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Ammonium nitrate

Brief Introduction Extremely Insensitive Explosives
Ammonium nitrate
Ammonium nitrate
CAS No.
6484-52-2
Chemical Name:
Ammonium nitrate
Synonyms
nitram;varioformi;hercoprills;mercoprills;caswellno.045;nitratoamonico;Ammoniumnitrat;germansaltpeter;Azanium nitrate;AMMONIA NITRATE
CBNumber:
CB4167347
Molecular Formula:
H4N2O3
Formula Weight:
80.04
MOL File:
6484-52-2.mol

Ammonium nitrate Properties

Melting point:
169 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
210 °C(lit.)
Density 
1.72
Flash point:
210°C
storage temp. 
Store at RT.
solubility 
H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
form 
Solid
Specific Gravity
1.725
color 
White
PH
4.5-6.0 (25℃, 50mg/mL in H2O)
Water Solubility 
190 g/100 mL (20 ºC)
Merck 
14,534
CAS DataBase Reference
6484-52-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA Substance Registry System
Nitric acid ammonium salt(6484-52-2)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  O,Xi
Risk Statements  8-36/37/38-9
Safety Statements  17-26-36-37/39-41-16-15
RIDADR  UN 1942 5.1/PG 3
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  BR9050000
3-10
TSCA  Yes
HazardClass  5.1
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  31023090
Hazardous Substances Data 6484-52-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 orally in Rabbit: 2462 mg/kg
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Warning
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H271 May cause fire or explosion; strong oxidiser Oxidising liquids;Oxidising solids Category 1 Danger P210, P220, P221, P280, P283,P306+P360, P371+P380+P375,P370+P378, P501
H272 May intensify fire; oxidizer Oxidising liquids;Oxidising solids Category 2
Category 3
Danger
Warning
P210, P220, P221P280, P370+P378,P501
H303 May be harmfulif swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 5 P312
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H335 May cause respiratory irritation Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure;Respiratory tract irritation Category 3 Warning
Precautionary statements:
P220 Keep/Store away from clothing/…/combustible materials.
P221 Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles/…
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P283 Wear fire/flame resistant/retardant clothing.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P405 Store locked up.

Ammonium nitrate price More Price(28)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 221244 Ammonium nitrate ACS reagent, ≥98% 6484-52-2 2.5kg $192 2018-11-20 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 221244 Ammonium nitrate ACS reagent, ≥98% 6484-52-2 25kg $960 2018-11-20 Buy
Alfa Aesar 010638 Ammonium nitrate, Puratronic?, 99.999% (metals basis) 6484-52-2 250g $426 2018-11-16 Buy
Alfa Aesar 010638 Ammonium nitrate, Puratronic? 99.999% (metals basis) 6484-52-2 5g $72.1 2018-11-20 Buy
Strem Chemicals 93-0216 Ammonium nitrate, 99.5% 6484-52-2 2kg $79 2018-11-13 Buy

Ammonium nitrate Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Brief Introduction

Ammonium nitrate, is a colorless rhombic or monoclinic crystal at room temperature. It can be decomposed into water and nitrous oxide at 210 ° C. Upon severe heating at 300 ℃ above, it is subject to decomposition into nitrogen, oxygen and water. It is soluble in water, methanol and ethanol. It dissolution in water can absorb a lot of heat and reduce the temperature. It is one of the major nitrogen fertilizer varieties in the world today, accounting for about 3.5% of the total amount of nitrogen fertilizer in our country. The nitrogen form is nitrate, which belongs to the nitrate nitrogen fertilizer. In fact, ammonium nitrate both nitrate and ammonium nitrogen, but its nature is more similar to the nitrate nitrogen fertilizer.
Ammonium nitrate has no residue in the soil; and can be all absorbed by crops; being a physiological neutral fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate is suitable for a wide range of soils and crops but is most suitable for dry and dry crops especially suitable for cash crops such as tobacco, cotton and vegetables.
Ammonium nitrate should not be used as a basal fertilizer, because ammonium nitrate, after being applied to the soil, has its dissociated nitrate ions be easily leached into the soil. At the same time, ammonium nitrate should not be used seed manure because of its higher nutrient content, high hygroscopicity, which will affect the germination upon contact with seeds.
Ammonium nitrate, when applied in paddy field, can have its nitrogen content easily leached. Therefore, its efficiency is not comparable to other nitrogenous fertilizers of equal nitrogen content, being only equivalent to 50% -70% of that of ammonium sulfate with equal nitrogen content. The most ideal application is for topdressing, and is most suitable for top-dressing in dry land. The usage amount can be determined according to soil fertility and yield indicators. Should pay attention to the following points:

Extremely Insensitive Explosives

Ammonium nitrate is an extremely insensitive explosive that is more detrimental than the safe explosives c4. An industrial 8 # detonator (detonated c4 just 6 # on it) are not enough to detonate a mixture of sensitizer ammonium nitrate. Ammonium nitrate is the most detonating nitric acid explosives with impact sensitivity being: 50kg hammer with 50cm drop height will not cause explosion. The impact sensitivity of the famous explosive nitroglycerin: 200 g hammer at 20cm high drop height will lead to 100% explosion. And once the ammonium nitrate is dissolved in water, the detonation sensitivity is greatly reduced, for which it is impossible to detonate the ammonium nitrate with human power.

