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말토덱스트린

말토덱스트린
말토덱스트린 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
50-99-7
한글명:
말토덱스트린
동의어(한글):
포도당Glucos;글루코오스;글루코즈;덱스트로스;포도당;말토덱스트린;글루코스
상품명:
D(+)-Glucose
동의어(영문):
Vadex;sirup;Emdex;Candex;Flolys;Hexose;gluose;Cartose;DEXTROSE;Glucolin
CBNumber:
CB2250047
분자식:
C6H12O6
포뮬러 무게:
180.16
MOL 파일:
50-99-7.mol

말토덱스트린 속성

녹는점
150-152 °C(lit.)
알파
52.75 º (c=10, H2O, NH4OH 25 ºC)
끓는 점
232.96°C (rough estimate)
밀도
1.5440
굴절률
53 ° (C=10, H2O)
저장 조건
room temp
용해도
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
산도 계수 (pKa)
pKa 12.43(H2O,t = 18,)(Approximate)
물리적 상태
Crystalline Powder
색상
White
냄새
Odorless
pH 범위
5.9
수소이온지수(pH)
5.0-7.0 (25℃, 1M in H2O)
optical activity
[α]25/D +52.5 to +53.0°(lit.)
수용성
Soluble
최대 파장(λmax)
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.03
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.02
Merck
14,4459
BRN
1281608
안정성
Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong oxidizing agents. Combustible.
InChIKey
WQZGKKKJIJFFOK-DVKNGEFBSA-N
CAS 데이터베이스
50-99-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Glucose(50-99-7)
EPA
Dextrose (50-99-7)

안전

위험품 표기 Xi,Xn
위험 카페고리 넘버 36/37/38-63-62-46-36/38-21
안전지침서 26-36/37-24/25-53-25
WGK 독일 1
RTECS 번호 LZ6600000
F 고인화성물질 3
자연 발화 온도 500 °C
TSCA Yes
HS 번호 17023051
유해 물질 데이터 50-99-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in Rabbit: 25800 mg/kg
기존화학 물질 KE-17727

말토덱스트린 MSDS


D(+)-Glucose

말토덱스트린 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Glucose is one of the most important biological compounds found in nature. It is a main product in photosynthesis and is oxidized in cellular respiration. Glucose polymerizes to form several important classes of biomolecules including cellulose, starch, and glycogen. It also combines with other compounds to produce common sugars such as sucrose and lactose. The form of glucose displayed above is D-glucose. The “D” designation indicates the configuration of the molecule. The “D” configuration specifies that the hydroxyl group on the number 5 carbon is on the right side of the molecule. The mirror image of D-glucose produces another form of glucose called L-glucose.
Glucose is the most common form of a large class of molecules called carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the predominant type of organic compounds found in organisms and include sugar, starches, and fats. Carbohydrates, as the name implies, derive their name from glucose,C6H12O6, which was considered a hydrate of carbon with the general formula of Cn(H2O)n, where n is a positive integer. Although the idea of water bonded to carbon to form a hydrate of carbon was wrong, the term carbohydrate persisted. Carbohydrates consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, with the carbon atoms generally forming long unbranched chains. Carbohydrates are also known as saccharides derived from the Latin word for sugar, saccharon.

개요

D-(+)-Glucose is a monosaccharide that occurs in nature and is used by organisms as an energy source. D-(+)-Glucose is the more common enantiomer of L-(–)-glucose (Item No. 20829). Anhydrous Dextrose is the anhydrous form of D-glucose, a natural monosaccharide and carbohydrate. Dextrose serves to replenish lost nutrients and electrolytes. The agent provides metabolic energy and is the primary ingredient in oral rehydration salts (ORS) and is used in intravenous (IV) fluids to provide nutrients to patients under intensive care who are unable to receive them by the oral route. Solutions containing dextrose restore blood glucose levels and provide calories and may aid in minimizing liver glycogen depletion and exerts a protein-sparing action. Dextrose anhydrous also plays a role in the production of proteins and in lipid metabolism. Watery odorless colorless liquid. Denser than water and soluble in water. Hence sinks in and mixes with water. (USCG, 1999) Aldehydo-D-glucose is the open chain form of D-glucose. It is a D-glucose and an aldehydo-glucose. It is an enantiomer of an aldehydo-L-glucose.

화학적 성질

White or almost white, crystalline powder.

