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에탄

에탄
에탄 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
74-84-0
한글명:
에탄
동의어(한글):
에테인;에탄
상품명:
ETHANE
동의어(영문):
R170;C2H6;R-170;ETHANE;Bimethyl;Dimethyl;ethylhydride;ETHANE, 99+%;ETHANE 99.9%;Methylmethane
CBNumber:
CB4223139
분자식:
C2H6
포뮬러 무게:
30.07
MOL 파일:
74-84-0.mol

에탄 속성

녹는점
−172 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
−88 °C(lit.)
밀도
0.362 g/mL at 20 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
1.05 (vs air)
증기압
37.95 atm ( 21.1 °C)
굴절률
1.0047
인화점
−211 °F
산도 계수 (pKa)
48(at 25℃)
물리적 상태
gas
폭발한계
13%
수용성
60.4mg/L(25 ºC)
Merck
13,3758
BRN
1730716
안정성
Stable. Highly flammable. Readily forms explosive mixtures with air. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
CAS 데이터베이스
74-84-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
EPA
Ethane (74-84-0)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 F+,F
위험 카페고리 넘버 12
안전지침서 9-16-33
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1035 2.1
WGK 독일 -
RTECS 번호 KH3800000
F 고인화성물질 4.5-31
자연 발화 온도 881 °F
위험 참고 사항 Flammable
DOT ClassificationII 2.1 (Flammable gas)
위험 등급 2.1
기존화학 물질 KE-13138
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H220 극인화성 가스 인화성 가스 구분 1 위험 P210, P377, P381, P403
H280 고압가스; 가열시 폭발할 수 있음 고압가스 압축가스
액화가스
용존 가스
경고 P410+P403
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P377 누출성 가스 화재 시 : 누출을 안전하게 막을 수 없다면, 불을 끄려하지 마시오.
P381 누출의 경우, 모든 점화원을 제거하시오.
P410+P403 직사광선을 피하고 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 보관하시오.
NFPA 704
4
1 0

에탄 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

개요

Ethane is a colorless, odorless, flammable gas that is relatively inactive chemically and is considered nontoxic. It is shipped as a liquefied compressed gas under its vapor pressure of 544 psig at 70°F (3750 kPa at 21.1℃).

화학적 성질

ETHANE is colorless, odorless gas, practically insoluble in H2O, moderately soluble in alcohol. The compound burns when ignited in air with a pale faintly luminous flame; forms an explosive mixture with air over a moderate range. With excess air, products of combustion are CO2 and H2O. Ethane is among the chemically less reactive organic substances. However, ethane reacts with chlorine and bromine to form substitution compounds. Ethane occurs, usually in small amounts, in natural gas. The fuel value of ethane is high, 1,730 Btu per cubic foot. Ethane may be prepared by reaction of magnesium ethyl iodide in anhydrous ether (Grignard’s reagent) with H2O or alcohols. Ethyl iodide, ethyl bromide, or ethyl chloride, are preferably made by reaction with ethyl alcohol and the appropriate phosphorus halide. Important ethane derivatives, by successive oxidation, are ethyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid.

화학적 성질

Ethane is a compressed, liquefied, colorless gas. Mild, gasoline-like odor. Odorless when pure.
Ethane

역사

Ethane was first synthesized in 1834 by Michael Faraday (1791–1867) through the electrolysis of acetate solutions, although Faraday believed the compound was methane. Twenty years later Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe (1818–1884) incorrectly identified ethane as the methyl radical in his research, and Edward Frankland (1825–1899) prepared ethane by treating ethyl iodine (C2H5I) with metals.

용도

In the manufacture of chlorinated derivatives; as refrigerant in some two-stage refrigeration systems where relatively low temperatures are produced; as fuel gas (so called "bottled gas" or "suburban propane" contains about 90% propane, 5% ethane, and 5% butane).

용도

Ethane is the second major component in naturalgas. It is formed by petroleum cracking.It is used as a fuel gas, in the manufactureof chloro derivatives, and as a refrigerant.

용도

It was first applied to the compound ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3). Ether isa highly fl ammable compound that wasfirst prepared from the two-carbon alcohol ethanol(C2H5OH), and ethane is the two-carbon alkane. Ethane is the second most abundant componentof natural gas, with sources typically containing 1–5% by volume, but some sourcesmay contain up to 30% ethane.

생산 방법

The synthesis of ethane takes place through a process called Kolbe synthesis. In this processacetic acid (CH3COOH) undergoes electrolysis to oxidize acetate ions at the anode of an electrochemicalcell to produce acetate radicals: CH3COO- → CH3COO?. Two acetate radicals thencombine to give ethane and carbon dioxide: CH3COO? + CH3COO? → C2H6 + 2CO2.

정의

A gaseous alkane obtained either from the gaseous fraction of crude oil or by the ‘cracking’ of heavier fractions. Ethane is the second member of the homologous series of alkanes.