Chemical Properties

Ammonium nitrate is a white to gray to brown, beads, pellets, or flakes. Odorless.

Chemical Properties

Ammoniwn nitrate,NH4N03, is a colorless crystalline solid existing in two forms, Between 16 and 32°C, the crystals are tetragonal; between 32 and 84 DC, the crystals are rhombic. The melting point of NH4N03 is 169.6 DC, and it decomposes above 210°C. When heated, ammonium nitrate yields nitrous oxide gas. Ammonium nitrate is soluble in water, in acetic acid solutions containing ammonia, is slightly soluble in ethanol, and is moderately soluble in methanol. Ammoniwn nitrate is a very insensitive and stable high explosive used as a slow-burning propellant for rockets when compounded with burning rate catalysts. Although the major applications of ammoniwn nitrate are explosives and fertilizers, it is also used in insecticides, rust inhibitors, and pyrotechnics.

Uses

Sold in a concentration of 27,5% N. Attributes Distributed by Agroline CH. Contact

Uses

Colorless crystals made by the action of ammonium hydroxide on nitric acid. Soluble in water, alcohol, and alkalies, ammonium nitrate is explosive and was used as a substitute for potassium nitrate in making flashlight mixtures.

Definition

ChEBI: The ammonium salt of nitric acid.

Uses

Making nitrous oxide (laughing gas); in freezing mixtures, safety explosives, matches; pyrotechnics; in fertilizers.

General Description

A colorless crystalline solid. Soluble in water. Does not readily burn but will do so if contaminated with combustible material. Accelerates the burning of combustible material. Produces toxic oxides of nitrogen during combustion. Used to make fertilizers and explosives, and as a nutrient in producing antibiotics and yeast.

Air & Water Reactions

Water soluble. Hot aqueous solutions of the nitrate above 50% conc., under confinement may decompose explosively. This process is aided catalytically with such substances as nitric acid and chloride ion, [Chem. Abs., 1982, 97, 78074].

Reactivity Profile

The hazards of AMMONIUM NITRATE have been well studied because of several extremely severe explosions [Chem. Eng., 1962, 70, 91; Bretherick, 5th Ed., 1995]. Mixtures with alkyl esters may explode, owing to the formation of alkyl nitrates. Mixtures with phosphorus, tin(II) chloride or other reducing agents may react explosively [Bretherick 1979 p. 108-109]. A mixture with aluminum powder (also zinc, cadmium, copper, magnesium, lead, cobalt, nickel, bismuth, chromium, and antimony) can be used as an explosive. A number of explosions in which ammonium nitrate and aluminum were mixed with carbon or hydrocarbons, with or without oxidizing agents have occurred [Mellor 5:219 1946-47]. A mixture with acetic acid ignites when warmed, especially if concentrated [Von Schwartz p. 322 1918]. Causes the decomposition of sodium hypochlorite within a few seconds [Mellor 2 Supp. 1:550 1956].

Hazard

May explode under confinement and high temperatures, but not readily detonated. Ventilate well. To fight fire, use large amounts of water. The material must be kept as cool as possible and removed from confinement and flooded with water in event of fire.

Health Hazard

Inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.

Fire Hazard

These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.

Agricultural Uses

Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is among the most common nitrogenous fertilizers, with half of its nitrogen in an ammoniacal form and the rest in nitrate form.
The nitrogen from ammonium nitrate is immediately available to plants, whereas the ammoniacal nitrogen becomes available only after its nitration. Fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate solution in water containing 20% nitrogen is sold in large quantities, because of its high water solubility and easy soil applicability. The fertilizer can also be used in its compound forms, such as calcium ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate nitrate.
The nitrogen in ammonium nitrate is more rapidly available than that in urea or ammonium sulphate. Crops take up nitrogen mainly in the form of nitrate. The ammoniacal nitrogen must be converted to nitrate in the soil before it becomes effective. Urea causes seedling damage due to volatilization of ammonia. Ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate are strongly acidforming fertilizers.
Although pure salt ammonium nitrate is a fine white crystal, it is usually available as white granules or prills of 1.2 to 3.3 mm size and contains 32 to 35 % nitrogen by weight. The crystalline form is highly hygroscopic and is readily soluble in water. Because of this high solubility in water, it is less effective for flooded rice than urea or other ammoniacal nitrogen fertilizers. It is also more prone to leaching than other ammoniacal products. It is also a very powerful oxidizing agent which can explode when exposed to heat or flame. Because of this hazardous property, ammonium nitrate and its compounds are stored in a dry place in sealed bags. The granular form, however, is easily stored. It can also be spread on soil with ease.
Ammonium nitrate, like other ammonium fertilizers, can leave behind an acid residue in the soil. It takes 0.8 kg of lime to neutralize the acidity produced by 1 kg of ammonium nitrate fertilizer.
Ammonium nitrate and urea are the most widely used sources of nitrogen from among all solid fertilizers available. A two bale crop of cotton removes 56 kg of nitrogen per hectare in the seed alone and 16.8 kg of nitrogen per hectare in the lint. To supply this amount of nitrogen, the addition of 224 kg per hectare of ammonium nitrate is required. A 2240 kg per hectare tobacco crop removes 123 kg of nitrogen per hectare, and 5600 kg per hectare crop of rice removes 90 kg of nitrogen per hectare.
Ammonium nitrate is used as a major source of nitrogen for crops in the USA. It is a good nitrogen plant food for all field and vegetable crops and can be applied to the soil before or at the time of planting. It also makes for a good N-fertilizer for side dressing or top dressing.
An aqueous solution of urea and ammonium nitrate, called UAN is used as a liquid nitrogen fertilizer. ‘Ammonite’ is a trademark for a mixture of ammonium nitrate (98%) and coating agents (2%).

