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Potassium carbonate

CAS No.
584-08-7
Chemical Name:
Potassium carbonate
Synonyms
K2CO3;Anhydrous potassium carbonate;POTASH;potassium carbonate anhydrous;POTASSIUM CARBONATE USP;Pearl dust;Kaliumcarbonat;BUFFERED PEPTONE;dipotassiumcarbonate;PotassiumCarbonateFcc
CBNumber:
CB4853879
Molecular Formula:
K2CO3
Molecular Weight:
138.21
MDL Number:
MFCD00011382
MOL File:
584-08-7.mol
MSDS File:
SDS
Last updated:2024-02-18 17:28:16

Potassium carbonate Properties

Melting point 891 °C (lit.)
Boiling point decomposes [STR93]
Density 2.43 g/mL at 25 °C
storage temp. Store at +5°C to +30°C.
solubility H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
pka 10.33[at 20 ℃]
form powder
Specific Gravity 2.29
color Yellow
PH 10.52(1 mM solution);11(10 mM solution);11.36(100 mM solution);
Odor at 100.00?%. odorless
Water Solubility 1120 g/L (20 ºC)
Sensitive Hygroscopic
λmax λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.03
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.02
Merck 14,7619
BRN 4267587
Dielectric constant 5.6(16.0℃)
Stability Stable. Incompatible with moisture, acids, magnesium bromine trifluoride and magnesium bromine trichloride.
CAS DataBase Reference 584-08-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
FDA 21 CFR 184.1619; 582.1619; 173.310; 310.545
Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS) POTASSIUM CARBONATE
SCOGS (Select Committee on GRAS Substances) Potassium carbonate
EWG's Food Scores 1
FDA UNII BQN1B9B9HA
NIST Chemistry Reference Dipotassium carbonate(584-08-7)
EPA Substance Registry System Potassium carbonate (584-08-7)

SAFETY

Risk and Safety Statements

Symbol(GHS)  GHS hazard pictograms
GHS07
Signal word  Warning
Hazard statements  H315-H319-H335
Precautionary statements  P261-P264-P271-P280-P302+P352-P305+P351+P338
Hazard Codes  Xn
Risk Statements  22-36/37/38-20/21/22
Safety Statements  26-36-37/39
RIDADR  3262
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  TS7750000
3
TSCA  Yes
PackingGroup  III
HS Code  28364000
Toxicity LD50 orally in rats: 1.87 g/kg, H. F. Smyth et al., Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 30, 470 (1969)
NFPA 704
0
2 1

Potassium carbonate price More Price(136)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 931101 Potassium carbonate anhydrous, free-flowing, powder, Redi-Dri?, 99.99% trace metals basis 584-08-7 25G $143 2023-06-20 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 931101 Potassium carbonate anhydrous, free-flowing, powder, Redi-Dri?, 99.99% trace metals basis 584-08-7 50G $258 2023-06-20 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 60109 Potassium carbonate puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, anhydrous, ≥99.0% (T) 584-08-7 250g $39.7 2023-06-20 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 60109 Potassium carbonate puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, anhydrous, ≥99.0% (T) 584-08-7 500g $72.8 2023-06-20 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 60109 Potassium carbonate puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, anhydrous, ≥99.0% (T) 584-08-7 1kg $136 2023-06-20 Buy
Product number Packaging Price Buy
931101 25G $143 Buy
931101 50G $258 Buy
60109 250g $39.7 Buy
60109 500g $72.8 Buy
60109 1kg $136 Buy

Potassium carbonate Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Description

Potassium carbonate (molecular formula: K2CO3), also known as potash or pearl ash, appears as a white powder or as colorless solid crystal with salty taste and deliquescence. It can be dissolved in water to form a strongly alkaline solution. However, it is insoluble in organic solvents such as ethanol. It has wide applications. For example, it can be used as a drying agent, buffering agent and a source of potassium in laboratory. It can also be used for the manufacturing of fire extinguishers, soap, glass, and soften water. In addition, it is also used during the production of cocoa powder to balance pH. Moreover, it can be supplied to effervescent tablets which can conveniently provide potassium when there are low levels of potassium in the blood for patients caused by various kinds of factors. In industry, potassium carbonate is manufactured though first performing electrolysis of potassium chloride to generate potassium hydroxide, followed by reaction with carbon dioxide to derive the product. It is toxic upon eye contact, inhalation and ingestion. For rats, it has an oral LD50 being 1870 mg/kg. It has chronic effects on humans, causing damage to the mucous membranes, skin, and eyes.
Potassium carbonate

Chemical Properties

It belongs to monoclinic, and is white powder or granular crystal. It is easily soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol and ether.

