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염화메틸

염화메틸
염화메틸 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
74-87-3
한글명:
염화메틸
동의어(한글):
염화메틸;메틸클로라이드;메틸클로라이드;클로로메탄
상품명:
METHYL CHLORIDE
동의어(영문):
R40;R 40;R-40;Artic;CH3Cl;HCC40;freon40;Freon 40;Clorometano;Chlormethan
CBNumber:
CB9673584
분자식:
CH3Cl
포뮬러 무게:
50.49
MOL 파일:
74-87-3.mol

염화메틸 속성

녹는점
−97 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
−24.2 °C(lit.)
밀도
0.915 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
증기 밀도
1.74 (vs air)
증기압
3796 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
굴절률
1.0007
인화점
<-30 °F
저장 조건
2-8°C
용해도
water: soluble5.32g/L at 25°C
폭발한계
19%
Merck
14,6041
BRN
1696839
Henry's Law Constant
In seawater: 5.22 at 5 °C, 6.36 at 10 °C, 8.72 at 15 °C, 9.35 at 20 °C, 11.20 at 25 °C (Moore, 2000)
노출 한도
TLV-TWA 50 ppm (~105 mg/m3) (ACGIH), 100 ppm (~210 mg/m3) (OSHA); ceiling 100 ppm (MSHA), 200 ppm (OSHA); TLV STEL 100 ppm (ACGIH); carcinogenicity: Animal Inadequate Evidence, Human Inad equate Evidence (IARC).
안정성
Stable. May react violently or explosively with interhalogens, magnesium, zinc, potassium, sodium or their alloys. Incompatible with natural rubber and neoprene composites, but does not attack PVA. Highly flammable. May decompose upon exposure to moist air or water.
CAS 데이터베이스
74-87-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
안전
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 F+,Xn,T,F
위험 카페고리 넘버 12-40-48/20-67-66-22-19-38-23/25-11-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-62-63
안전지침서 9-16-33-29-36-24-45-7-36/37
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1993 3/PG 1
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 PA6300000
자연 발화 온도 1169 °F
위험 등급 2.1
포장분류 II
독성 LC50 (inhalation) for mice 3,146 ppm/7-h, rats 152,000 mg/m3/30-min (quoted, RTECS, 1985).
그림문자(GHS):
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H220 극인화성 가스 인화성 가스 구분 1 위험 P210, P377, P381, P403
H224 극인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 1 위험
H225 고인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 2 위험 P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H280 고압가스; 가열시 폭발할 수 있음 고압가스 압축가스
액화가스
용존 가스
경고 P410+P403
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H336 졸음 또는 현기증을 일으킬 수 있음 특정표적장기 독성 물질(1회 노출);마취작용 구분 3 경고 P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 암을 일으킬 것으로 의심됨 (노출되어도 암을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 증거가 있는 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로 기재) 발암성 물질 구분 2 경고 P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킴(노출되어도 특정 표적장기 독성을 일으키지 않는다는 결정적인 노출경로가 있다면 노출경로를 기재) 특정 표적장기 독성 - 1회 노출 구분 1 위험 P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
H373 장기간 또는 반복 노출되면 장기(또는, 영향을 받은 알려진 모든 장기를 명시)에 손상을 일으킬 수 있음 특정 표적장기 독성 - 반복 노출 구분 2 경고 P260, P314, P501
H420 대기 상층부의 오존층을 파괴하여 공공의 건강 및 환경에 유해함 오존층에 유해 함 구분 1 경고 P502
예방조치문구:
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P261 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이의 흡입을 피하시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P281 요구되는 개인 보호구를 착용하시오
P311 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P377 누출성 가스 화재 시 : 누출을 안전하게 막을 수 없다면, 불을 끄려하지 마시오.
P301+P310 삼켰다면 즉시 의료기관(의사)의 진찰을 받으시오.
P403 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 보관하시오.
P502 정보의 재사용의 회복 / 제조 / 공급 업체를 참조하십시오

염화메틸 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산

화학적 성질

Methyl chloride,CH3CI, is a flammable, narcotic,colorless compressed gas or liquid with a faintly sweet odor.Slightly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol this gas boils at -23.7℃ and freezes at -97.6℃ and is used as a refrigerant, catalyst carrier, and methylating agent. Also known as chloromethane.

