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74-83-9 Structure

74-83-9 Structure

Methyl bromide


Bromure de methyle

[Molecular Formula]

[MDL Number]

[Molecular Weight]

[MOL File]

Chemical PropertiesBack Directory

colourless gas with a chloroform-like odour

Methyl bromide is a colorless gas with a chloroform-like odor at high concentrations. A liquid below 3.3C. Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas.
[mp ]

−94 °C(lit.)
[bp ]

4 °C(lit.)
[density ]

3.3 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
[vapor density ]

3.3 (20 °C, vs air)
[vapor pressure ]

1420 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
[refractive index ]

[Fp ]

-34 °C
[storage temp. ]


Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, strong acids. This is an ozone-depleting chemical, and its use is restricted in many countries.
[Water Solubility ]

1.522 g/100 mL
[Merck ]

[CAS DataBase Reference]

74-83-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
[NIST Chemistry Reference]

Methyl bromide(74-83-9)
Questions And AnswerBack Directory
[Methyl bromide fumigation]

Methyl bromide is used as a fumigant and pesticide. Exposure may occur during fumigation activities.
Methyl bromide is a broad-spectrum fumigant that has been used around the world since the 1930s as a pre-plant soil fumigant to control insects, pathogens, and weeds, and to control insects in buildings and in commodities. It is also used for quarantine and pre-shipment applications.
Methyl bromide is one of the very few chemicals that were approved for broad-spectrum use in agriculture and pest control. The dominant use of methyl bromide worldwide is for pre-planting soil fumigation.
Methyl bromide is the most effective soil fumigant for killing plant pests, its use is being phased out because its emissions from soil can lead to stratospheric ozone depletion. 1992, Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer recognized that methyl bromide has an ozone-depleting potential (ODP); thus it is identified as an ozone-depleting substance.
[highly toxic]

Methyl bromide is highly toxic. Studies in humans indicate that the lung may be severely injured by the acute (short-term) inhalation of methyl bromide. Acute and chronic (long-term) inhalation of methyl bromide can lead to neurological effects in humans. Neurological effects have also been reported in animals. Degenerative and proliferative lesions in the nasal cavity developed in rats chronically exposed to methyl bromide by inhalation. Chronic inhalation exposure of male animals has resulted in effects on the testes at high concentrations. EPA has classified methyl bromide as a Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity.

The primary use of methyl bromide is as a fumigant in soil to control fungi, nematodes, and weeds; in space fumigation of food commodities (e.g., grains); and in storage facilities (such as mills, warehouses, vaults, ships, and freight cars) to control insects and rodents.
About 70% of methyl bromide produced in the United States goes into pesticidal formulations. Nonpesticidal uses include degreasing wool and extracting oils from nuts, seeds and flowers. Methyl bromide is also a methylating agent in the chemical industry. In the past, it was used as a refrigerant and as a fire-extinguishing agent in aircraft. The chemical name for this fumigant is bromomethane.
Methyl bromide is a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP) because of its high acute toxicity to applicators. Restricted Use Pesticides may be purchased and used only by certified applicators.
The bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (S(N)2) reaction of methyl bromide and OH-in aqueous solution has been investigated using a multilayered-representation quantum mechanical and molecular mechanics methodology.

(1) Under the law, methyl bromide may only be applied by licensed applicators or those under their direct supervision. Licensed applicators must meet strict criteria governing safe handling, storage and use of the compound, which helps to reduce exposure potential.
(2) Workers involved in methyl bromide application or the removal of containment after fumigation are likely to have the highest risk of exposure, followed by those workers who first re-enter the area after fumigation. To reduce this risk, regulations restrict re-entry to application sites and require personal protective clothing and equipment for people who handle the product.
(3) Because methyl bromide is absorbed by the soil and readily dissipates in the atmosphere, bystanders such as farm workers in adjacent fields and those who live or work nearby are likely less at risk. Even so, depending on soil and weather conditions and proximity to the application site, bystanders may come into contact with residues as the compound disperses.
(4) References:
Hazard InformationBack Directory
[Chemical Properties]