Originator

Dextrose,Wockhardt Ltd.,India

역사

D-Glucose is the most important and predominant monosaccharide found in nature. It was isolated from raisins by Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (1709–1782) in 1747, and in 1838, Jean-Baptiste-André Dumas (1800–1884) adopted the name glucose from the Greek word glycos meaning sweet. Emil Fischer (1852–1919) determined the structure of glucose in the late 19th century. Glucose also goes by the names dextrose (from its ability to rotate polarized light to the right), grape sugar, and blood sugar. The term blood sugar indicates that glucose is the primary sugar dissolved in blood. Glucose’s abundant hydroxyl groups enable extensive hydrogen bonding, and so glucose is highly soluble in water.

용도

Glucose is the primary fuel for biological respiration. During digestion, complex sugarsand starches are broken down into glucose (as well as fructose and galactose) in the small intestine.Glucose then moves into the bloodstream and is transported to the liver where glucoseis metabolized through a series of biochemical reactions, collectively referred to as glycolysis.Glycolysis, the breakdown of glucose, occurs in most organisms. In glycolysis, the final productis pyruvate. The fate of pyruvate depends on the type of organism and cellular conditions.In animals, pyruvate is oxidized under aerobic conditions producing carbon dioxide. Underanaerobic conditions in animals, lactate is produced. This occurs in the muscle of humansand other animals. During strenuous conditions the accumulation of lactate causes musclefatigue and soreness. Certain microorganisms, such as yeast, under anaerobic conditions convertpyruvate to carbonic dioxide and ethanol. This is the basis of the production of alcohol.Glycolysis also results in the production of various intermediates used in the synthesis of otherbiomolecules. Depending on the organism, glycolysis takes various forms, with numerousproducts and intermediates possible.

용도

glucose has moisture-binding properties and provides the skin with a soothing effect. It is a sugar that is generally obtained by the hydrolysis of starch.

용도

Glucose is a corn sweetener that is commercially made from starch by the action of heat and acids or enzymes, resulting in the complete hydrolysis of the cornstarch. There are two types of refined commercially available: hydrate, which contains 9% by weight water of crystallization and is the most often used, and anhydrous glucose, which contains less than 0.5% water. is a reducing sugar and produces a high-temperature browning effect in baked goods. It is used in ice cream, bakery products, and confections. It is also termed corn sugar.

용도

Dextrose(D-glucose), a simple sugar (monosaccharide), is an important carbohydrate in biology

용도

Labelled D-Glucose is a simple sugar that is present in plants. A monosaccharide that may exist in open chain or cyclic conformation if in solution. It plays a vital role in photosynthesis and fuels the energy required for cellular respiration. D-Glucose is used in various metabolic processes including enzymic synthesis of cyclohexyl-α and β-D-glucosides. Can also be used as a diagnostic tool in detection of type 2 diabetes mellitus and potentially Huntington's disease through analysis of blood-glucose in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

용도

A primary source of energy for living organisms

용도

D(+)-Glucose anhydrous for biochemistry Reag. Ph Eur. CAS 50-99-7, molar mass 180.16?g/mol.

정의

Naturally occurring GLUCOSE belongs to the stereochemical series D and is dextrorotatory, indicated by the symbol (+). Thus the term dextrose is used to indicate D-(+)-glucose. As other stereochemical forms of glucose have no significance in biological systems the term ‘glucose’ is often used interchangeably with dextrose in biology.

정의

ChEBI: The open chain form of D-glucose.

Manufacturing Process

D-Glucose is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Dehydration of Dextrose Monohydrate.
1. Dehydration with Fluid-bed Dryer
Dextrose monohydrate was brought in a horizontal-placed turbo-dryer (VOMM, Mailand, Italy). The dehydration occurred at a temperature of between 90° to 150°C in a stream of air of 5 Normalised m3/kg (i.e volume of gas at 0°C and 1 mbar) dextrose and a rotation speed of 1200 min-1.
Dehydration of Glucose Syrup (Dextrose Content 96%).
A glucose syrup (C*SWEET D 02763 Cerestar) (dry substance ca. 70%) was sprayed at a flow rate of 7 kg/h at 70°C into a Niro FSD pilot plant spray dryer. For powdering ca. 9 kg coarsely milled dried product at a ratio liquid/solid of 1:2 was added. The atomising conditions were as follows:
The drying chamber was operated at:
The fluid bed was adjusted to:

상표명

Cartose (Sterling Winthrop) Dextrose.