화학적 성질

Methyl chloride is a colorless gas with a faint, sweet odor which is not noticeable at dangerous concentrations. The odor threshold is 10 ppm. Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas.

물리적 성질

Colorless, liquefied compressed gas, with a sweet, ethereal odor. Volatile flammable gas. An experimentally determined odor threshold concentration of >100 ppmv was reported by Leonardos et al. (1969).

용도

Methyl chloride is used as a refrigerant,as a local anesthetic, as a blowing agentfor polystyrene foams, and as a methylat ing agent in the synthesis of a number ofchemicals of commercial application.

용도

manufacture of silicones, tetramethyleads. Solvent catalyst for butyl rubber. Has been used as a refrigerant.

정의

ChEBI: A one-carbon compound that is methane in which one of the hydrogens is replaced by a chloro group.

일반 설명

A colorless gas with a faint sweet odor. Shipped as a liquid under its vapor pressure. A leak may either be liquid or vapor. Contact with the liquid may cause frostbite by evaporative cooling. Easily ignited. Vapors heavier than air. Can asphyxiate by the displacement of air. Under prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket. Used to make other chemicals and as a herbicide.

공기와 물의 반응

Highly flammable.

반응 프로필

METHYL CHLORIDE can react vigorously with oxidizing agents. May react explosively with sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium alloy, magnesium, zinc. Reacts with aluminum powder in the presence of catalytic amounts of aluminum chloride to form pyrophoric trimethylaluminum. When heated to decomposition, METHYL CHLORIDE emits highly toxic fumes of chlorine [Bretherick, 5th ed., 1995, p. 176].

위험도

Flammable, dangerous fire risk, explosive limits in air 10.7–17%. Narcotic. Psychic effects. Central nervous system impairment; liver, kidney and testicular damage, and teratogenic effects. Questionable carcinogen.

건강위험

Inhalation causes nausea, vomiting, weakness, headache, emotional disturbances; high concentrations cause mental confusion, eye disturbances, muscular tremors, cyanosis, convulsions. Contact of liquid with skin may cause frostbite.

건강위험

Inhalation of methyl chloride can produceheadache, dizziness, drowsiness, nausea,vomiting, convulsions, coma, and respiratoryfailure. It is narcotic at high concentrations.Repeated exposures can produce liver and Methyl chloride caused adverse reproduc tive effects in test animals. These includeembryo toxicity, fetal death, developmentalabnormalities, and paternal effects in rats andmice. It tested positive to the histidine rever sion–Ames test for mutagenicity. The car cinogenic properties of this compound havenot been established. The evidence in ani mals and humans is inadequate.

화재위험

Flammable gas, burns with a smoky flame; autoignition temperature 632°C (1170°F). Methyl chloride forms explosive mixtures with air within the range 7.6–19.0% by volume in air. It reacts explosively with alkali metals, potassium, sodium, or lithium; sodium–potassium alloy; and with magnesium, aluminum, or zinc in powder form.

