Organic reagents

From early AD to mid-19 century, people mainly use the natural organic substance (such as animal and plant extracts) for qualitative analysis or quantitative analysis. From the second half of the 19th century to the 1920s, it had begun to appear of artificially synthetic organic reagent such as using potassium acetate xanthan for test of nickel, copper, and molybdenum; using morin for test of aluminum; using diazo coupling reaction for the detection of Nitrite; using α-β-nitroso naphthol for detection of cobalt; using dimethyglyoxime for nickel test.

After the proposal of the special-effects group in the 1930s and the proposal of theoretical analysis of functional groups theory in 1950s, people had carried out large-scale screen of organic reagents in search of special-effects analysis groups for different ions and had successfully synthesized a lot of agents of practical value (such as copper reagents, new copper agent, cadmium reagents, beryllium reagent, thorium reagents, etc.). Before the 1950s, the complex compound, in analytic chemistry, is mainly used in the aspects of the precipitation reaction of a binary chelate for the qualitative detection, precipitate isolation and gravimetric separation and other aspects. In the early 1950s and 1960, it is mainly in the form of complexometric titration. From the beginning of the late 1960s, the main focus has been moved to the photometric analysis. Meanwhile, it has been also developed of chelate organic solvent extraction.

8-hydroxy quinoline, hydrazones, oximes, hydroxamic acids, polyphenols, 1, 10-phenanthroline, phosphorus-oxygen extractant, β- diketones, triphenylmethane acid dye, xanthene dyes and azo dyes and other agents has all been widely studied and applied. On the other hand, the structural theoretical research (such as electronic effects, spatial effects and substituent effects) of the organic reagent can further facilitate the development of new-type organic reagents such as heterocyclic azo reagent. During this period, it has been also developed of monoazo chromotropic acid-type and disazo chromotropic acid-type reagent. During the mid-1970s, the chelating resin and adsorbents have achieved rapid development. Since the 1980s, Chinese researchers of analytical chemistry have made progress in the field of the synthesis and application of asymmetric disazo chromotropic acid.

Organic chemical reagents have wide application in analytic chemistry and are mainly used in solvents, precipitation agents, complexing agents, indicator, coloring reagent and surface active agent, etc. In order to adapt to a variety of analytical needs, sometimes it is required to purify certain reagents. For example, liquid organic reagent is often purified by distillation while solid substance is often purified through crystallization and sublimation. Substance having a high vapor pressure, namely having low purification boiling point and undergoing no decomposition under boiling temperature commonly applied atmospheric distillation; for less volatile and water-insoluble substance, namely having high purification point or undergoing decomposition under boiling temperature, we can apply vacuum distillation or steam distillation for purification of it.

