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질산나트륨

질산나트륨
질산나트륨 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
7631-99-4
한글명:
질산나트륨
동의어(한글):
나트륨칠레초석;나트륨(+1)질산;나트륨(I)질산;니트라틴;질산나트륨;칠레초석(CHILESALTPETER)입방칠레초석;칠레초석;소듐나이트레이트;질산 나트륨
상품명:
Sodium nitrate
동의어(영문):
E251;niter;NANO3;macklin;Caliche;nitratine;7631-99-4;cubicniter;SODA NITER;soda-nitre
CBNumber:
CB8854258
분자식:
NNaO3
포뮬러 무게:
84.99
MOL 파일:
7631-99-4.mol

질산나트륨 속성

녹는점
306 °C (dec.) (lit.)
끓는 점
380 °C
밀도
1.1 g/mL at 25 °C
저장 조건
Store at RT.
용해도
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
물리적 상태
Solid
Specific Gravity
2.261
색상
White or colorless
수소이온지수(pH)
5.5-8.0 (50g/l, H2O, 20℃)
냄새
Odorless
수용성
900 g/L (20 ºC)
감도
Hygroscopic
Merck
14,8647
안정성
Stable. Strong oxidizer - may ignite flammable material. Incompatible with cyanides, combustible material, strong reducing agents, aluminium.
CAS 데이터베이스
7631-99-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA
Sodium nitrate (7631-99-4)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 O,Xn,Xi,C
위험 카페고리 넘버 8-22-36/37/38-36/38-34-36
안전지침서 17-26-27-36/37/39-37/39-36-45
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1498 5.1/PG 3
WGK 독일 1
RTECS 번호 WC5600000
F 고인화성물질 3
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 5.1
포장분류 III
HS 번호 31025090
유해 물질 데이터 7631-99-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 orally in rabbits: 1.955 g anion/kg (Dollahite, Rowe)
기존화학 물질 KE-31545
사고대비 물질 필터링 67
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Warning
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H272 화재를 강렬하게 함; 산화제 산화성 액체;산화성 고체 구분 2
구분 3
위험
경고
P210, P220, P221P280, P370+P378,P501
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P220 의류 그리고 가연성 물질로부터 멀리하시오.
P221 가연성 물질과 혼합되지 않도록 조치하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P370+P378 화재 시 불을 끄기 위해 (Section 5. 폭발, 화재시 대처방법의 적절한 소화제)을(를) 사용하시오.
NFPA 704
0
1 0

질산나트륨 MSDS


Sodium nitrate

질산나트륨 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Sodium nitrate, also known as Chile saltpeter and soda niter, has a molecular formula of NaNO3. Sodium nitrate is a colorless, odorless, transparent crystal. It oxidizes when exposed to air and is soluble in water. This material explodes at 1000°F (537°C), much lower than temperatures encountered in many fires. Sodium nitrate is toxic by ingestion and has caused cancer in test animals. When used in the curing of fish and meat products, it is restricted to 100 ppm. Sodium nitrate is incompatible with ammonium nitrate and other ammonium salts. The four-digit UN identification number is 1498. Sodium nitrate is used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning and in the curing of fish and meat.

화학적 성질

Sodium nitrate, white solid, soluble, source in nature is Chile, in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen HNO3 is frequently transformed by sodium carbonate into sodium nitrate, and the solution evaporated. Used (1) as an important nitrogenous fertilizer, (2) as a source of nitrate and HNO3, (3) in pyrotechnics, (4) in fluxes.

화학적 성질

Sodium nitrate, NaNO3, also known as soda niter and Chile saltpeter, is a fire-hazardous, transparent, colorless and odorless crystalline solid. It is soluble in glycerol and water,decomposes when heated,and melts at 308°C (585 °F). Sodium nitrate is used in making nitric and sulfuric acids, in the manufacture of glass and pottery enamel, as a fertilizer, as a food preservative, in explosives, and as a welding flux.

물리적 성질

Colorless crystalline solid; saline taste; trigonal, and rhombohedrals structure; density 2.257g/cm3; refractive index 1.587 (trigonal) and 1.336 (rhombohedral); melts at 308°C; decomposes at 380°C; specific conductance 95 μmhos/cm at 300°C; viscosity 2.85 centipoise at 317°C; very soluble in water 92.1 g/100 mL at 25°C and 180 g/100 mL at 100°C; very soluble in liquid ammonia; soluble in alcohol.

출처

There are several natural deposits of sodium nitrate in various parts of the world, including Chile, Mexico, Egypt, and the United States. The most important application of sodium nitrate is its use as a fertilizer in agriculture. It is an effective fertilizer for cotton, tobacco, and vegetable crops. Its agricultural applications, however, have dwindled considerably in recent years because of the growth of ammonium nitrate and other fertilizers.
Another major use of sodium nitrate is in manufacturing explosives. It is a component of many types of dynamites and water-based slurry type blasting explosives. Sodium nitrate also is used in making charcoal briquettes. Sodium nitrate is used as an oxidizing and fluxing agent in manufacturing vitreous glass, fiberglass, porcelain, and enamels. Other uses are in the heat-treatment baths for alloys and metals, as a food preservative, in curing meats, and in preparing various salts.

용도

Sodium Nitrate is the salt of nitric acid that functions as an antimi- crobial agent and preservative. it is a naturally occurring substance in spinach, beets, broccoli, and other vegetables. it consists of color- less, odorless crystals or crystalline granules. it is moderately deli- quescent in moist air and is readily soluble in water. it is used in meat curing to develop and stabilize the pink color. see nitrate.

용도

manufacture of nitric acid and as catalyst in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. manufacture of sodium nitrite, glass, enamels for pottery; in matches; for improving burning properties of tobacco; pickling meats; as color fixative in meats. Clinical reagent (parasites). The technical grade is used as fertilizer.