Bromomethane is a highly toxic compound and the US EPA has grouped it as a toxicity class I chemical substance. Bromomethane is a colorless gas or volatile liquid that is usually odorless, but has a sweet, chloroform-like odor at high concentrations and is easily miscible with ethanol, ether, aromatic carbon disulfi de, and ketones. It decomposes on heating and, on burning, produces highly toxic and irritating fumes, bromides, carbon oxybromide, carbon dioxide, and monoxide. It is also used as a general purpose fumigant to kill a variety of pests, including rats and insects, and a gas soil fumigant against insects, termites, rodents, weeds, nematodes, and soil-borne diseases. Bromomethane is used for post-harvest fumigation of foods, such as cereals, spices, dried fruits, nuts, fresh fruits, and vegetables. Although bromomethane is on the list of banned ozone-depleting chemical substances of the Montreal Protocol, in 2005 and 2006 it was granted a critical use exemption (under the Montreal Protocol). Bromomethane is an RUP and should be purchased and used only by certifi ed applicators.
[Chemical Properties]

Methyl bromide (Bromomethane) is an odorless, sweetish, colorless gas that has been used as a soil fumigant and structural fumigant to control pests across a wide range of agricultural sectors. Methyl bromide is soluble in ethanol, benzene, carbon disulfi de, and sparingly in water. During the 1920s, methyl bromide was used as an industrial fi re extinguishing agent. The current uses of methyl bromide include the fumigation of homes and other structures for the control of termites and other pests. Because methyl bromide depletes the stratospheric ozone layer, the amount produced and imported in the United States was reduced incrementally until it was phased out on January 1, 2005, pursuant to our obligations under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Protocol) and the Clean Air Act (CAA).
[General Description]

Colorless highly toxic volatile liquid or a gas. Boiling point 3.56°C (38.41°F). Usually odorless, but has a sweetish chloroform-like odor at high concentrations. Used as an insecticide, a rodenticide, a fumigant, a nematocide, a chemical intermediate and as a fire extinguishing agent.
[Reactivity Profile]

METHYL BROMIDE(74-83-9) is incompatible with metals, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene oxide. [Lewis]. Can give flammable products if mixed with potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and other strong bases. METHYL BROMIDE(74-83-9) in a steel tank reacted with an aluminum tube (part of the level gauge) producing methyl aluminum bromide. When the latter was subsequently exposed to air, enough heat was produced to ignite the METHYL BROMIDE(74-83-9)-compressed air mixture above the liquid layer. The ensuing explosion shattered the tank (also incompatible with zinc, magnesium, and alloys)[Chem. Eng. Pro. 58(8). 1962]. A reaction between METHYL BROMIDE(74-83-9) and dimethyl sulfoxide resulted in an explosion that shattered the apparatus [NFPA 491M. 1991].
[Air & Water Reactions]

Nonflammable over a wide range of concentrations in air. Slightly soluble in water (about 1.75 g/100 mL of solution at 20° C). Reacts slowly with water to give methyl alcohol and hydrobromic acid. [K-O Vol. 4].

Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption; strong irritant to skin and upper respiratory tract. Questionable carcinogen.
[Health Hazard]

Exposures to bromomethane in high concentrations cause headaches, burns the skin, itching, redness, blisters, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and weakness. Prolonged periods of exposure cause mental excitement, muscle tremors, seizures, bronchitis and pneumonia, numbness, tremor, speech defects, damage to the nervous system, lung, nasal mucosa, kidney, convulsions, respiratory paralysis, coma, and death. Human exposure to bromomethane is predominantly occupational, during manufacture and occupational fi eld fumigation.
[Health Hazard]

Exposures to methyl bromide by inhalation cause injury to the brain, nerves, lungs, and throat. At high doses, breathing methyl bromide causes injury to the kidneys and liver. The symptoms of methyl bromide toxicity and poisoning include, but are not limited to, dizziness, headache, abdominal pain, vomiting, weakness, hallucinations, loss of speech, incoordination, labored breathing, and convulsions. Contact with the skin and eyes can lead to irritation and burns. After serious exposures to methyl bromide, occupational workers suffer with lung and/or nervous system-related problems and permanent brain/ nerve damage. Laboratory study with species of animals indicated that bromomethane does not cause birth defects and does not interfere with normal reproduction except at high exposure levels
[Health Hazard]

