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Ammonium hydroxide

Ammonium hydroxide
Ammonium hydroxide
CAS No.
1336-21-6
Chemical Name:
Ammonium hydroxide
Synonyms
Suprapur?;AMMONIA R;aquammonia;AMMONIA TS;Ammonia 25%;AQUA AMMONIA;AMMONIA WATER;Ammonium water;Aqua ammonium ;ammoniawater29%
CBNumber:
CB1853050
Molecular Formula:
H5NO
Formula Weight:
35.05
MOL File:
1336-21-6.mol

Ammonium hydroxide Properties

Melting point:
-77°C
Boiling point:
36°C
Density 
0.91 g/mL at 20 °C
vapor density 
1.2 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
115 mmHg at 20 °C for 29% solution
storage temp. 
Store at RT.
form 
Liquid, Single Sub-Boiling Quartz Distillation
pka
9.3(at 25℃)
color 
Colorless
Specific Gravity
approximate 0.96 (10%, 15℃)
Odor
Strong pungent ammonia odor detectable at 17 ppm
explosive limit
27%
Water Solubility 
Miscible with water.
λmax
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.01
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.01
Merck 
14,494
BRN 
3587154
Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with copper, copper alloys, acids, galvanised iron, zinc, aluminium, bronze, dimethyl sulphate, mercury, alkali metals.
InChIKey
VHUUQVKOLVNVRT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
1336-21-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry System
Ammonium hydroxide ((NH4)(OH))(1336-21-6)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  C,N
Risk Statements  34-50-22
Safety Statements  26-36/37/39-45-61
RIDADR  UN 2672 8/PG 3
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  BQ9625000
34
Autoignition Temperature 690 °C (for ammonia)
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  8
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  28142000
Hazardous Substances Data 1336-21-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 oral (rat) 350 mg/kg
PEL (OSHA) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 25 ppm (17 mg/m3)
STEL (ACGIH) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H302 Harmful if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 4 Warning P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H303 May be harmfulif swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 5 P312
H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage Skin corrosion/irritation Category 1A, B, C Danger P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 Causes serious eye damage Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 1 Danger P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
H400 Very toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
H401 Toxic to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 2 P273, P501
H402 Harmful to aquatic life Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard Category 3
H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
H412 Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 3 P273, P501
Precautionary statements:
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P309 IF exposed or if you feel unwell:
P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P321 Specific treatment (see … on this label).
P391 Collect spillage. Hazardous to the aquatic environment
P301+P330+P331 IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P332+P313 IF SKIN irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P405 Store locked up.

Ammonium hydroxide price More Price(61)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 05002 Ammonium hydroxide solution puriss., 30-33% NH3 in H2O 1336-21-6 1l $49 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 05002 Ammonium hydroxide solution puriss., 30-33% NH3 in H2O 1336-21-6 4x2.5l $259 2018-11-13 Buy
TCI Chemical A2038 Ammonia Solution (28% in Water) 1336-21-6 500mL $16 2018-11-22 Buy
Alfa Aesar 033285 Ammonium hydroxide, ACS, 28.0-30.0% NH3 1336-21-6 1kg $34 2018-11-16 Buy
Alfa Aesar 033285 Ammonium hydroxide, ACS, 28.0-30.0% NH3 1336-21-6 *5x1kg $135 2018-11-16 Buy

Ammonium hydroxide Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Description

Ammonium hydroxide is a colorless, liquid solution with a characteristic and pungent odor. It is ammonia combined with water. Ammonia (NH3) is a compound consisting of nitrogen and hydrogen. Both ammonia and ammonium hydroxide are very common compounds, found naturally in the environment (in air, water, and soil) and in all plants and animals, including humans. Ammonia is a source of nitrogen, an essential element for plants and animals. Ammonia is also produced by the human body – by our organs and tissues and by beneficial bacteria living in our intestines.
Ammonia plays an important role in protein synthesis in the human body. In brief summary, all living things need proteins, which are comprised of some 20 different amino acids. While plants and microorganisms can synthesize most amino acids from the nitrogen in the atmosphere, animals cannot. For humans, some amino acids cannot be synthesized at all and must be consumed as intact amino acids. Other amino acids, however, can be synthesized by microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract with the help of ammonia ions. Thus, ammonia is a key player in the nitrogen cycle and in protein synthesis. Ammonia also helps maintain the body's pH balance.

