Cephalosporins Drugs

Cephalosporins refer to a class of antibiotics using the natural cephalosporin C secreted by the cephalosporin coronary culture as raw materials. It is manufactured through semi-synthetic modification of the side chain of cephalosporin C, also belonging to β-lactam antibiotics. It is a family of broad-spectrum semi-synthetic bactericidal antibiotics. According to their different ages and different antimicrobial activity, they can be divided into first, second, third generations, including cephalosporin Ⅰ-Ⅷ, cefathiamidine, cefamandole, cefadroxil, ceftizoxime and cephamycin derivatives and moxalactam.

Antimicrobial spectrum
(1) First generation cephalosporins mainly have effects on β-hemolytic streptococci and other streptococci, staphylococci (including enzyme production strains), Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella and Shigella bacteria. This class of antibiotics has relative weak resistance against the β-lactamase produced by the gram-negative bacteria. Therefore it is easier for Gram-negative bacteria to develop resistance.

(2) Second-generation cephalosporins have comparable or slightly lower antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria compared to the first generation of antimicrobial activity similar to or slightly lower than the first generation, while having excellent effects in inhibiting the Gram-negative bacteria, as follows:
① Strong anti-enzyme capability: some Gram-negative bacteria (such as E. coli) are easy to become resistant against the first-generation cephalosporin with the second generation often being effective;
② Broad antimicrobial spectrum, the second generation has a broader antimicrobial spectrum against the first generation antibacterial spectrum with certain antibacterial activity against Neisseria, a part of indole-positive Proteus, Citrobacter and Enterobacteriaceae.

(3) The effectiveness of third-generation cephalosporins in killing gram-positive bacteria are generally lower than the first generation while their effect against gram-negative bacteria is better than the second generation. The third generation cephalosporin has broader antibacterial spectrum and stronger resistance to the enzyme.

Toxic side effect
(1) Allergic reaction: it can cause skin rashes, asthma, angioedema, anaphylactic shock and so on. The anaphylactic shock of cephalosporins is similar to penicillin. These two types of drugs have varying degrees of cross-allergic reactions. In general, 10% to 30% of those who are allergic to penicillin are also allergic to the cephalosporin while the vast majority of cephalosporin-sensitive patients are also allergic to penicillin.

(2) Gastrointestinal reactions and dysbacteriosis: cephalosporins can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and other reactions. Second-generation and third-generation cephalosporins can strongly inhibit the intestinal flora, being able to lead to dysbacteriosis, even superinfection in severe cases.

(3) Liver toxicity: Most kinds of cephalosporins, when used in large dose, can cause elevated level of transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and so on.

(4) Renal toxicity: Most kinds of cephalosporins can be excreted by the kidneys, and even can lead to elevated blood urea nitrogen level, oliguria and proteinuria. Its combination with furosemide and aminoglycoside antibiotics will lead to increased kidney damage.