Uses

Potassium carbonate can serve as an effective alkaline agent and dough conditioner and is capable of hindering the fermentation process in noodles. It can be applied to pasta food, where its application quantity must be in accordance with production requirements. In addition, potassium carbonate can be used for the production of optical glass, as it enhances the transparency, strength, and refractive coefficient of the material. It is also useful as a welding electrode, preventing arc-breaking during welding. Further applications of potassium carbonate include its utility as a vat dye and as a white discharging agent for ice dyeing. It can be utilized as an absorbent for removing carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, and quantities can be mixed with soda ash to create a dry powder extinguishing agent.

Production method

The ion exchange method: dubbed 250 g/L solution and adding a small amount of potassium carbonate to remove calcium and magnesium ions. Ammonium bicarbonate solution is also prepared at a concentration 200 g/L in water. Pass the potassium chloride solution through a countercurrent into ion exchange column, to make the sodium resin R-Na become potassium type RK, wash off the chlorine ion within the gap of the soft resin; after finishing washing, put through the ammonium bicarbonate solution downstream into the resin exchange column, making the resin become ammonium type R-NH4 and obtain a mixed dilute solution of potassium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate; go through evaporation once to decompose the ammonium bicarbonate; evaporate once again to decompose most of the potassium bicarbonate into potassium carbonate; the precipitated potassium chloride crystal after cooling was filtered and removed; further go through evaporation for three times to 54°C and filter to remove the compound salt of potassium and sodium. The solution was subject to carbonation to convert the potassium carbonate into potassium bicarbonate; further go through crystallization, separation, washing, calcination to obtain the finished product. Its reaction steps are as below:
R-Na + KCl → R-K + NaCl
R-K + NH4HCO3 → R-NH4 + KHCO3
2KHCO3 → K2CO3 + CO2 ↑+ H2O
Leblanc method: Mix the potassium, coal, limestone in a certain ratio, add water and stir, wherein the potassium chloride is maintained at 6% to 8%, the sodium salt is maintained in 8% to 10% and then subject to calcination at 900~1000 ℃ to obtain the black ash. The black ash is pulverized and subject to hot water extraction. The immersion is further subject to evaporation to precipitate some part of unconverted potassium sulfate out; it was further sent to the carbonation tower for pre-carbonation after separation. Add the potassium permanganate into the carbonation solution to remove the impurities precipitate of aluminum, silicon, and iron; the filtrate was evaporated to the precipitation of potassium carbonate, sodium compound salt and impurities; the clarifying solution further undergoes secondary carbonation to obtain the crude potassium carbonate crystals; it further goes through filtering, water washing, and further calcination at 500~600 ℃ to obtain the finished potassium carbonate product. Its reaction processes are:
K2SO4 + 2C + CaCO3 → K2CO3 + CaS + 2CO2 ↑
K2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2KHCO3
2KHCO3 → K2CO3 + CO2 ↑+ H2O
Recrystallization method: dissolve the technical grade potassium carbonate in distilled water for solution purification; remove the impurities through filtration; the filtrate is further subject to concentration by evaporation, cooling crystallization, centrifugation, and drying to obtain the finished product of anhydrous potassium carbonate.

Reference quality standards

Item Premium grade First grade Qualified II type
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) content ≥ 99.0% 98.5% 96.0% 99.0%
Chloride (KCl) content ≤ 0.01% 0.10% 0.20% 0.03%
Sulfur compounds (in K2SO4) content ≤0.01% 0.10% 0.15% 0.04%
Iron (Fe) content of ≤ 0.001% 0.003% 0.010% 0.001%
Water-insoluble content ≤ 0.02% 0.05% 0.10% 0.04%
Burning loss ≤ 0.60% 1.00% 1.00% 0.80%

Content Analysis

To a pre-weighed weighing bottle with a plug, accurately weigh 1 g of dried sample measured according to the "loss on drying" assay and dissolve it in 50ml water. After adding of 2 drops of methyl red test solution (TS-149), stir continuously and titrate with 1mol/L hydrochloric acid titration until the solution turns into light pink. Heating the solution to boiling and further cool it down, continue to titrate to boiling until a pale pink color doesn’t disappears any more. Each Ml of 1mol/L hydrochloric acid is equivalent of 69.1 mg of potassium carbonate (K2CO3)