Chemical Properties

Colorless liquid, strong odor. Concentration of solutions range up to approximately 30% ammonia.

Chemical Properties

Ammonium Hydroxide is a colorless to milkywhite solution of ammonia, with a strong, irritating odor.

Uses

Ammonium Hydroxide is an alkaline that is a clear, colorless solu- tion of ammonia which is used as a leavening agent, a ph control agent, and a surface finishing agent. it is used in baked goods, cheese, puddings, processed fruits, and in the production of caramels.

Uses

ammonium hydroxide is used in cosmetic preparations as an alkali to neutralize excessive acidity in a formulation.

Application

Industry Application Role/benefit
Food processing Baked goods, cheeses, chocolates, other confectionery (e.g., caramel), and puddings Leavening agent, pH control agent and surface-finishing agent/safe and weakly alkaline
Meat products Antimicrobial agent/ lowers the acidity of meet, making it difficult for pathogens to survive
Cleaning Household and industrial cleansers Cleansing ingredient/ helps to kill microbial agents like bacteria
Alkaline disinfectant Main ingredient/disinfects sarin
Agriculture Manufacture of fertilizers Source of nitrogen
Chemical manufacture Manufacture of alkyl amine Precursor/source of amino
Cosmetics Hair dyes and colors pH adjusters/alkaline and safe
Chemical analysis Determination of certain elements such as copper and nickel Precipitant/ helps to precipitate various elements
Organic synthesis Amide coupling reactions Reagent/source of NH3
SNAr reactions Nucleophile
Catalytic reduction of nitriles Additive
Others Wood staining Stain agent/better for the wood containing tannic acids
Circuit board manufacturing Etching agent/has high alkalinity which makes it very corrosive to certain metals
Tobacco processing Processing aid/enhances tobacco flavor
Treatment of straw for cattle Produce "ammoniated straw" which is more edible for cattle
Coagulation of natural rubber latex pH adjusters/helps to stabilize the natural rubber lattices
 

Uses

Ammonium hydroxide is utilized in numerous applications:
  1. Ammonium hydroxide is used as a cleaning agent and sanitizer in many household and industrial cleaners.
  2. Ammonium hydroxide is also used in the manufacture of products such as fertilizer, plastic, rayon and rubber.
  3. Aqueous ammonia is corrosive to aluminum alloys, copper, copper alloys, and galvanized surfaces.
  4. Aqueous ammonia is an excellent acid neutralizer.
  5. In furniture making, ammonium hydroxide is used to darken or stain wood containing tannic acid.
  6. In food production, ammonium hydroxide is used as a leavening agent or acidity regulator and is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Its pH control abilities make it an effective antimicrobial agent. Ammonium hydroxide is also used to treat straw, producing "ammoniated straw" that is edible for cattle.
  7. In the tobacco industry, ammonium hydroxide is used for flavor enhancement and as a processing aid.
  8. Aqueous ammonia is used in the laboratory most often as a complexant and base in inorganic analysis. It can dissolve silver residues, and when used with copper (II) solutions, provides a deep blue coloration.

Definition

Ammonium hydroxide,NH40H, is a hydrate of anunonia and exists in crystalline form at -79°C. Normally, it is only found in an aqueous solution also known as aquaanunonia and anunonia water. It is prepared by dissolving NH3 inH20. Reagent grade anunonium hydroxide contains from 28 to 30% NH3 at 15.6 °C. Industrial sales specify the concentration of NH3 in solution in terms of specific gravity. Common concentrations are 20 °Be, which would bea concentration of 17.8% NH3 (specific gravity 0.933) and 26 °Be (specific gravity 0.897), or a concentration of 29.4% NH3. Ammonium hydroxide is an excellent medium for the reaction of NH3 (which becomes the NH4 radical in solution) with other compounds for the preparation of anunonium salts and other nitrogen-containing chemicals. It is an ingredientin deodorants, etching compounds, and cleaning and bleaching materials. Ammoniumhydroxide, as aqua ammonia, finds wide use as a neutralizing agent,because it is inexpensive and strongly alkaline.

General Description

Ammonium hydroxide is a colorless aqueous solution. Concentration of ammonia ranges up to approximately 30%. Ammonia vapors (which arise from the solution) irritate the eyes.

Air & Water Reactions

Water soluble. Generates a small amount of heat when diluted with water.