(5) Coagulation disorders: cephalosporins can inhibit the intestinal flora to produce vitamin K, and therefore can potentially cause bleeding effect.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
(Z)-2-Amino-alpha-[1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)]-1-methylethoxyimino-4-thiazolacetic acid (Z)-2-Amino-alpha-[1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)]-1-methylethoxyimino-4-thiazolacetic acid 86299-47-0 C13H19N3O5S
TAEM TAEM 158183-05-2 C20H22N4O4S3
2-Mercaptobenzothiazolyl-(Z)-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl) isopropoxyiminoacetate  2-Mercaptobenzothiazolyl-(Z)-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl) isopropoxyiminoacetate 89604-92-2 C20H22N4O4S3
7-Amino-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid 7-Amino-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid 36923-17-8 C7H8N2O3S
Ceftriaxone sodium Ceftriaxone sodium 104376-79-6 C18H16N8Na2O7S3.31/2H2O
Ceftiofur Ceftiofur 80370-57-6 C19H17N5O7S3
Cefeprime dihydrochloride Cefeprime dihydrochloride 107648-80-6 C19H25ClN6O5S2
Cefoselis sulfate Cefoselis sulfate 122841-12-7 C19H24N8O10S3
Cemandil sodium salt Cemandil sodium salt 42540-40-9 C19H17N6NaO6S2
Ceftiofur hydrochloride Ceftiofur hydrochloride 103980-44-5 C19H18ClN5O7S3
7-Amino-3-vinyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid diphenylmethyl ester  monohydrochloride 7-Amino-3-vinyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid diphenylmethyl ester monohydrochloride 79349-67-0 C22H21ClN2O3S
GCLH GCLH 64308-63-0 C29H25ClN2O4S
Ceftiofur sodium Ceftiofur sodium 104010-37-9 C19H18N5NaO7S3
Tilmicosin Tilmicosin 108050-54-0 C46H80N2O13
CEFATHIAMIDINE CEFATHIAMIDINE 33075-00-2 C19H28N4O6S2
7-Amino-3-chloro cephalosporanic acid 7-Amino-3-chloro cephalosporanic acid 53994-69-7 C7H7ClN2O3S
7-Aminocephalosporanic acid 7-Aminocephalosporanic acid 957-68-6 C10H12N2O5S
Cefodizime sodium Cefodizime sodium 86329-79-5 C20H21N6NaO7S4
Cephalexin Cephalexin 15686-71-2 C16H17N3O4S
Cefuroxime sodium Cefuroxime sodium 56238-63-2 C16H15N4O8S.Na
7-ACT 7-ACT 131257-07-3 C12H13N5O5S2
Cefcapene pivoxil hydrochloride Cefcapene pivoxil hydrochloride 147816-24-8 C23H32ClN5O9S2
Cefoselis Cefoselis 122841-10-5 C19H22N8O6S2
2-[2-[[(Phenylmethoxy)carbonyl]amino]-4-thiazolyl]-2-pentenedioic acid 5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) ester 2-[2-[[(Phenylmethoxy)carbonyl]amino]-4-thiazolyl]-2-pentenedioic acid 5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) ester 115065-79-7 C21H22N2O6S
Cefotaxime sodium Cefotaxime sodium 64485-93-4 C16H16N5NaO7S2
S-2-BENZOTHIAZOLYL (Z)-2-(5-AMINO-1,2,4-THIADIAZOL-3-YL)-2-METHOXYIMINO THIOACETATE S-2-BENZOTHIAZOLYL (Z)-2-(5-AMINO-1,2,4-THIADIAZOL-3-YL)-2-METHOXYIMINO THIOACETATE 104797-47-9 C14H10N4O3S3
Cefpirome Cefpirome 84957-29-9 C22H22N6O5S2
APRAMYCIN APRAMYCIN 37321-09-8 C21H41N5O11
Cefquinome sulfate Cefquinome sulfate 118443-89-3 C23H26N6O9S3
(Z)-2-(TERT-METHOXYCARBONYLMETHOXYIMINO)-2-(2-AMINOTHIAZOL-4-YL)ACETIC ACID (Z)-2-(TERT-METHOXYCARBONYLMETHOXYIMINO)-2-(2-AMINOTHIAZOL-4-YL)ACETIC ACID C11H15N3O5S
7-ACMA 7-ACMA 79349-53-4 C21H20Cl2N2O3S
Sodium cefamandole Sodium cefamandole 30034-03-8 C18H17N6NaO5S2
Cefozopran hydrochloride Cefozopran hydrochloride 113981-44-5 C19H17N9O5S2.HCl
CEPHALEXIN MONOHYDRATE CEPHALEXIN MONOHYDRATE 23325-78-2 C16H19N3O5S
Cefadroxil Cefadroxil 66592-87-8 C16H17N3O5S.H2O
Cefixime Cefixime 79350-37-1 C16H15N5O7S2
Latamoxef sodium Latamoxef sodium 64953-12-4 C20H21N6NaO9S
(6R,7R)-7-Amino-8-oxo-3-(1-propenyl)-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid (6R,7R)-7-Amino-8-oxo-3-(1-propenyl)-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid 120709-09-3 C10H12N2O3S
CEFOTAXIME CEFOTAXIME C16H17N5O7S2
PENICILLINASE PENICILLINASE 9012-26-4
ACECLIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE ACECLIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE 6109-70-2 C9H16ClNO2