Toxicity

ADI does not make special provision (FAO/WHO, 2001).
LD50: 18.70mg/kg (rat, oral).
GRAS (FDA, §184.1619, 2000);

Chemical Properties

Potassium carbonate is a white, crystalline, salt that forms basic aqueous solutions used in the production of fertilizer, glass, ceramics, explosives, soaps, chemicals, and wool treatments. It was the main compound once referred to as potash, although the term today is not reserved exclusively for potassium carbonate, but for several potassium salts. In the fertilizer industry, potash refers to potassium oxide, K2O, rather than potassium carbonate. Pearlash is a purer form of potash made by heating potash to remove impurities.

Uses

Potassium carbonate is used in the chemical industry as a source of inorganic potassium salts (potassium silicates, potassium bicarbonate), which are used in fertilizers, soaps, adhesives, dehydrating agents, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. Potassium carbonate used to make potassium lye produces soft soaps, which are liquids or semisolids rather than solids. Other uses of potassium carbonate includes use as a fire suppressant in extinguishers, as a CO2 absorbent for chemical processes and pollution control, an antioxidant in rubber additives, and in pharmaceutical formulations.

Production Methods

Potassium carbonate can be obtained from ash or by electrolysis of potassium chloride. Another method involves reacting potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide. The resulting liquid carbonate contains approximately 50% potassium carbonate in water. However, the solid product, which contains over 70% potassium carbonate, is expensive and only suitable for certain types of acidic soil. Additionally, neutralizing caustic potash with carbon dioxide also yields potassium carbonate.

Definition

ChEBI: Potassium carbonate is a potassium salt that is the dipotassium salt of carbonic acid. It has a role as a catalyst, a fertilizer and a flame retardant. It is a carbonate salt and a potassium salt.

General Description

Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) which forms a strongly alkaline solution. It can be made as the product of potassium hydroxide's absorbent reaction with carbon dioxide. It presents a large capacity to absorb moisture.Corrosive to metals and tissue. Density 12.8 lb /gal. Used to make soaps, other potassium compounds, in liquid fertilizers.

Air & Water Reactions

Water soluble. Addition of water evolves heat.

Reactivity Profile

Potassium carbonate neutralizes acids exothermically to form salts plus water. Reacts with certain metals (such as aluminum and zinc) to form oxides or hydroxides of the metal and generate gaseous hydrogen. May initiate polymerization reactions in polymerizable organic compounds, especially epoxides. May generate flammable and/or toxic gases with ammonium salts, nitrides, halogenated organics, various metals, peroxides, and hydroperoxides. May serve as a catalyst. Reacts when heated above about 84°C with aqueous solutions of reducing sugars other than sucrose, to evolve toxic levels of carbon monoxide [Bretherick, 5th Ed., 1995].

Hazard

Solutions irritating to tissue.

Health Hazard

TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.

Fire Hazard

Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.

Agricultural Uses

Potassium carbonate is used in agriculture and food production. Potassium carbonate is used as a spray or drip fertilizer and also as a constituent of compound fertilizers. Its high water solubility and alkaline property make it useful for supplying potassium to acidic soils, especially in vineyards and orchards. Dutch-processed cocoa uses potassium carbonate as an alkalizing agent to neutralize the natural acidity of cocoa. It is used to produce food additives like potassium sorbate and monopotassium phosphate.

Industrial uses

Potassium carbonate is used for numerous applications. Its primary use is in the production of specialty glasses and ceramics. It is used to make optical glass, glass used for video screens in televisions and computers, and laboratory glassware. Its is used in certain glasses rather then cheaper sodium carbonate owing to its better compatibility with lead, barium, and strontium oxides incorporated in these glasses. These oxides lower the melting point of glass and produce a softer glass. Potassium carbonate has a higher refractive index than sodium carbonate producing a more brilliant glass. Potassium carbonate is a common flux combined with titanium dioxide to produce frits used in ceramics. A frit is a calcined mixture of fine silica, a pigment, and a flux that is ground a specific particle size and used to produce glazes, enamels, and additives in glass making.

Safety Profile

Poison by ingestion. A strong caustic. Incompatible with KCO, chlorine trifluoride, magnesium. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of K2O.

