorbitol is used to make vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and surfactants. It is also used in medicines and as a sweetener (particularly in foods for diabetics). It is an isomer of mannitol.

정의

A polyhydric alcohol, CH2OH(CHOH)4CH2OH, derived from glucose; it is isomeric with mannitol. It is found in rose hips and rowan berries and is manufactured by the catalytic reduction of glucose with hydrogen. Sorbitol is used as a sweetener (in diabetic foods) and in the manufacture of vitamin C and various cosmetics, foodstuffs, and medicines.

상표명

Sorbo (ICI Americas).

일반 설명

Odorless colorless solid. Sinks and mixes with water.

공기와 물의 반응

Water soluble.

반응 프로필

D-Sorbitol is an alcohol. Flammable and/or toxic gases are generated by the combination of alcohols with alkali metals, nitrides, and strong reducing agents. They react with oxoacids and carboxylic acids to form esters plus water. Oxidizing agents convert them to aldehydes or ketones. Alcohols exhibit both weak acid and weak base behavior. They may initiate the polymerization of isocyanates and epoxides.

건강위험

Hot liquid will burn skin.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Sorbitol is widely used as an excipient in pharmaceutical formulations. It is also used extensively in cosmetics and food products.
Sorbitol is used as a diluent in tablet formulations prepared by either wet granulation or direct compression. It is particularly useful in chewable tablets owing to its pleasant, sweet taste and cooling sensation. In capsule formulations it is used as a plasticizer for gelatin. Sorbitol has been used as a plasticizer in film formulations.
In liquid preparations sorbitol is used as a vehicle in sugar-free formulations and as a stabilizer for drug, vitamin, and antacid suspensions. Furthermore, sorbitol is used as an excipient in liquid parenteral biologic formulations to provide effective protein stabilization in the liquid state. It has also been shown to be a suitable carrier to enhance the in vitro dissolution rate of indometacin. In syrups it is effective in preventing crystallization around the cap of bottles. Sorbitol is additionally used in injectable and topical preparations, and therapeutically as an osmotic laxative.
Sorbitol may also be used analytically as a marker for assessing liver blood flow.

Safety Profile

Mildly toxic by ingestion. Human systemic effects by ingestion: hypermotility and diarrhea. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Safety

Sorbitol is widely used in a number of pharmaceutical products and occurs naturally in many edible fruits and berries. It is absorbed more slowly from the gastrointestinal tract than sucrose and is metabolized in the liver to fructose and glucose. Its caloric value is approximately 16.7 J/g (4 cal/g). Sorbitol is better tolerated by diabetics than sucrose and is widely used in many sugar-free liquid vehicles. However, it is not considered to be unconditionally safe for diabetics.
Reports of adverse reactions to sorbitol are largely due to its action as an osmotic laxative when ingested orally,(17–19) which may be exploited therapeutically. Ingestion of large quantities of sorbitol (>20 g/day in adults) should therefore be avoided. Sorbitol is not readily fermented by oral microorganisms and has little effect on dental plaque pH; hence, it is generally considered to be noncariogenic.
Sorbitol is generally considered to be more irritating than mannitol.
LD50 (mouse, IV): 9.48 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 17.8 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IV): 7.1 g/kg
LD50 (rat, SC): 29.6 g/kg

저장

Sorbitol is chemically relatively inert and is compatible with most excipients. It is stable in air in the absence of catalysts and in cold, dilute acids and alkalis. Sorbitol does not darken or decompose at elevated temperatures or in the presence of amines. It is nonflammable, noncorrosive, and nonvolatile.
Although sorbitol is resistant to fermentation by many microorganisms, a preservative should be added to sorbitol solutions. Solutions may be stored in glass, plastic, aluminum, and stainless steel containers. Solutions for injection may be sterilized by autoclaving.
The bulk material is hygroscopic and should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods

Crystallise D(-)-sorbitol (as hemihydrate) several times from EtOH/water (1:1), then dry it by fusing and storing over anhydrous MgSO4. [Koch et al. J Am Chem Soc 75 953 1953, Beilstein 1 IV 2839.]

비 호환성

Sorbitol will form water-soluble chelates with many divalent and trivalent metal ions in strongly acidic and alkaline conditions. Addition of liquid polyethylene glycols to sorbitol solution, with vigorous agitation, produces a waxy, water-soluble gel with a melting point of 35–40℃. Sorbitol solutions also react with iron oxide to become discolored.
Sorbitol increases the degradation rate of penicillins in neutral and aqueous solutions.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (intra-articular and IM injections; nasal; oral capsules, solutions, suspensions, syrups and tablets; rectal, topical, and vaginal preparations). Included in parenteral and nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

D-솔비톨 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


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