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에리트로마이신

에리트로마이신
에리트로마이신 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
114-07-8
한글명:
에리트로마이신
동의어(한글):
에리트로마이신
상품명:
Erythromycin
동의어(영문):
em;emu;USP;knin;ERYC;Aknin;E.E.S;Emgel;Ergel;erycin
CBNumber:
CB8300078
분자식:
C37H67NO13
포뮬러 무게:
733.93
MOL 파일:
114-07-8.mol

에리트로마이신 속성

녹는점
133-135 °C
알파
-74.5 º (c=2, ethanol)
끓는 점
719.69°C (rough estimate)
밀도
1.1436 (rough estimate)
굴절률
-74 ° (C=2, EtOH)
저장 조건
0-6°C
용해도
ethanol: soluble
물리적 상태
powder
산도 계수 (pKa)
8.8(at 25℃)
색상
white to faint yellow
optical activity
[α]/D -78 to --71°
수용성
Soluble in water at 2mg/ml
Merck
14,3681
BRN
8183758
EPA
Erythromycin(114-07-8)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xn,Xi
위험 카페고리 넘버 42/43-36/37/38
안전지침서 45-37-24-36-26-24/25
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 KF4375000
F 고인화성물질 3-4.3-10
위험 등급 3
HS 번호 29415000
유해 물질 데이터 114-07-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어:
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H333 흡입하면 유해할 수 있음 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 5 P304+P312
H371 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 2회 노출 구분 2 경고 P260, P264, P270, P309+P311, P405,P501
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.

에리트로마이신 MSDS


Erythromycin

에리트로마이신 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

물성

엷은 황백색의 가루이여 냄새는 없고 맛은 쓰다. 이 약은 메탄올, 에탄올 또는 아세톤에 잘 녹고 에테르에는 녹으며 물에는 매우 녹기 어렵다.

용도

에리트로마이신(erythromycin)은 수많은 병균 감염 치료에 사용되는 항생물질이다. 여기에는 기도 감염, 피부 감염, 클라미디아 감염증, 골반염, 매독이 포함된다. 신생아의 그룹 B 연쇄구균감염의 예방을 위해 임신 중에 사용할 수도 있으며, 위마비 개선에도 이용된다. 수액 또는 구강을 통해 투여할 수 있다.

화학적 성질

White to off white crystalline powder

용도

Macrolide antibacterial

용도

Erythromycin A is a 14-membered macrocyclic lactone with broad spectrum antibiotic activity, isolated from Saccharopolyspora erythraea (formerly Streptomyces erythreus) in 1952. Erythromycin is one of only a handful of microbial metabolites to have profoundly shaped the treatment of bacterial disease in the last 50 years. Erythromycin has given rise to new generations of semi-synthetic derivatives with improved stability and potency. Our product has been HPLC-purified to remove contaminants and degradation products.

용도

For use in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms in the following diseases: respiratory tract infections (upper and lower) of mild to moderate degree, pertussis (whooping cough), as adjunct to antitoxin in infections

용도

Labeled Erythromycin, intended for use as an internal standard for the quantification of Erythromycin by GC- or LC-mass spectrometry.

정의

An antibiotic produced by growth of Streptomyces erythreus Waksman. It is effective against infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including some β-hemolytic streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci.

Indications

Erythromycin is an antibiotic in the macrolide family that also has promotility effects because it is a motilin agonist.

상표명

Ilotycin (Dista).

