Chinese Herbs

Herbal chemistry refers to the subject combines modern scientific theories and methods for studying the chemical composition of herbs. The research object of herbal chemistry is the chemical composition of herbs. Herb has a very complicate chemical composition, usually containing sugars, amino acids, proteins, fats, waxes , enzymes, pigments, vitamins, organic acids, tannins, inorganic salts, essential oils, alkaloids, glycosides and so on. Each herb may contain a variety of ingredients. In these ingredients, there are some types with obvious biological activity and can play a role in health care, often referred to as the active ingredient, such as alkaloids, glycosides, volatile oils, amino acids and so on.

The reason why herbs have medical effects is mainly due to the active ingredients contained in them. In addition to the many kinds of herbal active ingredient that have already been studied and widely applied in the past, such as anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial berberine, the ephedrine contained ephedra for asthma treatment, the anti-hypertension ingredient, reserpine contained in Rauvolfia verticillata, in recent years, it has been found of many more active ingredients contained in Chinese herb from both domestic and abroad. It has been particularly studied of the biological active ingredients in the field of anti-tumor, the treatment of cardiovascular disease and chronic bronchitis. Other ingredients are universally presented in the herbal kingdom, but usually have no biological activity without any pharmaceutical effect, thereby being known as "ineffective ingredients", such as carbohydrates, proteins, pigments, resins, and inorganic salts. However, the definition of “effective” and “ineffective” is not absolute, and some components originally considered as invalid have also become active ingredients later due to the presence of the biological activity contained in it. For example, the polysaccharide contained in mushrooms and poria cocos has certain anti-tumor effect; seaweed polysaccharide has lipid-lowering effect; the radices trichosanthis protein has a labor induction effect; tannin is widely presented in the herbal kingdom. Although it generally has no major effect on the treatment of diseases, thereby often being considered as a kind of inactive ingredient, the tannin contained in gall, Polygonum cuspidatum and sanguisorba officinalis, because of the high content and certain biological activity, is treated as a kind of active ingredient; another example is that the mucus is usually considered as ineffective ingredient, and is treated as an active ingredient in rhizome beltillae.

Owing to the development of modern science, the separation methods of all kinds of sophisticated quantitative methods tend to be fast, enabling the further deepened analysis on the chemical composition of herbs. In particular, people has combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, linking the separation, purification and identification, several steps together,  improving the speed and accuracy of structure determination, further opening broad prospects for the study of the chemical composition of herbs, in the 1950s, due to the discovery in folk medicine of blood pressure-lowering component, Rauwolfia alkaloids reserpine, and the discovery of the anticancer component, vincaleukoblastinum from Catharanthus roseus, there is a renewed emphasis on the study of the ingredients contained in folk herbal plant in the international scientific community. It is especially worth mentioning that many countries around the world are now competing on screening active anti-cancer ingredient from the plant drugs. In China, in recent years, it has been found from herbs Artemisia annua of artemisinin, being a fast-acting anti-malarial drug; the agrimophol identified from the bud and roots of Agrimonia pilosa has excellent tenia-expelling effect; the farrerol identified from Rhododendron and other studies on the components of ginseng and acanthopanax have all clarified that herbal chemistry has made substantial progress.