Safety Profile

A powerful oxidizer and an allergen. See also NITRATES. A relatively stable explosive that has, however, caused many industrial explosions. Violent or explosive spontaneous reactions with acetic anhydride + nitric acid, ammonium sulfate + potassium, copper iron(Ⅱ) sulfide, sawdust, urea, barium nitrate, hot water, and ammonium chloride + water + zinc. Forms heator shock-sensitive explosive mixtures with acetic acid, aluminum + calcium nitrate + formamide (a blasting explosive), ammonia, charcoal + metal oxides (e.g., rust, copper oxide, zinc oxide above 80℃), chloride salts (e.g., ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, iron(ⅡI) chloride, and aluminum chloride), cyanoguanidine, feruH2ers (e.g., super phosphate + organic materials above 90℃), hydrocarbon oils, powdered metals (e.g., aluminum, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, nickel, tin, zinc, brass, stainless steel, titanium, and potassium), nonmetals (e.g., charcoal, and phosphorus), organic fuels (e.g., wax, oils, and stearates), potassium permanganate, sugar, sulfur, and trinitroanisole. Reaction with alkali metals (e.g., sodium) forms an explosive product. Ignites on contact with ammonium dichromate, potassium dichromate, potassium chromate, barium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium nitrate, and chromium(V1) salts. Can ignite when mixed with acetic acid. Use water in large amounts to fight fire. It is important that the mass of materials be kept cool and that burning be extinguished promptly. Ventilate well. May explode under confinement and high temperatures. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of NOx. Can react vigorously with reducing materials. Incompatible with, (NH4Cl + heat), (C + heat), organic matter, P, NaOCl, NaClO4. Occasional explosions in presence of oil, (NH4)2S04 with K or Na.

Potential Exposure

Used in the manufacture of liquid and solid fertilizer compositions, industrial explosives and blasting agents from ammonium nitrate, matches; antibiotics; in the production of nitrous oxide.

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.

Shipping

Ammonium nitrate with organic coating: UN0222 Ammonium nitrate, with . 0.2% combustible substances, including any organic substance calculated as carbon, to the exclusion of any other added substance, Hazard Class: 1D; Labels:1D-Explosive (with a mass explosion hazard); D-Substances or articles which may mass detonate (with blast and/or fragment hazard) when exposed to fire. Ammonium nitrate with NO organic coating: UN1942 Ammonium nitrate, with NOT . 0.2% of combustible substances, including any organic substance calculated as carbon, to the exclusion of any other added substance (also used for fertilizer), Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer. UN3375 Ammonium nitrate emulsion or Ammonium nitrate suspension or Ammonium nitrate gel, intermediate for blasting explosives, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer. UN2072 Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, n.o.s., doesn’t appear in the 49 CFR Hazmat Table, refer to UN1942, above). UN2071 Ammonium nitrate based fertilizer, Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material. UN2426/140 Ammonium nitrate, liquid (hot concentrated solution), Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer.

Purification Methods

It is crystallised twice from distilled water (1mL/g) by adding EtOH, or from warm water (0.5mL/g) by cooling in an ice-salt bath. Dry it in air, then under vacuum. After 3 recrystallisations of ACS grade, it contained Li and B at 0.03 and 0.74 ppm, respectively. It is deliquescent. [Early & Lowry J Chem Soc 115 1387 1919, 121 963 1922, Hendricks et al. J Am Chem Soc 54 2766 1932.]

Incompatibilities

A strong oxidizer. Reducing agents; combustible materials; organic materials; finely divided (powdered) metals may form explosive mixtures or cause fire and explosions. When contaminated with oil, charcoal or flammable liquids, can be considered an explosive which can be detonated by combustion or shock.

Waste Disposal

Pretreatment involves addition of sodium hydroxide to liberate ammonia and form the soluble sodium salt. The liberated ammonia can be recovered and sold. After dilution to the permitted provisional limit, the sodium salt can be discharged into a stream or sewer.

Ammonium nitrate Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


Ammonium nitrate Suppliers

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Ammonium nitrate Spectrum


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