Methyl bromide is a dangerous cumulative poison with delayed symptoms of central nervous system intoxication that may appear as long as several months after exposure. High concentrations can produce fatal pulmonary edema. Chronic exposure can cause central nervous system depression and kidney injury. It may cause severe and permanent brain damage. Severe neurological signs may appear when there is a sudden exposure to high concentrations following continuous slight exposure. Methyl bromide has practically no odor or irritating effects and therefore no warning, even at hazardous concentrations.
[Potential Exposure]

Methyl bromide is used in fire extinguishers; as a fumigant in pest control and as a methylation agent in industry as an insect fumigant for soil, grain, warehouses, mills, ships, etc. It is also used as a chemical intermediate and a methylating agent; a refrigerant; a herbicide; a low-boiling solvent in aniline dye manufacture; for degreasing wool; for extracting oils from nuts, seeds, and flowers; and in ionization chambers. It is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of many drugs.
[Fire Hazard]

When heated to decomposition, METHYL BROMIDE emits toxic fumes of bromides. Hazardous polymerization may not occur.
[First aid]

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy. If frostbite has occurred, seek medical attention immediately; do NOT rub the affected areas or flush them with water. In order to prevent further tissue damage, do NOT attempt to remove frozen clothing from frostbitten areas. If frostbite has NOT occurred, immediately and thoroughly wash contaminated skin with soap and water

UN1062 Methyl bromide, Hazard Class: 2.3; Labels: 2.3-Poisonous gas, Inhalation Hazard Zone C. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner

Attacks aluminum to form spontaneously flammable aluminum trimethyl. Incompatible with strong oxidizers, aluminum, dimethylsulfoxide, ethylene oxide; water. Attacks zinc, magnesium, alkali metals and their alloys. Attacks some rubbers and coatings. Methyl bromide reacts with water to generate hydrobromic acid and methanol but the reaction is so slow that it can be disregarded for most practical purposes.
[Waste Disposal]

Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. A poisonous gas. Must be handled by experts: the recommended disposal procedure is to spray the gas into the fire box of an incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber (alkali).
Safety DataBack Directory
[Hazard Codes ]

[Risk Statements ]

R23/25:Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed .
R36/37/38:Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin .
R48/20:Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation .
R50:Very Toxic to aquatic organisms.
R59:Dangerous for the ozone layer.
R68:Possible risk of irreversible effects.
R38:Irritating to the skin.
R20/22:Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed .
R11:Highly Flammable.
R67:Vapors may cause drowsiness and dizziness.
R66:Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking.
R19:May form explosive peroxides.
R12:Extremely Flammable.
[Safety Statements ]

S15:Keep away from heat .
S27:Take off immediately all contaminated clothing .
S36/39:Wear suitable protective clothing and eye/face protection .
S38:In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment .
S45:In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible) .
S59:Refer to manufacturer/supplier for information on recovery/recycling .
S61:Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet .
S36/37:Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves .
S26:In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice .
S24:Avoid contact with skin .
S16:Keep away from sources of ignition-No smoking .
S7:Keep container tightly closed .

UN 1062 2.3
[WGK Germany ]


[HazardClass ]

[HS Code ]


Handling and storage of bromomethane cylinders must meet the specifi cations laid down by the regulatory authorities. The cylinders must undergo the required and periodic tests

Methyl bromide (Bromomethane) should be kept stored in sealed containers to keep it from evaporating.