Reactivity Profile

Ammonium hydroxide reacts exothermically with acids. Evolves toxic gaseous ammonia with strong bases. Reacts extremely violently with dimethyl sulfate [NFPA 491M 1991]. Reacts with aqueous silver nitrate sodium hydroxide to give a black precipitate of silver nitride. Such a precipitate can explode on stirring [MCA Case History 1554 1968]. Aqueous ammonia and Hg react to form an explosive solid, likely a fulminate. (Thodos, G. Amer. Inst. Chen. Engrs. J., 1964, 10, 274.).

Hazard

Liquid and vapor extremely irritating, especially to eyes.

Health Hazard

Ammonium hydroxide solutions are alkaline solutions, meaning they have high pH level. As a result, ammonium hydroxide is a severe eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritant, and readily burns tissue with which it comes in contact. Splashes to the eye may be serious, as contact may cause severe burns, irritation pain and possibly blindness. Direct contact with skin may cause severe burns if the chemical is not quickly rinsed away with copious amounts of water. Inhaling mists of ammonium hydroxide may result in irritation of the nose and throat with symptoms including burning, coughing, choking and pain. Inhaling concentrated mist may result in pulmonary edema and shock. Ingesting ammonium hydroxide may cause pain and burns of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract.
TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.

Health Hazard

Ammonia solutions are extremely corrosive and irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Exposure by inhalation can cause irritation of the nose, throat, and mucous membranes. Exposure to high concentrations of ammonia vapor (above approximately 2500 ppm) is life threatening, causing severe damage to the respiratory tract and resulting in bronchitis, chemical pneumonitis, and pulmonary edema, which can be fatal. Eye contact with ammonia vapor is severely irritating, and exposure of the eyes to ammonium hydroxide can result in serious damage and may cause permanent eye injury and blindness. Skin contact can result in severe irritation and burns; contact with the liquid results in cryogenic burns as well. Ingestion of ammonium hydroxide burns the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal tract and can lead to severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and collapse. Ammonium hydroxide has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans. Chronic exposure to ammonia can cause respiratory irritation and damage.

Fire Hazard

Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.

Fire Hazard

Ammonia vapor is slightly flammable (NFPA rating = 1) and ignites only with difficulty. Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with air in the range 16 to 25%. Water, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ammonia fires.

Agricultural Uses

Ammonium hydroxide is also known as ammonia solution, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia or ammonia liquor. It is the solution of ammonia in water and is commonly referred to as ammonium hydroxide. It is the simplest nitrogen solution made by forcing compressed ammonia (anhydrous ammonia) gas into water.

Agricultural Uses

Aqua ammonia, also called aqueous ammonia, ammonia liquor and ammonium hydroxide is ammonia dissolved in water to form a clear, colorless liquid with a pungent odor. It is the simplest nitrogen solution made by forcing compressed NH3 (anhydrous ammonia) gas into water. It has a pressure of less than 0.7 kg/cm2 and is usually composed of 25 to 29.4% ammonia by weight (20 to 25 % nitrogen).
Ammonia dissolved in water is present principally as the ammonium ion (NH4+ )non-ionized molecular ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), sometimes referred to as an associated form of ammonium hydroxide, is also present. Hydrated molecules of ammonia (NH3) may also exist as NH3·H2O orNH3·2H2O.
Purified water is used for the reaction of ammonia and water in the production process. The methods for water purification are (a) a conventional sodium-form water-softening ion exchange resin, which replaces all cations present with sodium ions, (b) both hydrogenform cation resin and hydroxyl-form anion resin, resulting in total de-ionisation of water, or (c) reverse osmosis purification equipment which results in total deionization of water.
If water hardness is sufficiently low and/or if suitable filtration is available to remove the precipitate formed during the reaction of ammonia with water, the product can be manufactured without pre-treatment of water. For most water supplies, the precipitate is principally calcium carbonate.
During the reaction of ammonia with water, a large amount of heat is generated, which requires heat exchangers to control the temperature. The resulting aqua ammonia contains ammonium ions (NH4+), hydroxyl ions (OH-), and non-ionized ammonium hydroxide molecules (NH4OH).
The grade or strength of ammonium hydroxide available commercially is 26 degree Baume. The Baume reading refers to a specific gravity scale. A 26 degree Baume (Be) solution is equivalent to 29.4% by weight of ammonia dissolved in water. Since the Baume reading varies with temperature, the reading is standardized at minus 9.4℃. The density of the material compared to water is 0.8974. Ammonia products of 29.4% strength are also frequently described as 26° Be products, the freezing point of which is about minus 62.2℃.
An aqueous solution has a vapor pressure which varies with temperature. At ambient temperatures, the vapor pressure of 26°Be material equals atmospheric pressure. This permits the material to be shipped and stored in non-pressurized containers. This is the highest strength material generally available commercially.
Aqua ammonia should be stored in a closed container and kept cool, as otherwise the ammonia gas comes out of the solution and the strength reduces. The nitrogen concentration in aqua ammonia can be increased to 40 % by partial pressurization.
Aqua ammonia is corrosive to copper, copper alloys, aluminum alloys and galvanized surfaces. Aqua ammonia is an excellent acid neutralizer. Its pH varies with concentration; typical values of pH are 11.7 at 1 % , 12.2at5%, 12.4at 10% and 13.5at30%concentration.
Transport and delivery costs limit the production of aqua ammonia (NH3) to small, local, fluid fertilizer plants. Aqua ammonia is regularly available in concentrations of 19%, 25 % and 29%. These are used for direct soil application or as inputs to produce other liquid fertilizers. Ammonia volatilizes quickly at temperatures above 10°C; therefore, aqua ammonia is usually injected into soil to depths of 5 to 10 cm. It should not be used in calcareous soil.