It can be expected that in the field of a number of drugs for the treatment of major disease, will soon obtain some new breakthroughs from plant ingredients. In the foundation of achieving a major success in the research of herbal and plant effective component, people has developed a new subject of plant tissue culture, which is a new area of research engaged in studying the production of secondary metabolites from plant tissue after artificial culture process, which aims to directionally produce a lot of active ingredients in favor of the industrial production. For example, the crude soap content in the ginseng tissue culture can be up to 21%. Meanwhile, it is promising that tissue culture can develop into an effective method of analyzing the biosynthetic pathway of plant components. The proposed chemical plant taxonomy in the recent nearly three decades is exactly the development of the chemical constituents of plants, namely hoping to develop a truly natural classification system from the distribution principle of metabolites in plants (chemical composition). It will promote the study of the kinship of plants from the angle of the chemical constituents.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Alantolactone Alantolactone 546-43-0 C15H20O2
Cephalomannine Cephalomannine 71610-00-9 C45H53NO14
ELEUTHEROSIDE B ELEUTHEROSIDE B 118-34-3 C17H24O9
Rutaecarpine Rutaecarpine 84-26-4 C18H13N3O
Lercanidipine hydrochloride Lercanidipine hydrochloride 132866-11-6 C36H42ClN3O6
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid Tauroursodeoxycholic acid 14605-22-2 C26H45NO6S
L-Epicatechin L-Epicatechin 490-46-0 C15H14O6
Baicalein Baicalein 491-67-8 C15H10O5
BERBERINE CHLORIDE BERBERINE CHLORIDE 141433-60-5 C20H18ClNO4
10,11-Dimethoxystrychnine 10,11-Dimethoxystrychnine 357-57-3 C23H26N2O4
Aconitine Aconitine 302-27-2 C34H47NO11
Bilobalide Bilobalide 33570-04-6 C15H18O8
Loganin Loganin 18524-94-2 C17H26O10
FUMONISIN B1 FUMONISIN B1 116355-83-0 C34H59NO15
7-Hydroxycoumarin 7-Hydroxycoumarin 93-35-6 C9H6O3
Berberine Berberine 2086-83-1 C20H18NO4
Jujuboside A Jujuboside A 55466-04-1 C58H94O26
Dihydrocapsaicin Dihydrocapsaicin 19408-84-5 C18H29NO3
Vitexin Vitexin 3681-93-4 C21H20O10
Julolidine Julolidine 479-59-4 C12H15N
gamma-Linolenic acid gamma-Linolenic acid 506-26-3 C18H30O2
Xylometazoline hydrochloride Xylometazoline hydrochloride 1218-35-5 C16H25ClN2
Protocatechuic acid Protocatechuic acid 99-50-3 C7H6O4
10-Deacetylbaccatin III 10-Deacetylbaccatin III 32981-86-5 C29H36O10
Aucubin Aucubin 479-98-1 C15H22O9
Stigmasterol Stigmasterol 83-48-7 C29H48O
Carnosic acid Carnosic acid 3650-09-7 C20H28O4
RHAPONTIN RHAPONTIN 155-58-8 C21H24O9
Betulinic acid Betulinic acid 472-15-1 C30H48O3
Hordenine Hordenine 539-15-1 C10H15NO
HARMINE HYDROCHLORIDE HARMINE HYDROCHLORIDE 343-27-1 C13H13ClN2O
(-)-Arctigenin (-)-Arctigenin 7770-78-7 C21H24O6
D-Pinitol D-Pinitol 10284-63-6 C7H14O6
5,5-Dimethylhydantoin 5,5-Dimethylhydantoin 77-71-4 C5H8N2O2
Silymarin Silymarin 65666-07-1 C25H22O10
Imperatorin Imperatorin 482-44-0 C16H14O4
USNIC ACID USNIC ACID 125-46-2 C18H16O7
Neohesperidin Neohesperidin 13241-33-3 C28H34O15
Mesaconitine Mesaconitine 2752-64-9 C33H45NO11
Rotenone Rotenone 83-79-4 C23H22O6
Aloe emodin Aloe emodin 481-72-1 C15H10O5
FORSYTHIN FORSYTHIN 487-41-2 C27H34O11