Occupational workers should use appropriate ventilation during production and formulation of bromomethane at the workplace. The ventilation must be suffi cient to maintain the levels of bromomethane below the prescribed OEL. Local exhaust ventilation at source or vapor extraction may also be used. Gloves or rubber boots should not be used as the liquid or concentrated vapor may be trapped inside them
[Safety Profile]

Suspected carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic data. A human poison by inhalation. Human systemic effects by inhalation: anorexia, nausea or vomiting. Corrosive to skin; can produce severe burns. Human mutation data reported. A powerful fumigant gas that is one of the most toxic of the common organic hahdes. It is hemotoxic and narcotic with delayed action. The effects are cumulative and damaging to nervous system, hdneys, and lung. Central nervous system effects include blurred vision, mental confusion, numbness, tremors, and speech defects. Methyl bromide is reported to be eight times more toxic on inhalation than ethyl bromide. Moreover, because of its greater volatility, it is a much more frequent cause of poisoning. Death following acute poisoning is usually caused by its irritant effect on the lungs. In chronic poisoning, death is due to injury to the central nervous system. Fatal poisoning has always resulted from exposure to relatively high concentrations of methyl bromide vapors (from 8600 to 60,000 ppm). Nonfatal poisoning has resulted from exposure to concentrations as low as 100-500 ppm. In addtion to injury to the lung and central nervous system, the kidneys may be damaged, with development of albuminuria and, in fatal cases, cloudy swelhng and/or tubular degeneration. The liver may be enlarged. There are no characteristic blood changes. Mixtures of 10-1 5 percent with air may be ignited with difficulty. Moderately explosive when exposed to sparks or flame. Forms explosive mixtures with air within narrow limits at atmospheric pressure, with wider limits at higher pressure. The explosive sensitivity of mixtures with air may be increased by the presence of aluminum, magnesium, zinc, or their alloys. Incompatible with metals, dunethyl sulfoxide, ethylene oxide. To fight fire, use foam, water, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Br-. See also BROMIDES
[Hazardous Substances Data]

74-83-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
Raw materials And Preparation ProductsBack Directory
[Raw materials]

Sodium hydroxide-->Methanol-->Bromine-->Sulfur-->Tetrachlorvinphos-->GLOBULINS, CAT GAMMA
[Preparation Products]

9-VINYLANTHRACENE-->3-Hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one-->DMDS-->3-ISOPROPENYL-ALPHA,ALPHA-DIMETHYLBENZYL ISOCYANATE-->4-Methoxy-N,6-dimethyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine-->1-[2-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-1-(1-HYDROXY-1-PHENYLETHYL)ETHYL]-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE-->Metribuzin-->(Aminomethyl)phosphonic acid-->4,4-DIMETHYL-2-PENTANONE-->Antipyrine-->3,3-Diphenyltetrahydrofuran-2-ylidene(dimethyl)ammonium bromide-->1-Methyl-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-->METHYLMAGNESIUM BROMIDE-->Ozagrel-->Diethyl(acetylamino)((2-((bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)methyl)-5-nitrophenyl)methyl)propanedioate-->Pancuronium bromide -->21-Iodo-16-methylpregna-1,4,9(11)-trien-17-ol-3,20-dione-->Camostat-->3-BENZOYLPHENYLACETIC ACID-->Dexamethasone-17-acetate-->BRETYLIUM TOSYLATE-->17,21-dihydroxy-16beta-methylpregna-1,4,9(11)-triene-3,20-dione 21-acetate-->16-Methylpregna-1,4,9(11)-trien-17-ol-3,20-dione-->2-Methyl-2-adamantanol-->Tiotropium bromide-->1-(2-CHLORO-PYRIDIN-4-YL)-ETHANONE-->Propantheline bromide -->9beta,11beta-epoxy-17,21-dihydroxy-16beta-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 21-acetate-->9-Bromo-11,17,21-trihydroxy-16-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione-21-acetate-->methyl triC^{9~11^} alkyl ammonium chloride-->Neostigmine bromide -->Methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide-->Octadecy trimethyl ammonium bromide-->16-Methylpregna-4,9(11)-dien-17-ol-3,20-dione-->Vecuronium bromide
Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)Back Directory
[msds information]

Methyl bromide(74-83-9).msds
Spectrum DetailBack Directory
[Spectrum Detail]

Methyl bromide(74-83-9)1HNMR
Well-known Reagent Company Product InformationBack Directory
[Sigma Aldrich]

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