Antimicrobial activity

Gram-positive rods, including Clostridium spp. (MIC50 0.1–1 mg/L), C. diphtheriae (MIC50 0.1–1 mg/L), L. monocytogenes (MIC50 0.1–0.3 mg/L) and Bacillus anthracis (MIC50 0.5–1.0 mg/L), are generally susceptible. Most strains of M. scrofulaceum and M. kansasii are susceptible (MIC50 0.5–2 mg/L), but M. intracellulare is often and M. fortuitum regularly resistant. Nocardia isolates are resistant. H. ducreyi, B. pertussis (MIC50 0.03–0.25 mg/L), some Brucella, Flavobacterium, Legionella (MIC50 0.1–0.5 mg/L) and Pasteurella spp. are susceptible. H. pylori (MIC 0.06–0.25 mg/L) and C. jejuni are usually susceptible, but C. coli may be resistant. Most anaerobic bacteria, including Actinomyces and Arachnia spp., are susceptible or moderately so, but B. fragilis and Fusobacterium spp. are resistant. T. pallidum and Borrelia spp. are susceptible, as are Chlamydia spp. (MIC ≤0.25 mg/L), M. pneumoniae and Rickettsia spp. M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp. are resistant.
Enterobacteriaceae are usually resistant. Activity rises with increasing pH up to 8.5. Incubation in 5–6% CO2 raises the MIC for H. influenzae from 0.5–8 to 4–32 mg/L; MICs for Str. pneumoniae and Str. pyogenes also rise steeply. Activity is predominantly bacteristatic.

원료

In Europe, the USA and other countries the incidence of resistance in Str. pneumoniae ranges from 5% to over 60%. In Str. pneumoniae strains resistant or intermediately susceptible to penicillin G, resistance rates above 80% have been reported. Increasing rates of resistance in clinical isolates of Str. pyogenes have also been reported, threatening its use as an alternative to penicillin G in allergic patients.
Lower rates of resistance have been reported in other bacterial species, including methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Str. agalactiae, Lancefield group C and G streptococci, viridans group streptococci, H. pylori, T. pallidum, C. diphtheriae and N. gonorrhoeae.

일반 설명

Early in 1952, McGuire et al. reported the isolation oferythromycin (E-Mycin, Erythrocin, Ilotycin) fromStreptomyces erythraeus. It achieved rapid early acceptanceas a well-tolerated antibiotic of value for the treatment ofvarious upper respiratory and soft-tissue infections causedby Gram-positive bacteria. It is also effective against manyvenereal diseases, including gonorrhea and syphilis, andprovides a useful alternative for the treatment of many infectionsin patients allergic to penicillins. More recently,erythromycin was shown to be effective therapy for Eatonagent pneumonia (Mycoplasma pneumoniae), venereal diseasescaused by Chlamydia, bacterial enteritis caused byCampylobacter jejuni, and Legionnaires disease.
The commercial product is erythromycin A, whichdiffers from its biosynthetic precursor, erythromycin B,in having a hydroxyl group at the 12-position of theaglycone. The chemical structure of erythromycin A was reportedby Wiley et al.197 in 1957 and its stereochemistry byCelmer198 in 1965. An elegant synthesis of erythronolide A,the aglycone present in erythromycin A, was described byCorey et al.
The amino sugar attached through a glycosidic link to C-5 is desosamine, a structure found in several other macrolideantibiotics. The tertiary amine of desosamine (3,4,6-trideoxy-3-dimethylamino-D-xylo-hexose) confers a basiccharacter to erythromycin and provides the means by whichacid salts may be prepared. The other carbohydrate structurelinked as a glycoside to C-3 is called cladinose (2,3,6-trideoxy-3-methoxy-3-C-methyl-L-ribo-hexose) and isunique to the erythromycin molecule.

Pharmaceutical Applications

A natural antibiotic produced as a complex of six components (A–F) by Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Only erythromycin A has been developed for clinical use. It is available in a large number of forms for oral administration: the base compound (enteric- or film-coated to prevent destruction by gastric acidity); 2′-propionate and 2′-ethylsuccinate esters; a stearate salt; estolate and acistrate salts of 2′-esters. The 2′-esters and their salts have improved pharmacokinetic and pharmaceutical properties and are less bitter than erythromycin. It is also formulated as the lactobionate and gluceptate forparenteral use.