Bufalin Bufalin 465-21-4 C24H34O4
Astragaloside IV Astragaloside IV 84687-43-4 C41H68O14
Deoxycholic acid Deoxycholic acid 83-44-3 C24H40O4
Glycocholic acid Glycocholic acid 475-31-0 C26H43NO6
alpha-Asarone alpha-Asarone 2883-98-9 C12H16O3
Apigenin 7-glucoside Apigenin 7-glucoside 578-74-5 C21H20O10
Bilirubin Bilirubin 635-65-4 C33H36N4O6
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol 498-00-0 C8H10O3
Isoimperatorin Isoimperatorin 482-45-1 C16H14O4
Picroside II Picroside II 39012-20-9 C23H28O13
DL-Octopamine hydrochloride DL-Octopamine hydrochloride 770-05-8 C8H12ClNO2
Scutellarin Scutellarin 27740-01-8 C21H18O12
Patchouli alcohol Patchouli alcohol 5986-55-0 C15H26O
ELEUTHEROSIDE A ELEUTHEROSIDE A 474-58-8 C35H60O6
Leonurine hydrochloride Leonurine hydrochloride 24697-74-3 C14H21N3O5
1-DEOXYMANNOJIRIMYCIN HYDROCHLORIDE 1-DEOXYMANNOJIRIMYCIN HYDROCHLORIDE 73465-43-7 C6H14ClNO4
Hydroxycitric acid Hydroxycitric acid 6205-14-7 C6H8O8
Protopanaxatriol Protopanaxatriol 1453-93-6 C30H52O4
Vinflunine Vinflunine 162652-95-1 C45H54F2N4O8
(-)-GALLOCATECHIN (-)-GALLOCATECHIN 3371-27-5 C15H14O7
Astragaloside II Astragaloside II 84676-89-1 C43H70O15
ALEURITIC ACID ALEURITIC ACID 533-87-9 C16H32O5
LUCIGENIN LUCIGENIN 2315-97-1 C28H22N4O6
Hypaconitine Hypaconitine 6900-87-4 C33H45NO10
REBAUDIOSIDE A REBAUDIOSIDE A 58543-16-1 C44H70O23
APIIN APIIN 26544-34-3 C26H28O14
NUCIFERINE NUCIFERINE 475-83-2 C19H21NO2
β-Boswellic Acid β-Boswellic Acid 631-69-6 C30H48O3
LIQUIRITIGENIN LIQUIRITIGENIN 578-86-9 C15H12O4
MORIN R. G. MORIN R. G. 654055-01-3 C15H12O8
CASTICIN CASTICIN 479-91-4 C19H18O8
6-Shogaol 6-Shogaol 555-66-8 C17H24O3
CYANIDIN CHLORIDE CYANIDIN CHLORIDE 528-58-5 C15H11ClO6
Neoandrographolide Neoandrographolide 27215-14-1 C26H40O8
2,9,10-Trimethoxy-5,6-dihydroisoquinolino[2,1-b]isoquinolin-7-ium-3-ol 2,9,10-Trimethoxy-5,6-dihydroisoquinolino[2,1-b]isoquinolin-7-ium-3-ol 3621-38-3 C20H20INO4
9H-PYRIDO[3,4-B]INDOLE 9H-PYRIDO[3,4-B]INDOLE 244-63-3 C11H8N2
CORILAGIN CORILAGIN 23094-69-1 C27H22O18
Schisandrin A Schisandrin A 61281-38-7 C24H32O6
(+)-FANGCHINOLINE (+)-FANGCHINOLINE 436-77-1 C37H40N2O6
LANOSTEROL LANOSTEROL 79-63-0 C30H50O
4'-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin 4'-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin 6559-91-7 C21H20O8
Geniposidic acid Geniposidic acid 27741-01-1 C16H22O10
13,14-Didehydromatridin-15-one 13,14-Didehydromatridin-15-one 145572-44-7 C15H22N2O
Vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside Vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside 64820-99-1 C27H30O14
SCHIZANDRIN B SCHIZANDRIN B 61281-37-6 C23H28O6
Peimine Peimine 23496-41-5 C27H45NO3
10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid 14113-05-4 C10H18O3
FRAXIN FRAXIN 524-30-1 C16H18O10
Sweroside Sweroside 14215-86-2 C16H22O9
CARNOSOL CARNOSOL 5957-80-2 C20H26O4
1-Deoxynojirimycin 1-Deoxynojirimycin 19130-96-2 C6H13NO4
Liensinine Liensinine 2586-96-1 C37H42N2O6
Dehydroandrographolide Dehydroandrographolide 134418-28-3 C20H28O4
Isoalantolactone Isoalantolactone 470-17-7 C15H20O2
Protopine Protopine 130-86-9 C20H19NO5
Vanillylacetone Vanillylacetone 122-48-5 C11H14O3
Albiflorin Albiflorin 39011-90-0 C23H28O11
DL-Sulforaphane DL-Sulforaphane 4478-93-7 C6H11NOS2
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