정의

ethane: A colourless flammablegaseous hydrocarbon, C2H6; m.p.–183°C; b.p. –89°C. It is the secondmember of the alkane series of hydrocarbonsand occurs in natural gas.

일반 설명

A colorless odorless gas. ETHANE is easily ignited. The vapors are heavier than air. ETHANE can asphyxiate by the displacement of air. Under prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket. Contact with the liquid may cause frostbite.

공기와 물의 반응

Highly flammable.

반응 프로필

Saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as ETHANE, may be incompatible with strong oxidizing agents like nitric acid. Charring of the hydrocarbon may occur followed by ignition of unreacted hydrocarbon and other nearby combustibles. In other settings, aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons are mostly unreactive. They are not affected by aqueous solutions of acids, alkalis, most oxidizing agents, and most reducing agents. Peroxidizable

위험도

Severe fire risk if exposed to sparks or open flame. Flammable limits in air 3–12%. An asphyxiant gas.

건강위험

In high vapor concentrations, can act as simple asphyxiant. Liquid causes severe frostbite.

건강위험

Like methane, ethane is a nonpoisonous gas.It is a simple asphyxiate. At high concentrationsit may exhibit narcotic effects.

화재위험

EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE. Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Will form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors from liquefied gas are initially heavier than air and spread along ground. CAUTION: Hydrogen (UN1049), Deuterium (UN1957), Hydrogen, refrigerated liquid (UN1966) and METHANE (UN1971) are lighter than air and will rise. Hydrogen and Deuterium fires are difficult to detect since they burn with an invisible flame. Use an alternate method of detection (thermal camera, broom handle, etc.) Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Cylinders exposed to fire may vent and release flammable gas through pressure relief devices. Containers may explode when heated. Ruptured cylinders may rocket.

Materials Uses

Ethane is noncorrosive and may be contained in installations constructed of any common metals designed to withstand the pressure involved.

Safety Profile

A simple asphyxiant. See ARGON for properties of simple asphyxiants. A very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Moderate explosion hazard when exposed to flame. To fight fire, stop flow of gas. Incompatible with chlorine, doxygenyl tetrafluoroborate, oxidizing materials, heat or flame. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

잠재적 노출

Ethane is used as a fuel, in making chemicals or as a freezing agent. The health effects caused by ethane exposure are much less serious than the fire and explosion risk posed by this chemical

Physiological effects

Inhalation of ethane in concentrations in air up to 5 percent produces no definite symptoms, but inhalation of higher concentrations has an anesthetic effect. It can act as a simple asphyxiant by displacing the oxygen in the air. Contact between liquid ethane and skin can cause freezing of the tissue.

Carcinogenicity

Syrian hamster embryo cells were exposed in vitro to ethane gas. After exposure, the cells were removed and assayed for viability and increased sensitivity to viral transformation. Ethane was determined to be inactive.

저장

All the precautions required for the safe handling of any flammable compressed gas must be observed with ethane. It is important that ignition sources be kept away from containers, including situations where leakage could cause the gas to ignite by such sources as a spark from a motor. AlI piping and equipment used with ethane should be grounded.
Ethane should not be stored with cylinders containing oxygen, chlorine, or other oxidizing or combustible materials.

운송 방법

UN1035 (compressed gas); UN1961 (refrigerated liquid): Ethane, Hazard Class: 2.1; Labels: 2.1-Flammable gas. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner.

Purification Methods

Ethylene can be removed by passing the gas through a sintered-glass disc into fuming H2SO4 then slowly through a column of charcoal saturated with bromine. Bromine and HBr are removed by passage through firebrick coated with N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine. The ethane is also passed over KOH pellets (to remove CO2) and dried with Mg(ClO4)2. Further purification is by several distillations of liquified ethane, using a condensing temperature of -195o. Yang and Gant [J Phys Chem 65 1861 1961] treated ethane by standing it for 24hours at room temperature in a steel bomb with activated charcoal treated with bromine. They then immersed the bomb in a Dry-ice/acetone bath and transferred the ethane to an activated charcoal trap cooled in liquid nitrogen. (The charcoal had previously been degassed by pumping for 24hours at 450o.) By allowing the trap to warm slowly, the ethane distils, and only the middle third fraction is kept. Removal of methane is achieved using Linde type 13X molecular sieves (previously degassed by pumping for 24hours at 450o) in a trap which, after cooling in Dry-ice/acetone, is saturated with ethane. After pumping for 10minutes, the ethane is recovered by warming the trap to 25o. (The final gas contains less than 10-4 mole % of either ethylene or methane). [Beilstein 1 IV 108.]

비 호환성

Flammable gas; forms explosive mixture with air. Strong oxidizers may cause fire and explosions. May accumulate static electrical charges, and may cause ignition of its vapors.

폐기물 처리

Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed.

GRADES AVAILABLE

Ethane is typically available for commercial and industrial purposes in a c.P. grade (minimum purity of99.0 mole percent) or a technical grade (minimum purity of 95.0 mole percent).

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