Pharmacokinetics

absorption and metabolism
The acid lability of erythromycin base necessitates administration in a form giving protection from gastric acid. In acid media it is rapidly degraded (10% loss of activity at pH 2 in less than 4 s) by intramolecular dehydrogenation to a hemiketal and hence to anhydroerythromycin A, neither of which exerts antibacterial activity. Delayed and incomplete absorption is obtained from coated tablets and there is important inter- and intra-individual variation, adequate levels not being attained at all in a few subjects. Food delays absorption of erythromycin base. After 500 mg of the 2′-ethylsuccinyl ester, mean peak plasma levels at 1–2 h were 1.5 mg/L. In subjects given 1 g of the 2′-ethylsuccinate every 12 h for seven doses, the mean plasma concentration 1 h after the last dose was around 1.4 mg/L. Intra- and inter-subject variation and delayed and erratic absorption in the presence of food have not yet been eliminated by new formulations. Improved 500 mg preparations of erythromycin stearate are claimed to produce peak plasma levels of 0.9–2.4 mg/L that are little affected by the presence of food. 2′-Esters of erythromycin are partially hydrolyzed to erythromycin: 2′-acetyl erythromycin is hydrolyzed more rapidly than the 2′-propionyl ester, but more slowly than the 2′-ethylsuccinate.
The stoichiometric mixture with stearate does not adequately protect erythromycin from acid degradation. After an oral dose of erythromycin stearate, equivalent concentrations of erythromycin and its main degradation product, anhydroerythromycin, could be detected.
Doses of 10 mg/kg produced mean peak plasma concentrations around 1.8 mg/L in infants weighing 1.5–2 kg and 1.2 mg/L in those weighing 2–2.5 kg. In infants less than 4 months old, doses of 10 mg/kg of the 2′-ethylsuccinate every 6 h produced steady state plasma levels of around 1.3 mg/L. The apparent elimination half-life was 2.5 h. In children given 12.5 mg/kg of erythromycin 2′-ethylsuccinate every 6 h, the concentration in the plasma 2 h after the fourth dose was around 0.5–2.5 mg/L.
Distribution
Very low levels are obtained in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), even in the presence of meningeal inflammation, and after parenteral administration. Levels of 0.1 mg/L in aqueous humor were found when the serum level was 0.36 mg/L, but there was no penetration into the vitreous. In children with otitis media given 12.5 mg/kg of erythromycin 2′- ethylsuccinate every 6 h, concentrations in middle ear exudate were 0.25–1 mg/L. In patients with chronic serous otitis media given 12.5 mg/kg up to a maximum of the equivalent of 500 mg, none was detected in middle ear fluid, but on continued treatment levels up to 1.2 mg/L have been described.
Penetration also occurs into peritoneal and pleural exudates. Mean concentrations of 2.6 mg/L have been found in sputum in patients receiving 1 g of erythromycin lactobionate intravenously every 12 h and 0.2–2 mg/L in those receiving an oral stearate formulation. Levels in prostatic fluid are about 40% of those in the plasma. Salivary levels of around 4 mg/L were found in subjects receiving doses of 0.5 g every 8 h at 5 h after a dose, when the plasma concentration was around 5.5 mg/L. Intracellular:extracellular ratios of 4–18 have been found in polymorphonuclear neutrophils.
Fetal tissue levels are considerably higher after multiple doses: when the mean peak maternal serum level was 4.94 (0.66–8) mg/L, the mean fetal blood concentration was 0.06 (0–0.12) mg/L. Concentrations were more than 0.3 mg/L in amniotic fluid and most other fetal tissues, but the concentrations were variable and unmeasurable in some. Erythromycin appears to be concentrated by fetal liver.
excretion
Erythromycin is excreted both in urine and in the bile but only a fraction of the dose can be accounted for in this way. Only about 2.5% of an oral dose or 15% of an intravenous dose is recovered unchanged in the urine. It is not removed to any significant extent by peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Reported changes in apparent elimination half-life in renal impairment may be related to the saturable nature of protein binding. Fairly high concentrations (50–250 mg/L) are found in the bile. In cirrhotic patients receiving 500 mg of the base, peak plasma levels were higher and earlier than in healthy volunteers (2.0 and 1.5 mg/L at 4.6 and 6.3 h, respectively). The apparent elimination half-life was 6.6 h. It is possible that the smaller excretion of the 2′-propionyl ester in the bile in comparison to the base accounts in part for its better-maintained serum levels. There is some enterohepatic recycling, but some of the administered dose is lost in the feces, producing concentrations of around 0.5 mg/g.

