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염화 암모늄

염화 암모늄
염화 암모늄 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
12125-02-9
한글명:
염화 암모늄
동의어(한글):
살암모니아;살암모니악;살미악;살암모나이트;암모늄뮤리에이트;염안;염화암모늄;염화암모늄흄;암클로르;암모네릭;암모늄뮤리에이트;다르암몬;살암모니아;살미악;암모늄클로라이드;염화암모늄흄
상품명:
Ammonium chloride
동의어(영문):
NH4CL;SALMIAC;Amchlor;Darammon;Ammoneric;ai3-08937;ammonchlor;salammonia;SAL AMMONIA;Salammonite
CBNumber:
CB7129971
분자식:
ClH4N
포뮬러 무게:
53.49146
MOL 파일:
12125-02-9.mol

염화 암모늄 속성

녹는점
340 °C (subl.)(lit.)
끓는 점
100 °C750 mm Hg
밀도
1.52
증기 밀도
1.9 (vs air)
증기압
1 mm Hg ( 160.4 °C)
굴절률
1.642
FEMA
4494 | AMMONIA (ALSO INCLUDES AMMONIUM CHLORIDE)
저장 조건
Store at RT.
용해도
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
물리적 상태
Solid
Specific Gravity
1.53
색상
White
수소이온지수(pH)
4.7 (200g/l, H2O, 25℃)(External MSDS)
수용성
soluble
감도
Hygroscopic
최대 파장(λmax)
λ: 260 nm Amax: ≤0.021
λ: 280 nm Amax: ≤0.019
Merck
14,509
BRN
4371014
안정성
Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases.
CAS 데이터베이스
12125-02-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST
Ammonium chloride(12125-02-9)
EPA
Ammonium chloride ((NH4)Cl)(12125-02-9)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 Xn
위험 카페고리 넘버 22-36-41-37/38
안전지침서 22-36-26
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 3077 9 / PGIII
WGK 독일 1
RTECS 번호 BP4550000
자연 발화 온도 >400 °C
TSCA Yes
위험 등급 9
포장분류 III
HS 번호 28271000
유해 물질 데이터 12125-02-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 30 i.m. (Boyd, Seymour); LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 1650 orally (Smeets)
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Warning
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 호흡 자극성을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출;호흡기계 자극 구분 3 경고
H361 태아 또는 생식능력에 손상을 일으킬 것으로 의심됨 생식독성 물질 구분 2 경고 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H410 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 매우 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 1 경고 P273, P391, P501
H411 장기적 영향에 의해 수생생물에 유독함 수생 환경유해성 물질 - 만성 구분 2
예방조치문구:
P201 사용 전 취급 설명서를 확보하시오.
P202 모든 안전 조치 문구를 읽고 이해하기 전에는 취급하지 마시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P264 취급 후에는 손을 철저히 씻으시오.
P270 이 제품을 사용할 때에는 먹거나, 마시거나 흡연하지 마시오.
P271 옥외 또는 환기가 잘 되는 곳에서만 취급하시오.
P273 환경으로 배출하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P391 누출물을 모으시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P308+P313 노출 또는 접촉이 우려되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.
P337+P313 눈에 대한 자극이 지속되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
P403+P233 용기는 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 단단히 밀폐하여 저장하시오.
P501 ...에 내용물 / 용기를 폐기 하시오.

염화 암모늄 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

물성

분자량은 53.50이며, 백색의 결정성 고체로 존재한다. 350°C에서 분해되며, 통제된 환경에서는 520°C에서 승화된다. 비중은 1.52이다. 물에 쉽게 용해되고, 암모니아 수용액에도 잘 용해되지만, 메탄올에는 약간 녹는다.

용도

염화 암모늄은 물에 녹아 암모늄 이온과 염화 이온을 내놓으므로 물의 전기전도도를 상승시키기 때문에 건전지의 전해액으로 이용된다. 또한 염화 암모늄은 납땜시 녹은 금속이 직접 공기와 접하는 것을 막는 플럭스로 사용된다. 이 외에 직물의 착색, 가죽의 무두질, 다른 암모늄 화합물을 합성하는 데에 재료로도 사용된다.
염화 암모늄은 일반적으로 비료의 질소 공급원으로는 적합하지 않다. 염화암모늄은 염소를 포함하고 있는데, 염소 성분이 토양에 축적될 경우 토양에 좋지 않은 영향을 끼치기 때문이다.