Therapeutic Function

Sugar supplement

생명 공학 생산

The D-configuration of D-isoascorbic acid at C5 allows a short biosynthetic pathway from D-glucose, i.e., its 1,5-glucopyranoside, which is oxidized to D-glucono-1,5-lactone by glucose oxidase followed by oxidation at C2 by D-gluconolactone oxidase. The immediate oxidation product of D-glucono-1,5-lactone by gluconolactone oxidase already has reducing activity on, e.g., 2,6-dichlorphenolindophenol. It is rather stable at pH 4. Upon pH shift, this compound spontaneously converts to D-isoascorbic acid. The unidentified immediate oxidation product could be 2-keto-D-glucono-1,5-lactone, which rearranges via a reversible transesterification reaction to the 1,4-lactone followed by an irreversible enolization to D-isoascorbic acid. The formation of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid as the result of 2-keto-D-glucono-1,5-lactone hydrolysis was not reported. The oxidation of the 1,4-lactone by D-gluconolactone oxidase might also occur to some extent, since D-glucono-1,5-lactone shows a tendency to slowly rearrange to the 1,4-lactone at pH[4and the D-gluconolactone oxidase of Penicillium cyaneofulvum accepts both D-glucono-1,5-lactone and the corresponding 1,4-lactone . This reaction would directly deliver the keto-isomer of D-isoascorbic acid. The sequence of the reactions from D-glucose to D-isoascorbic acid, first oxidation at C1, then oxidation at C2 (C1, C2), is similar to the naturally evolved Asc biosynthesis from L-galactose or L-gulose.
Oxidation of D-gluconolactone at C2 is also afforded by pyranose-2-oxidase from Polyporus obtusus. In this reaction both D-isoascorbic acid and 2-keto- D-gluconic acid were obtained in a roughly 1:1 ratio. Obviously, following the natural C1, C2 oxidation sequence, transesterification and (iso)ascorbic acid formation are preferred over hydrolysis and 2-keto sugar acid formation or are at least possible to a significant extent.
If the sequence of oxidation reactions is reversed (C2, C1), i.e., D-glucopyranose is first oxidized by pyranose-2-oxidase to D-glucosone followed by glucose oxidase treatment, 2-keto-D-gluconate was reported as the only oxidation product. Though not explicitly reported, it is safe to assume that the later oxidation occurs with 2-keto-D-gluco-1,5-pyranose and delivers as the immediate reaction product 2-keto-D-glucono-1,5-lactone, which hydrolyzes affording 2-keto-D-gluconate. It is unclear why the spontaneous follow-up reaction of 2-keto-D-glucono-1,5-lactone delivers, at least to some extent, D-isoascorbic acid if obtained according to the C1, C2 reaction sequence, but only 2-keto-D-gluconate if obtained by the C2, C1 oxidation sequence.

일반 설명

Watery odorless colorless liquid. Denser than water and soluble in water. Hence sinks in and mixes with water.

공기와 물의 반응

Water soluble.

반응 프로필

A weak reducing agent.

건강위험

No toxicity

Biochem/physiol Actions

Glycogen phosphorylase, muscle associated (PYGM), is an important contributor to glycogenolysis. Down regulation of PYGM gene is observed in schizophrenia. Mutation in PYGM leads to McArdle disease, a glycogen storage disorder. The PYGM gene is significantly associated with energy production.

Safety Profile

Mildly toxic by ingest ion. An experimental teratogen. Experi mental reproductive effects. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Mutation data reported. Potentially explosive reaction with potassium nitrate + sodium peroxide when heated in a sealed container. Uxtures with alkali release carbon monoxide when heated. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Purification Methods

Crystallise -D-glucose from hot glacial acetic acid or pyridine. Traces of solvent are removed by drying in a vacuum oven at 75o for >3hours. [Gottfried Adv Carbohydr Chem 5 127 1950, Kjaer & Lindberg Acta Chem Scand 1 3 1713 1959, Whistler & Miller Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry I 1301962, Academic Press, Beilstein 1 IV 4306.] [For equilibrium forms see Angyal Adv Carbohydr Chem 42 15 1984, Angyal & Pickles Aust J Chem 25 1711 1972.]

말토덱스트린 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

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