Distillation is a commonly used method for laboratory purification of organic reagent. Conventional distillation apparatus generally comprises distiller, condenser and receiver, three parts with auxiliary section also containing heater, a thermometer, a wetted tube and cork.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
1,12-Dodecanediamine 1,12-Dodecanediamine 2783-17-7 C12H28N2
7-Methoxy-1-naphthylacetonitrile 7-Methoxy-1-naphthylacetonitrile 138113-08-3 C13H11NO
(+/-)-trans-1,2-Diaminocyclohexane (+/-)-trans-1,2-Diaminocyclohexane 1121-22-8 C6H14N2
4-Bromo-2,6-dimethylaniline 4-Bromo-2,6-dimethylaniline 24596-19-8 C8H10BrN
N-(3-AMINOPROPYL)CYCLOHEXYLAMINE N-(3-AMINOPROPYL)CYCLOHEXYLAMINE 3312-60-5 C9H20N2
4-BROMO-2-(TRIFLUOROMETHOXY)IODOBENZENE 4-BROMO-2-(TRIFLUOROMETHOXY)IODOBENZENE 175278-12-3 C7H3BrF3IO
2-Chloro-6-methylaniline 2-Chloro-6-methylaniline 87-63-8 C7H8ClN
(1R,2R)-(-)-1,2-Diaminocyclohexane (1R,2R)-(-)-1,2-Diaminocyclohexane 20439-47-8 C6H14N2
1-Methyl-4-pyrazole boronic acid pinacol ester 1-Methyl-4-pyrazole boronic acid pinacol ester 761446-44-0 C10H17BN2O2
2,5-Dibromoterephthalic acid 2,5-Dibromoterephthalic acid 13731-82-3 C8H4Br2O4
Heptane Heptane 142-82-5 C7H16
N-BENZYL-N-BUTYLAMINE N-BENZYL-N-BUTYLAMINE 2403-22-7 C11H17N
4-Methoxy-3-methylbenzoic acid 4-Methoxy-3-methylbenzoic acid 6880-04-2 C9H10O3
3,5-DIFLUOROBENZYL CHLORIDE 3,5-DIFLUOROBENZYL CHLORIDE 220141-71-9 C7H5ClF2
2,4,5-Trimethylbenzoic acid 2,4,5-Trimethylbenzoic acid 528-90-5 C10H12O2
ANTHRAQUINONE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID ANTHRAQUINONE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID 117-78-2 C15H8O4
(S)-3-Amino-3-phenylpropan-1-ol (S)-3-Amino-3-phenylpropan-1-ol 82769-76-4 C9H13NO
6-CHLORO-1-INDANONE  96 6-CHLORO-1-INDANONE 96 14548-38-0 C9H7ClO
4-FLUORO-2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)BENZOYL CHLORIDE 4-FLUORO-2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)BENZOYL CHLORIDE 189807-21-4 C8H3ClF4O
2,6-DIMETHYLBENZONITRILE 2,6-DIMETHYLBENZONITRILE 6575-13-9 C9H9N
2-Bromo-4-methylbenzoic acid 2-Bromo-4-methylbenzoic acid 7697-27-0 C8H7BrO2
9,9-DIMETHYL-9H-XANTHENE 9,9-DIMETHYL-9H-XANTHENE 19814-75-6 C15H14O
2-Chloro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid 2-Chloro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid 23228-45-7 C8H4ClF3O2
5-Fluoro-2-methoxyaniline 5-Fluoro-2-methoxyaniline 1978-39-8 C7H8FNO
7-Chloro-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid 7-Chloro-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid 100361-18-0 C12H8ClFN2O3
3-HYDRAZINOBENZOIC ACID 3-HYDRAZINOBENZOIC ACID 38235-71-1 C7H8N2O2
trans-4-(4-Propylcyclohexyl)benzonitrile trans-4-(4-Propylcyclohexyl)benzonitrile 61203-99-4 C16H21N
4-Methylmorpholine 4-Methylmorpholine 109-02-4 C5H11NO
(R,R)-TsDPEN (R,R)-TsDPEN 144222-34-4 C21H22N2O2S
3-FLUORO-2-METHYLBENZOIC ACID 3-FLUORO-2-METHYLBENZOIC ACID 699-90-1 C8H7FO2
3-Aminophthalhydrazide 3-Aminophthalhydrazide 521-31-3 C8H7N3O2
2-(4-Chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid 2-(4-Chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid 882-09-7 C10H11ClO3
2-Amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid 2-Amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid 89-77-0 C7H6ClNO2