생산/준비/합성

염화 암모늄은 암모니아와 염화 수소의 중화반응으로 얻을 수 있다. 반응식은 다음과 같다.
NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl
또는 수산화 암모늄과 염화 수소와의 반응으로도 얻을 수 있다. 반응식은 다음과 같다.
NH4OH + HCl → NH4Cl + H2O
반응 이후 건조, 결정화, 분리 과정을 거친다.

화학적 성질

Ammonium chloride occurs as colorless, odorless crystals or crystal masses. It is a white, granular powder with a cooling, saline taste. It is hygroscopic and has a tendency to cake.

화학적 성질

Ammonium chloride,Nl4CI, also known as ammoniae, salmiai,and ammonium nituriate,is a white crystalline solid. It is soluble in water, aqueous solutionsof ammonia, and is slightly soluble in methyl alcohol. Ammonium chloride is found in natureas a sublimation productof volcanic activity, or is produced by neutralizing HCI(either in liquid or gaseousphase) with NH3 gas or liquid NH40H then evaporating the excess H20. The salt decomposes at350°C and sublimes under controlled conditions at 520 °C. Ammoniumchlorideis used as an electrolyte in dry cell batteries,as a fluxfor soldering, tinningandgalvanizing, andas a processing ingredientin textile printing and hide tanning. Use as a source of nitrogen for fertilizersis limited because of the possible build up of damaging chloride residuals in the soil.

용도

ammonium chloride is used as a thickener and as an additive in non-alcoholic toners. According to cosmetic formulators, the ammonium component provides the tingling or stinging sensation that some people associate with toners or aftershaves, and which, in regular toners, is usually provided by the alcohol content. Ammonium chloride’s use is the result of preference in formulation feel.

용도

Ammonium Chloride is a dough conditioner and yeast food that exists as colorless crystals or white crystalline powder. approximately 30–38 g dissolves in water at 25°c. the ph of a 1% solution at 25°c is 5.2. it is used as a dough strengthener and flavor enhancer in baked goods and as a nitrogen source for yeast fermentation. it is also used in condiments and relishes. another term for the salt is ammonium muriate.

용도

White crystals made by ammonia salts acting upon hydrochloric acid followed by crystallization. Ammonium chloride is also known as sal ammoniac. Soluble in water and alcohol, ammonium chloride was used as a halide in many processes, including the salted paper, albumen paper, albumen opaltype, and gelatin emulsion processes.

정의

ChEBI: An inorganic chloride having ammonium as the counterion.

생산 방법

Ammonium chloride is prepared commercially by reacting ammonia with hydrochloric acid.

정의

sal ammoniac: A white or colourless cubicsolid, NH4Cl; r.d. 1.53; sublimes at340°C. It is very soluble in water andslightly soluble in ethanol but insolublein ether. It may be prepared byfractional crystallization from a solutioncontaining ammonium sulphateand sodium chloride or ammoniumcarbonate and calcium chloride. Puresamples may be made directly by thegas-phase reaction of ammonia andhydrogen chloride. Because of itsease of preparation it can be manufacturedindustrially alongside anyplant that uses or produces ammonia.The compound is used in drycells, metal finishing, and in thepreparation of cotton for dyeing andprinting.

일반 설명

Ammonium chloride is a white crystalline solid. Ammonium chloride is soluble in water(37%). The primary hazard is the threat posed to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Ammonium chloride is used to make other ammonium compounds, as a soldering flux, as a fertilizer, and for many other uses.

공기와 물의 반응

Soluble in water. Slowly releases hydrogen chloride [USCG, 1999].

반응 프로필

Acidic salts, such as Ammonium chloride , are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydrogen ions and have pH's of less than 7.0. They react as acids to neutralize bases. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of inorganic acids, inorganic oxoacids, and carboxylic acid. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible. Many of these compounds catalyze organic reactions.

위험도

Eye and upper respiratory tract irritant.

건강위험

Inhalation of fumes irritates respiratory passages. Ingestion irritates mouth and stomach. Fumes are irritating to eyes. Contact with skin may cause irritation.