Safety Profile

Suspected carcinogen. Very mildly toxic by inhalation. An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. Human systemic effects by inhalation: convulsions, nausea or vomiting, and unspecified effects on the eye. Methyl chloride has slight irritant properties and may be inhaled without noticeable discomfort. It has some narcotic action, but this effect is weaker than that of chloroform. Acute poisoning, characterized by the narcotic effect, is rare in industry. In exposures to high concentrations, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination, confusion, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pains, hiccoughs, diplopia, and dimness of vision are followed by delirium, convulsions, and coma. Death may be immediate; however, if the exposure is not fatal, recovery is usually slow. Degenerative changes in the central nervous system are not uncommon. The liver, hdneys, and bone marrow may be affected, with resulting acute nephritis and anemia. Death resulting from degenerative changes in the heart, liver, and especially the kidneys may occur several days after exposure. Repeated exposure to low concentrations causes damage to the central nervous system and, less frequently, to the liver, hdneys, bone marrow, and cardiovascular system. Hemorrhages into the lungs, intestinal tract, and dura have been reported. Sprayed on the skin, chloromethane produces anesthesia through freezing of the tissues as it evaporates. Flammable gas. Very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame, or powerful oxidizers. Moderate explosion hazard when exposed to flame and sparks. Explodes on contact with interhalogens (e.g., bromine trifluoride, bromine pentafluoride), magnesium and alloys, potassium and alloys, sodium and alloys, zinc. Potentially explosive reaction with aluminum when heated to 152' in a sealed container. Mxtures with aluminum chloride + ethylene react exothermically and then explode when pressurized to above 30 bar. May ignite on contact with aluminum chloride or powdered aluminum. To fight fire, stop flow of gas and use CO2, dry chemical, or water spray. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of Cl-. See also CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, ALIPHATIC.

잠재적 노출

Methyl chloride is used as a methylating and chlorinating agent in organic chemistry; Used in production of silicones and tetramethyl lead. In petroleum refineries it is used as an extractant for greases, oils, and resins. Methyl chloride is also used as a solvent in the synthetic rubber industry; as a refrigerant; and as a propellant in polystyrene foam production. In the past it has been used as a local anesthetic (freezing). It is an intermediate in drug manufacture.

Source

Drinking water standard: No MCLGs or MCLs have been proposed although methyl chloride has been listed for regulation (U.S. EPA, 1996). In addition, 100 μg/L was recommended (U.S. EPA, 2000).

환경귀착

Biological. Enzymatic degradation of methyl chloride yielded formaldehyde (Vogel et al., 1987).
Photolytic. Reported photooxidation products via OH radicals include formyl chloride, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, and phosgene (Spence et al., 1976). In the presence of water, formyl chloride hydrolyzes to HCl and carbon monoxide, whereas phosgene hydrolyzes to hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide (Morrison and Boyd, 1971).
Methyl chloride reacts with OH radicals in the atmosphere at a rate of 8.5 x 10-14 cm3/sec with a lifetime of 135 d (Cox et al., 1976).
Chemical/Physical. The estimated hydrolysis half-life at 25 °C and pH 7 is 0.93 yr (Mabey and Mill, 1978).
The evaporation half-life of methyl chloride (1 mg/L) from water at 25 °C using a shallow-pitch propeller stirrer at 200 rpm at an average depth of 6.5 cm was 27.6 min (Dilling, 1977).

Solubility in water

Miscible with chloroform, ether, glacial acetic acid (U.S. EPA, 1985), and other chlorinated hydrocarbons including carbon tetrachloride.

운송 방법

UN1063 Methyl chloride, or Refrigerant gas R 40, Hazard Class: 2.1; Labels: 2.1-Flammable gas. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner

Purification Methods

Bubble methyl chloride through a sintered-glass disc dipped into conc H2SO4, then wash it with water, condense it at low temperature and fractionally distil it. It has been distilled from AlCl3 at -80o. Alternatively, pass it through towers containing AlCl3, soda-lime and P2O5, then condense and fractionally distil it. Store it as a gas. [Beilstein 1 IV 28.]

비 호환성

Violent reaction with chemically active metals, such as potassium, powdered aluminum; zinc, and magnesium. Reaction with aluminum trichloride, ethylene. Reacts with water (hydrolyzes) to form hydrochloric acid. Attacks many metals in the presence of moisture

폐기물 처리

Return refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Controlled incineration with adequate scrubbing and ash disposal facilities

염화메틸 준비 용품 및 원자재

원자재

준비 용품


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