(1S,2S)-(-)-1,2-Diphenyl-1,2-ethanediamine (1S,2S)-(-)-1,2-Diphenyl-1,2-ethanediamine 29841-69-8 C14H16N2
2,2,6,6-TETRAMETHYL-3,5-HEPTANEDIONE 2,2,6,6-TETRAMETHYL-3,5-HEPTANEDIONE 1118-71-4 C11H20O2
4-Fluoro-3-methoxyaniline 4-Fluoro-3-methoxyaniline 64465-53-8 C7H8FNO
N,N-Diethylhydroxylamine N,N-Diethylhydroxylamine 3710-84-7 C4H11NO
4-Fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde 4-Fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde 90176-80-0 C8H4F4O
5-FLUORO-2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)BENZONITRILE 5-FLUORO-2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)BENZONITRILE 240800-45-7 C8H3F4N
Methyl 4-bromo-3-methylbenzoate Methyl 4-bromo-3-methylbenzoate 148547-19-7 C9H9BrO2
ETHYL 1-METHYL-1H-IMIDAZOLE-2-CARBOXYLATE ETHYL 1-METHYL-1H-IMIDAZOLE-2-CARBOXYLATE 30148-21-1 C7H10N2O2
Hexane Hexane 110-54-3 C6H14
N-OCTANE N-OCTANE 111-65-9 C8H18
2-CHLORO-6-FLUOROPHENYLACETONITRILE 2-CHLORO-6-FLUOROPHENYLACETONITRILE 75279-55-9 C8H5ClFN
N-Bromosuccinimide N-Bromosuccinimide 128-08-5 C4H4BrNO2
(S)-Oxiranemethanol (S)-Oxiranemethanol 60456-23-7 C3H6O2
4-FLUORO-2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)PHENOL 4-FLUORO-2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)PHENOL 130047-19-7 C7H4F4O
3-BROMO-4-METHOXYPHENYLACETIC ACID 3-BROMO-4-METHOXYPHENYLACETIC ACID 774-81-2 C9H9BrO3
4-Bromo-3,5-dimethylisoxazole 4-Bromo-3,5-dimethylisoxazole 10558-25-5 C5H6BrNO
2-Phenoxyethylamine 2-Phenoxyethylamine 1758-46-9 C8H11NO
4-BENZYLANILINE 4-BENZYLANILINE 1135-12-2 C13H13N
N,O-Dimethylhydroxylamine hydrochloride N,O-Dimethylhydroxylamine hydrochloride 6638-79-5 C2H8ClNO
1-Bromo-2-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzene 1-Bromo-2-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzene 168971-68-4 C7H3BrF4O
4,5-DIFLUOROPHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE 4,5-DIFLUOROPHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE 18959-30-3 C8H2F2O3
3-CHLORO-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHOXY)ANILINE 3-CHLORO-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHOXY)ANILINE 64628-73-5 C7H5ClF3NO
Ethyl 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-oxopropanoate Ethyl 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-oxopropanoate 1999-00-4 C11H11FO3
2,2,2-TRIFLUOROETHYL P-TOLUENESULFONATE 2,2,2-TRIFLUOROETHYL P-TOLUENESULFONATE 433-06-7 C9H9F3O3S
3-Amino-4-methylphenol 3-Amino-4-methylphenol 2836-00-2 C7H9NO
2-Fluoro-5-bromoanisole 2-Fluoro-5-bromoanisole 103291-07-2 C7H6BrFO
2-FLUORO-5-METHYLPHENYLBORONIC ACID 2-FLUORO-5-METHYLPHENYLBORONIC ACID 166328-16-1 C7H8BFO2
3,6-Dihydro-2H-pyran-4-boronic acid pinacol ester 3,6-Dihydro-2H-pyran-4-boronic acid pinacol ester 287944-16-5 C11H19BO3
2-CHLORO-5-METHYLPHENYLBORONIC ACID 2-CHLORO-5-METHYLPHENYLBORONIC ACID 193353-35-4 C7H8BClO2
(3-BOC-AMINOPHENYL)BORONIC ACID (3-BOC-AMINOPHENYL)BORONIC ACID 380430-68-2 C11H16BNO4
1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-propanol 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-propanol 920-66-1 C3H2F6O
3-IODO-4-METHOXYANILINE 3-IODO-4-METHOXYANILINE 74587-12-5 C7H8INO
2-BENZYLOXYANILINE 2-BENZYLOXYANILINE 20012-63-9 C13H13NO