농업용

Ammonium chloride, like all other ammonium salts, is used as a fertilizer. It contains 24 to 26% nitrogen and is available as white crystals or granules. A coarse form of this fertilizer is preferred to the powdered form for direct application. Its crystals are used in compound fertilizers.
Ammonium chloride is a good source of nitrogen for cotton, rice, wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar cane and fiber crops. It is easy to handle. In some cases, however, the material tends to become lumpy and difficult to spread.
Ammonium chloride is used either directly for fertilization or in a variety of compound fertilizers, such as ammonium phosphate chloride or ammonium potassium chloride or in combination with urea or ammonium sulphate.
As a fertilizer, ammonium chloride has an advantage in that it contains 26% nitrogen, which is higher than that found in ammonium sulphate (20.5%). In terms of per unit cost of nitrogen, ammonium chloride is relatively cheaper than ammonium sulphate and has some agronomic advantages for rice. Nitrification of ammonium chloride is less rapid than that of urea or ammonium sulphate. Therefore, nitrogen losses are lower and yields, higher.
However, ammonium chloride is a highly acid forming fertilizer and the amount of calcium carbonate required to neutralize the acidity is more than the fertilizer itself, Further, it has a lower nitrogen content and a higher chloride content compared to urea and ammonium nitrate, making it harmful to some plants.
Several methods are used to produce ammonium chloride. The most important is the dual-salt process (modified Solvay process) wherein ammonium chloride and sodium carbonate are produced simultaneously using common salt and anhydrous ammonia as the principal starting materials. When ammonium chloride is mixed with phosphatic and potassic fertilizers, a large amount of soil calcium is lost as its conversion into soluble calcium chloride causes it to leach out easily.
Like ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride can be applied to wet land crops. In terms of the agronomic suitability, it is generally rated as equal to other straight nitrogenous fertilizers.
Ammonium chloride is, however, not ideal for grapes, chilies, potatoes and tobacco as the added chlorine affects the quality and storability of these crops.
Industrial uses of ammonium chloride are in dry-battery manufacture and as a flux for soldering and brazing.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Ammonium chloride is used as an acidifying agent in oral formulations. It is also used as a food additive and antiseptic agent.
Ammonium chloride is used in the treatment of severe metabolic alkalosis to maintain the urine at an acid pH in the treatment of some urinary tract disorders or in forced acid diuresis. It is also used as an expectorant in cough medicines.

Safety

Ammonium chloride is used in oral pharmaceutical formulations. The pure form of ammonium chloride is toxic by SC, IV, and IM routes, and moderately toxic by other routes. Potential symptoms of overexposure to fumes are irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system: cough, dyspnea, and pulmonary sensitization. Ammonium salts are an irritant to the gastric mucosa and may induce nausea and vomiting.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 1.44 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 1.3 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IM): 0.03 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 1.65 g/kg

잠재적 노출

Ammonium chloride is used as an industrial chemical, pharmaceutical, and veterinary drug; to make dry batteries; in galvanizing; as a soldering flux.

Veterinary Drugs and Treatments

The veterinary indications for ammonium chloride are as a urinary acidifying agent to help prevent and dissolve certain types of uroliths (e.g., struvite), to enhance renal excretion of some types of toxins (e.g., strontium, strychnine) or drugs (e.g., quinidine), or to enhance the efficacy of certain antimicrobials (e.g., chlortetracycline, methenamine mandelate, nitrofurantoin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G or tetracycline) when treating urinary tract infections. Ammonium chloride has also been used intravenously for the rapid correction of metabolic alkalosis.
Because of changes in feline diets to restrict struvite and as struvite therapeutic diets (e.g., s/d) cause aciduria, ammonium chloride is not commonly recommended for struvite uroliths in cats.

저장

Ammonium chloride is chemically stable. It decomposes completely at 3388℃ to form ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Store in airtight containers in a cool, dry place.

운송 방법

UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.

Purification Methods

Crystallise it several times from conductivity water (1.5mL/g) between 90o and 0o. It sublimes. After one crystallisation, ACS grade has: metal(ppm) As (1.2), K (1), Sb (7.2), V (10.2). [Becher in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 812 1963.]

비 호환성

Ammonium chloride is incompatible with strong acids and strong bases. It reacts violently with ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate, causing fire and explosion hazards. It also attacks copper and its compounds.

폐기물 처리

Pretreatment involves addition of sodium hydroxide to liberate ammonia and form the soluble sodium salt. The liberated ammonia can be recovered and sold. After dilution to the permitted provisional limit, the sodium salt can be discharged into a stream or sewer.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (oral syrup, tablets). Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in medicines licensed in the UK (eye drops; oral syrup).

염화 암모늄 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


염화 암모늄 공급 업체

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Hebei Chisure Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
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City Chemical LLC
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