Purification Methods

It crystallises from water between 100o and 0o. The solubility in H2O is 105% at 0o, 127% at 60o and 205% at 135o (b of saturated solution). After two recrystallisations of technical grade material, it had B, Li and Fe at 1.0, 0.04 and 0.01 ppm, respectvely. [D.nges in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 987 1963.]

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_carbonate
https://www.drugs.com/inactive/potassium-carbonate-106.html
http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9926681
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Potassium-Carbonate
Solubility of Potassium Carbonate and Potassium Hydrocarbonate in Methanol DOI:10.1021/JE020012V

996-31-6
584-08-7
Synthesis of Potassium carbonate from Potassium lactate

Potassium carbonate Preparation Products And Raw materials

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Image Update time Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
Potassium carbonate pictures 2024-02-23 Potassium carbonate
584-08-7
US $1340.00-1330.00 / tons 10tons 99% 100tons Hebei Dangtong Import and export Co LTD
Potassium carbonate pictures 2024-01-04 Potassium carbonate
584-08-7
US $30.00 / KG 1KG 99.9% 20 Tons Wuhan Ruichi Technology Co., Ltd
potassium carbonate pictures 2023-12-21 potassium carbonate
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US $1050.00 / ton 20ton ≥99% 3000 ton per month Hebei Dongdu Import and Export Co. LTD
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  • Potassium carbonate
    584-08-7
  • US $1340.00-1330.00 / tons
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Potassium carbonate Spectrum

POTASSIUMCARBONATE,ANHYDROUS,GRANULAR,FCC POTASSIUMCARBONATE,ANHYDROUS,GRANULAR,PURIFIED POTASSIUMCARBONATE,ANHYDROUS,GRANULAR,REAGENT,ACS POTASSIUMCARBONATE,ANHYDROUS,GRANULAR,REAGENT,ACS(BULK POTASSIUMCARBONATE,ANHYDROUS,GRANULAR,USP POTASSIUM CARBONATE: 99.998% PURATREM Potassium carbonate,99+%,for analysis,anhydrous Potassium Carbonate, Puratronic (Metals Basis) PotassiuM carbonate, 99+%, ACS reagent, anhydrous PotassiuM carbonate, anhydrous, for analysis ACS, 99+% 100GR PotassiuM carbonate, anhydrous, for analysis, 99+% 1KG Potassium carbonate, extra pure, Ph Eur, USP, E 501, Ph Helv Potassium carbonate, extra pure, Ph Eur, USP, E 501, Ph Helv, DAC Potassium carbonate, reagent grade, ACS, ISO "Potassium carbonate, anhydrous/ 99+%" PotassiuM Carbonate (AS) Potassium carbonate (99.997%-K) PURATREM Potassium Carbonate 99.99% Potassium Carbonate (1 g) (AS) PotassiuM carbonate 99.995% trace Metals basis PotassiuM carbonate anhydrous, powder, 99.99% trace Metals basis PotassiuM carbonate BioXtra, >=99.0% PotassiuM carbonate puruM p.a., anhydrous, >=99.0% (T) PotassiuM carbonate reagent grade, >=98%, powder, -325 Mesh High Purity PotassiuM Carbonate anhydrous PotassiuM carbonate, 99.997% (Metals basis) POTASSIUM CARBONATE FOR ANALYSIS EMSURE PotassiuM Carbonate TS, (U.S.P. Test Solution) SALT OF TARTAR PEARL ASH POTASSIUM CARBONATE carbonatedepotassium carbonateofpotash PotassiumCarbonateAnhydrousAr PotassiumCarbonatePurified(Anhydrous) Carbonicacid,dipotassiumsalt Carbonicaciddipotassiumsalt kaliumcarbonicum K-Gran Montreal potash Potassium carbonate (2:1) potassiumcarbonate(2:1) potassiumcarbonate[k2(co3)] Sal absinthii Salt of wormwood Potassiumcarbonatehemihydrate,99% (CRYSTAL)POTASSIUM CARBONATE 4N(SP) Potassium carbonate, Puratronic(R), 99.997% (metals basis) Potassium carbonate, ACS, 99.0% min Dipotassium Cabonate Potassium carbonate, powder, 99+% Potassium Carbonate, granular Potassium Carbonate, Anhydrous, Granular, Reagent Potassiumcarbonate,ACSmin.99.9%;pwdr Potassiumcarbonate,Puratronic?99.997%(metalsbasis) POTASSIUM CARBONATE, POWDER Potassium carbonate, anhydrous, for analysis ACS, 99+% Potassium carbonate, anhydrous, for analysis, 99+%