Agricultural Uses

The solution of ammonia in water is called ammonia solution, commonly referred to as aqua ammonia. It is also called aqueous ammonia, ammonia liquor or ammonium hydroxide. It is the simplest nitrogen solution made by forcing compressed NH3 (anhydrous ammonia) gas into water.

Safety Profile

A human poison by ingestion. An experimental poison by inhalation and ingestion. A severe eye irritant. Human systemic irritant effects by ocular and inhalation routes. Mutation data reported. Incompatible with acrolein, nitromethane, acrylic acid, chlorosulfonic acid, dimethyl sulfate, halogens, (Au + aqua regia), HCl, HF, HNO3, oleum, ppropiolactone, propylene oxide, AgNO3, Ag2O, (Ag20 + C2H5OH), AgMn04, H2SO4. Dangerous; liquid can inflict burns. Use with adequate ventilation. When heated to decomposition it emits NH3 and NO2.

Potential Exposure

It is used in detergents, stain removers, bleaches, dyes, fibers, and resins.

First aid

Move victim to fresh air. Call 911 or emergency medical service. Give artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; give artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult. Remove and isolate contaminated clothing and shoes. In case of contact with substance, immediately flush skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes. For minor skin contact, avoid spreading material on unaffected skin. Keep victim warm and quiet. Effects of exposure (inhalation, ingestion or skin contact) to substance may be delayed. Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved and take precautions to protect themselves. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy.

storage

All work with this substance should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact.
Containers should be tightly sealed to prevent escape of vapor and should be stored in a cool area separate from halogens, acids, and oxidizers. Containers stored in warm locations may build up dangerous internal pressures of ammonia gas.

Shipping

UN2672 Ammonia solutions, relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 at 15 C in water, with .10% but not .35% ammonia, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.

Flammability and Explosibility

Ammonia vapor is slightly flammable (NFPA rating = 1) and ignites only with difficulty. Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with air in the range 16 to 25%. Water, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ammonia fires.

Incompatibilities

Solution is strongly alkaline. Violent reaction with strong oxidizers, acids (exothermic reaction with strong mineral acids). Shock-sensitive compounds may be formed with halogens, mercury oxide; silver oxide. Fire and explosions may be caused by contact with β-propiolactone, silver nitrate; ethyl alcoho; silver permanganate; trimethylammonium amide; 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, o-chloronitrobenzene, platinum, trioxygen difluoride; selenium difluoride dioxide; boron halides; mercury, chlorine, iodine; bromine, hypochlorites, chlorine bleach; amides, organic anhydrides; isocyanates, vinyl acetate; alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin; aldehydes. Attacks some coatings, plastics and rubber. Attacks copper, brass, bronze, aluminum, steel, zinc, and their alloys.

Waste Disposal

Dilute with water, neutralize with HCl and discharge to sewer.

Ammonium hydroxide Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Ammonium hydroxide Suppliers

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