정의

ChEBI: The inorganic nitrate salt of sodium.

생산 방법

Sodium nitrate is recovered from natural deposits. One such process, known as the Guggenheim nitrate process, is briefly outlined below: The ore is crushed. Sodium nitrate is leached from the ore by extraction with a brine solution at 40°C. The brine for leaching is made up of an aqueous solution of magnesium sulfate, MgSO3, and calcium sulfate, CaSO3. The caliche variety of Chilean ore contains mostly sodium nitrate and sodium chloride as the main saline components, along with limestone, clays, sand, lime, and inert volcanic rocks. Sodium nitrate usually occurs in this ore as a double salt with sodium sulfate NaNO3?Na2SO3?H3O. This double salt, which is sparingly soluble in water, is broken down by magnesium in leaching brine solution, thus releasing more sodium nitrate into the extract. Sodium nitrate finally is recovered from the leachate brine by fractional crystallization.
Brines of other compositions have been used to extract sodium nitrate from its ores. Many such processes, including the Shanks process practiced in the past to produce sodium nitrate, are now obsolete.

일반 설명

A white crystalline solid. Noncombustible but accelerates the burning of combustible materials. If large quantities are involved in fire or the combustible material is finely divided an explosion may result. May explode under prolonged exposure to heat or fire. Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced in fires. Used in solid propellants, explosives, fertilizers, and for many other uses.

공기와 물의 반응

Soluble in water.

반응 프로필

A mixture of Sodium nitrate and sodium hypophosphite constitute a powerful explosive [Mellor 8, Supp. 1:154 1964]. Sodium nitrate and aluminum powder mixtures have been reported to be explosive,[Fire, 1935, 28, 30]. The nitrate appears to be incompatible with barium thiocyanate, antimony, arsenic trioxide/iron(II) sulfate, boron phosphide, calcium-sodium alloy, magnesium, metal amidosulfates, metal cyanides, powdered charcoal, peroxyformic acid, phenol/trifluoroacetic acid, sodium, sodium nitrite/sodium sulfide, sodium phosphinate, sodium thiosulfate, tris( cyclopentadienyl)cerium, and even wood [Bretherick 5th ed., 1995].

위험도

Fire risk near organic materials, ignites on friction and explodes when shocked or heated to 1000F (537C). Toxic by ingestion; content in cured meats, fish, and other food products restricted.

건강위험

INGESTION: Dizziness, abdominal cramps, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, weakness, convulsions, and collapse. Small repeated doses may cause headache and mental impairment.

농업용

Sodium nitrate is the oldest known nitrogenous fertilizer. It is a white, shiny crystal available in nature as Chilean saltpeter or Chilean nitrate.
Sodium nitrate is manufactured by two methods. In the first, known as the Guggenheim method, the fertilizer is extracted from a mined product, called caliche, mined mostly in Chile; hence the name (Chilean saltpeter or Chilean nitrate). The caliche is dissolved in warm water and then cooled to 0°C to produce sodium nitrate crystals, which are circulated through heat exchangers. The circulation keeps the crystals suspended, to finally form pellets. Caliche mined in Chile, contains sodium nitrate (8 to 20%), potassium and magnesium nitrates and salts like borates, sulphates and chlorides. Approximately, one ton of sodium nitrate of 99% purity is obtained from 10 tons of caliche. Sodium nitrate is shipped in airtight containers. The pellets are also coated to impart free-flowing characteristics.
Sodium nitrate is also manufactured from nitric acid and soda ash, using salt and oyster shells. Nitric acid is reacted with soda ash forming sodium nitrate solution. Most water is removed by evaporation and the rest is heated to a high temperature and sprayed through nozzles. Sodium nitrate solidifies as pellets while coming through the nozzles.
Sodium nitrate fertilizer is water-soluble. It contains 16% nitrogen and about 26% sodium. Plants absorb most of the nitrogen in a nitrate form and sodium nitrate is a commonly preferred fertilizer, although the nitrogen content of sodium nitrate is lesser than that in many other inorganic nitrogen fertilizers. Sodium nitrate has a neutralizing effect on soil acidity because of its inherent basic residual effect. Its neutralizing value is 0.82 kg of calcium carbonate equivalent to 0.45 kg of sodium nitrate.
The field crops which benefit most from sodium nitrate application are sugar beet and cotton. If applied excessively, sodium nitrate can damage the soil structure by reducing the flocculation. But normal applications of 100 to 200 kg of fertilizer/hectare/year do not affect the soil structure.

Safety Profile

Human poison by ingestion. Poison by intravenous route.Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Human mutation data reported. A powerful oxidizer. It will iqte with heat or friction. Explodes when heated to over 1000°F, or when mixed with cyanides, sodium hypophosphte, boron phosphide. Forms explosive mixtures with aluminum powder, antimony powder, barium thiocyanate, metal amidosulfates, sodium, sodium phosphinate, sodium thiosulfate, sulfur + charcoal (gunpowder). Potentially violent reaction or ignition when mixed with bitumen, organic matter, calcium-shcon alloy, jute + magnesium chloride, magnesium, metal cyanides, nonmetals, peroxyformic acid, phenol + trifluoroacetic acid. Incompatible with acetic anhydride, barium thocyanate, wood. A dangerous disaster hazard. Experimental reproductive effects. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx and Na2O. See also NITRATES.

Purification Methods

Crystallise NaNO3 from hot water (0.6mL/g) by cooling to 0o, or from a concentrated aqueous solution by adding MeOH. Dry it under a vacuum at 140o. After two recrystallisations, technical grade sodium nitrate had K, Mg, B, Fe Al, and Li at 100, 29, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.2 ppm respectively. (See KNO3.)

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