1-Boc-pyrazole-4-boronic acid pinacol ester 1-Boc-pyrazole-4-boronic acid pinacol ester 552846-17-0 C14H23BN2O4
3-Methoxydiphenylamine 3-Methoxydiphenylamine 101-16-6 C13H13NO
2-FLUORO-5-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)BENZOYL CHLORIDE 2-FLUORO-5-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)BENZOYL CHLORIDE 207981-46-2 C8H3ClF4O
4-FLUORO-3-METHOXYACETOPHENONE 4-FLUORO-3-METHOXYACETOPHENONE 64287-19-0 C9H9FO2
3-(Trifluoromethoxy)benzyl bromide 3-(Trifluoromethoxy)benzyl bromide 159689-88-0 C8H6BrF3O
2,4,6-Trimethoxybenzoic acid 2,4,6-Trimethoxybenzoic acid 570-02-5 C10H12O5
N-Ethylbenzylamine N-Ethylbenzylamine 14321-27-8 C9H13N
2-Amino-2'-fluoro-5-bromobenzophenone 2-Amino-2'-fluoro-5-bromobenzophenone 1479-58-9 C13H9BrFNO
4-Bromo-2-hydroxybenzoic acid 4-Bromo-2-hydroxybenzoic acid 1666-28-0 C7H5BrO3
alpha-Bromo-2-chlorophenylacetic acid alpha-Bromo-2-chlorophenylacetic acid 141109-25-3 C8H6BrClO2
2-FLUORO-5-METHOXYBENZONITRILE 2-FLUORO-5-METHOXYBENZONITRILE 127667-01-0 C8H6FNO
2-Chloro-5-aminophenol 2-Chloro-5-aminophenol 6358-06-1 C6H6ClNO
3-CHLORO-2-FLUOROBENZOYL CHLORIDE 3-CHLORO-2-FLUOROBENZOYL CHLORIDE 85345-76-2 C7H3Cl2FO
5-Chloro-2,4-dimethoxyaniline 5-Chloro-2,4-dimethoxyaniline 97-50-7 C8H10ClNO2
2-Fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline 2-Fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline 69409-98-9 C7H5F4N
2-ISOPROPYLANILINE 2-ISOPROPYLANILINE 643-28-7 C9H13N
(1R,2R)-(+)-1,2-Diphenylethylenediamine (1R,2R)-(+)-1,2-Diphenylethylenediamine 35132-20-8 C14H16N2
4-Aminobenzylamine 4-Aminobenzylamine 4403-71-8 C7H10N2
(1S,2S)-(+)-N-(4-Toluenesulfonyl)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine (1S,2S)-(+)-N-(4-Toluenesulfonyl)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine 167316-27-0 C21H22N2O2S
2-Fluoro-3-methylaniline 2-Fluoro-3-methylaniline 1978-33-2 C7H8FN
(R)-1-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethanol (R)-1-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethanol 127852-28-2 C10H8F6O
3-FLUORO-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)BENZALDEHYDE 3-FLUORO-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)BENZALDEHYDE 204339-72-0 C8H4F4O
2-Amino-3,4-dimethylbenzoic acid 2-Amino-3,4-dimethylbenzoic acid 50419-58-4 C9H11NO2
(R)-(+)-Glycidol (R)-(+)-Glycidol 57044-25-4 C3H6O2
2,4,6-TRI-TERT-BUTYLANILINE 2,4,6-TRI-TERT-BUTYLANILINE 961-38-6 C18H31N
Di-p-toluoyl-D-tartaric acid monohydrate Di-p-toluoyl-D-tartaric acid monohydrate 71607-32-4 C20H20O9
N-Phenyl-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) N-Phenyl-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) 37595-74-7 C8H5F6NO4S2
3-CHLORO-4-METHYLBENZONITRILE 3-CHLORO-4-METHYLBENZONITRILE 21423-81-4 C8H6ClN
1,3-DIBROMO-5-(TRIFLUOROMETHOXY)BENZENE 1,3-DIBROMO-5-(TRIFLUOROMETHOXY)BENZENE 207226-31-1 C7H3Br2F3O
3-Amino-5-phenylpyrazole 3-Amino-5-phenylpyrazole 1572-10-7 C9H9N3
2,4,6-Trimethylaniline 2,4,6-Trimethylaniline 88-05-1 C9H13N
4-BROMO-2-METHYLANISOLE 4-BROMO-2-METHYLANISOLE 14804-31-0 C8H9BrO
(1S,2S)-(-)-1,2-Diaminocyclohexane L-tartrate (1S,2S)-(-)-1,2-Diaminocyclohexane L-tartrate 67333-70-4 C10H20N2O6
2'-Methylacetoacetanilide 2'-Methylacetoacetanilide 93-68-5 C11H13NO2
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