Clinical Use

Erythromycin is used (offlabel indication) to accelerate gastric emptying in diabetic gastroparesis and postoperative gastroparesis. Tachyphylaxis will occur, so it cannot be used uninterruptedly for long periods.

부작용

Oral administration, especially of large doses, commonly causes epigastric distress, nausea and vomiting, which may be severe. Solutions are very irritant: intravenous infusions almost invariably produce thrombophlebitis. Cholestatic hepatitis occurs rarely. Transient auditory disturbances have been described after intravenous administration of the lactobionate salt, and occasionally in patients with renal and hepatic impairment in whom oral dosage has produced high plasma levels. Sensorineural hearing impairment can occur and, although this is usually a reversible effect which occurs at high dosage, can be permanent. Prolongation of the apparent elimination half-life of carbamazepine, due to inhibition of its conversion to the epoxide, usually results in central nervous system (CNS) disturbances. Nightmares are troublesome in some patients. Allergic effects occur in about 0.5% of patients.
The estolate is particularly prone to give rise to liver abnormalities, consisting of upper abdominal pain, fever, hepatic enlargement, a raised serum bilirubin, pale stools and dark urine and eosinophilia. The condition is rare and usually seen 10–20 days after the initiation of treatment, with complete recovery on stopping the drug. Recurrence of symptoms can be induced by giving the estolate but not the base or stearate. There is evidence that erythromycin estolate is more toxic to isolated liver cells than is the 2′-propionate or the base, and it is suggested that the essential molecular feature responsible for toxicity is the propionyl–ester linkage. The relative frequency of the reaction, its rapidity of onset (within hours) after second courses of the drug, evidence of hypersensitivity and the histological appearance suggest a mixture of hepatic cholestasis, liver cell necrosis and hypersensitivity. Abnormal liver function tests in patients receiving the estolate must be interpreted with caution, since increased levels of transaminases is often the only abnormality and some metabolites of the estolate can interfere with the measurement commonly used. Elevated levels of transaminases return to normal after cessation of treatment. Serum bilirubin is generally unchanged in these patients, but γ-glutamyl transpeptidase may also be affected.

Safety Profile

Poison by intravenous and intramuscular routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes. An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.

Veterinary Drugs and Treatments

Erythromycin is approved for use to treat infections caused by susceptible organisms in swine, sheep, and cattle. It is often employed when an animal is hypersensitive to penicillins or if other antibiotics are ineffective against a certain organism.
Erythromycin, at present, is considered to be one of the treatments of choice (with rifampin) for the treatment of C. (Rhodococcus) equi infections in foals. Erythromycin estolate and microencapsulated base appear to be the most efficacious forms of the drug in foals due to better absorption and less frequent adverse effects.
Erythromycin may be used as a prokinetic agent to increase gastric emptying in dogs and cats. It may also be beneficial in treating reflux esophagitis.

Purification Methods

It recrystallises from H2O to form hydrated crystals which melt at ca 135-140o, resolidifies and melts again at 190-193o. The melting point after drying at 56o/8mm is that of the anhydrous material and is at 137-140o. Its solubility in H2O is ~2mg/mL. The hydrochloride has m 170o, 173o (from aqueous EtOH, EtOH/Et2O). [Flynn et al. J Am Chem Soc 76 3121 1954, constitution: Wiley et al. J Am Chem Soc 79 6062 1957]. [Beilstein 18/10 V 398.]

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