Cefotiam hydrochloride Cefotiam hydrochloride 66309-69-1 C18H23N9O4S3.HCl
Cefoxitin sodium Cefoxitin sodium 33564-30-6 C16H18N3NaO7S2
Ceftibuten dihydrate Ceftibuten dihydrate 118081-34-8 C15H14N4O6S2.2H2O
7-Aminodesacetoxycephalosporanic acid 7-Aminodesacetoxycephalosporanic acid 26395-99-3 C8H10N2O3S
Cefditoren pivoxil Cefditoren pivoxil 117467-28-4 C25H28N6O7S3
Cefazolin sodium salt Cefazolin sodium salt 27164-46-1 C14H15N8NaO4S3
Cefdinir Cefdinir 91832-40-5 C14H13N5O5S2
Unii-p9vxv1408y Unii-p9vxv1408y 866021-48-9
Cefmetazole Cefmetazole 56796-20-4 C15H17N7O5S3
Cefpirome sulfate Cefpirome sulfate 98753-19-6 C22H24N6O9S3
Cefaclor Cefaclor 53994-73-3 C15H14ClN3O4S
Cefoxitin Cefoxitin 35607-66-0 C16H17N3O7S2
Ceftiolene Ceftiolene 77360-52-2 C20H18N8O8S3
Tilmicosin phosphate Tilmicosin phosphate
Cefetamet hydrochloride Cefetamet hydrochloride 65052-63-3 C14H15N5O5S2
Flomoxef Flomoxef 99665-00-6 C15H18F2N6O7S2
Cefetamet pivoxyl Cefetamet pivoxyl 65243-33-6 C20H25N5O7S2
Cefuroxime 1-acetoxyethyl ester Cefuroxime 1-acetoxyethyl ester 64544-07-6 C20H22N4O10S
SCE 2174 SCE 2174 95789-30-3 C27H37N9O7S3.2ClH
Cefotetan Cefotetan 69712-56-7 C17H17N7O8S4
Ceftezole sodium Ceftezole sodium 41136-22-5 C13H11N8NaO4S3
Ceftizoxime Ceftizoxime 68401-81-0 C13H13N5O5S2
Ceftizoxime alapivoxil Ceftizoxime alapivoxil 135821-54-4 C22H28N6O8S2
Ceftriaxone sodium Ceftriaxone sodium 74578-69-1 C18H19N8NaO7S3
Cefditoren Acid Sodium Salt Cefditoren Acid Sodium Salt 104146-53-4 C19H18N6NaO5S3+
3-MERCAPTO-2-METHYL-5-OXO-6-HYDROXY-1,2,4-TRIAZINE 3-MERCAPTO-2-METHYL-5-OXO-6-HYDROXY-1,2,4-TRIAZINE C4H5N3O2S
Cefradine Cefradine 38821-53-3 C16H19N3O4S
Cefatrizine Cefatrizine 51627-14-6 C18H18N6O5S2
(Z)-2-(5-AMINO-1,2,4-THIADIAZOL-3-YL)-2-METHOXYIMINO ACETIC ACID (Z)-2-(5-AMINO-1,2,4-THIADIAZOL-3-YL)-2-METHOXYIMINO ACETIC ACID 68786-47-0 C43H33N3O3S
Ceftazidime Ceftazidime 78439-06-2 C22H32N6O12S2
Cefpiramide sodium Cefpiramide sodium 74849-93-7 C25H25N8NaO7S2
Cefprozil Cefprozil 92665-29-7 C18H19N3O5S
Cefoperazone Cefoperazone 62893-19-0 C25H27N9O8S2
Cephalonium Cephalonium 5575-21-3 C20H18N4O5S2
Cefpodoxime proxetil Cefpodoxime proxetil 87239-81-4 C21H27N5O9S2
Cefpiramide acid Cefpiramide acid 70797-11-4 C25H24N8O7S2
Cefteram pivoxil Cefteram pivoxil 82547-58-8 C16H17N9O5S2
Cefoperazone sodium Cefoperazone sodium 62893-20-3 C25H28N9NaO8S2
7-Amino-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid diphenylmethyl ester 7-Amino-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid diphenylmethyl ester 36923-21-4 C20H18N2O3S
Hydroxymethyl-7-Aminocephalosporanic acid Hydroxymethyl-7-Aminocephalosporanic acid 15690-38-7 C8H10N2O4S
CEFATRIZINE PROPYLENE GLYCOL CEFATRIZINE PROPYLENE GLYCOL 64217-62-5 C21H26N6O7S2
Cefodizime Cefodizime 69739-16-8 C20H20N6O7S4
Cefotaxime Cefotaxime 63527-52-6 C16H17N5O7S2
Cefepime sulfate Cefepime sulfate 107648-78-2 C19H25N6O5S2.HO4S
Cefbuperazone sodium Cefbuperazone sodium 76648-01-6 C22H28N9NaO9S2
CeftazidiMe CeftazidiMe 72558-82-8 C22H22N6O7S2
Ceftibuten Ceftibuten 97519-39-6 C15H14N4O6S2
LF163892 MONOHYDRATE LF163892 MONOHYDRATE 76470-66-1 C16H16ClN3O4
Cefotiam Cefotiam 61622-34-2 C18H23N9O4S3
Cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride Cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride 111696-23-2 C20H26ClN5O7S2
Ceftizoxime sodium Ceftizoxime sodium 68401-82-1 C13H14N5NaO5S2
Latamoxef Latamoxef 64952-97-2 C20H20N6O9S
Cefuroxime Cefuroxime 55268-75-2 C16H16N4O8S
Cefmenoxime hydrochloride Cefmenoxime hydrochloride 75738-58-8 C32H35ClN18O10S6
Cefmenoxime Cefmenoxime 65085-01-0 C16H17N9O5S3
Cefepime hydrochloride Cefepime hydrochloride 123171-59-5 C19H24N6O5S2.2ClH.H2O
7-AMCA 7-AMCA 24701-69-7 C9H12N2O4S
CEFTRIAXONE CEFTRIAXONE 73384-59-5 C18H18N8O7S3
CEFMINOX SODIUM CEFMINOX SODIUM 92636-39-0 C16H24N7NaO8S3
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