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2,2'-Dichlorodiethyl ether

2,2'-Dichlorodiethyl ether
2,2'-Dichlorodiethyl ether structure
Chemical Name:
2,2'-Dichlorodiethyl ether
DCEE;bcee;Clorex;Chlorex;Khloreks;ent4,504;ENT 4,504;Dichloroether;etherdichlore;dichloroethyl
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

2,2'-Dichlorodiethyl ether Properties

Melting point:
−47 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
65-67 °C15 mm Hg(lit.)
1.22 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
vapor pressure 
0.4 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.456(lit.)
Flash point:
131 °F
storage temp. 
Sweet, like chloroform.
explosive limit
Water Solubility 
Slightly soluble. 1.72 g/100 mL
Exposure limits
NIOSH REL: TWA 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), STEL 10 ppm, IDLH 100 ppm; OSHA PEL: C 15 ppm (90 mg/m3); ACGIH TLV: TWA 30 mg/m3, STEL 60 mg/m3.
Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
CAS DataBase Reference
111-44-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Beta,beta'-dichloroethyl ether(111-44-4)
EPA Substance Registry System
Ethane, 1,1'-oxybis[2-chloro- (111-44-4)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
  • NFPA
Hazard Codes  T+,T,F
Risk Statements  10-26/27/28-40-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11
Safety Statements  27-28-36/37-45-7/9-28A-16
RIDADR  UN 1916 6.1/PG 2
WGK Germany  2
RTECS  KN0875000
Autoignition Temperature 365 °C
HazardClass  6.1
PackingGroup  II
HS Code  29091900
Hazardous Substances Data 111-44-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 orally in rats: 75 mg/kg (Smyth, Carpenter)
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H225 Highly Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 2 Danger P210,P233, P240, P241, P242, P243,P280, P303+ P361+P353, P370+P378,P403+P235, P501
H226 Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 3 Warning
H300 Fatal if swallowed Acute toxicity,oral Category 1, 2 Danger P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H301 Toxic if swalloed Acute toxicity,oral Category 3 Danger P264, P270, P301+P310, P321, P330,P405, P501
H310 Fatal in contact with skin Acute toxicity,dermal Category 1, 2 Danger P262, P264, P270, P280, P302+P350,P310, P322, P361, P363, P405, P501
H315 Causes skin irritation Skin corrosion/irritation Category 2 Warning P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H330 Fatal if inhaled Acute toxicity,inhalation Category 1, 2 Danger P260, P271, P284, P304+P340, P310,P320, P403+P233, P405, P501
H336 May cause drowsiness or dizziness Specific target organ toxicity,single exposure; Narcotic effects Category 3 Warning P261, P271, P304+P340, P312,P403+P233, P405, P501
H351 Suspected of causing cancer Carcinogenicity Category 2 Warning P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405,P501
H370 Causes damage to organs Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure Category 1 Danger P260, P264, P270, P307+P311, P321,P405, P501
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P233 Keep container tightly closed.
P240 Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P262 Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P284 Wear respiratory protection.
P311 Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P320 Specific treatment is urgent (see … on this label).
P330 Rinse mouth.
P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P302+P350 IF ON SKIN: Gently wash with plenty of soap and water.
P303+P361+P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off Immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse SKIN with water/shower.
P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and Keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.
P307+P311 IF exposed: call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P405 Store locked up.
P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.
P501 Dispose of contents/container to..…

NFPA 704

Diamond Hazard Value Description
3 1
Health   3 Short exposure could cause serious temporary or moderate residual injury (e.g. liquid hydrogen, sulfuric acid, calcium hypochlorite, hexafluorosilicic acid)
Flammability   2 Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur and multiple finely divided suspended solids that do not require heating before ignition can occur. Flash point between 37.8 and 93.3 °C (100 and 200 °F). (e.g. diesel fuel, sulfur)
Instability   1 Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures (e.g. propene)

(NFPA, 2010)

2,2'-Dichlorodiethyl ether price More Price(13)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 35660 Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether puriss., ≥99.0% (GC) 111-44-4 50ml $29.1 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 35660 Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether puriss., ≥99.0% (GC) 111-44-4 1l $122 2018-11-13 Buy
TCI Chemical B0472 Bis(2-chloroethyl) Ether >99.0%(GC) 111-44-4 25g $24 2018-11-22 Buy
TCI Chemical B0472 Bis(2-chloroethyl) Ether >99.0%(GC) 111-44-4 500g $47 2018-11-22 Buy
Alfa Aesar A14234 Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether, 99% 111-44-4 50g $25.6 2018-11-13 Buy

2,2'-Dichlorodiethyl ether Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Chemical Properties

colourless liquid

Chemical Properties

Dichloroethyl ether is a clear, colorless liquid. Pungent, fruity odor. It is also described as having a chlorinated solvent-like odor.


Reagent for organic synthesis; solvent. Has been used as a scouring agent for textiles; as soil fumigant.


Soil fumigant; acaricide.


Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether (BCEE) is used as ascouring agent for textiles; as a dewaxingagent for lubricating oils; as a soil fumigant;as a solvent for resins, oils, and lacquers; andin organic synthesis.

General Description

A clear colorless liquid with a sweet pleasant or nauseating odor. Flash point 131°F. Denser than water and insoluble in water. Toxic by inhalation and skin absorption. Used in cleaning compounds, paints, textile finishing, and as a general solvent.

Air & Water Reactions

Flammable. Insoluble in water. Reacts slowly with water to form HCl. Oxidizes readily in air to form unstable peroxides that may explode spontaneously [Bretherick, 1979 p.151-154].

Reactivity Profile

2,2'-Dichlorodiethyl ether may form phosgene or hydrogen when heated to high temperature. Oxidizes readily in air to form unstable peroxides that may explode spontaneously [Bretherick, 1979 p.151-154]. Mixing in equal molar portions with the following substances in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: chlorosulfonic acid and oleum [NFPA 1991].

Health Hazard

2,2'-Dichlorodiethyl ether is very toxic; the probable oral lethal dose is 50-500 mg/kg, or between 1 teaspoonful and 1 ounce for a 150 pound person. It can be a central nervous system depressant in high concentrations. It is extremely irritating to the eyes, nose, and respiratory passages. It can penetrate the skin to cause serious and even fatal poisoning. Poisonous; may be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin.

Health Hazard

BCEE is an acute toxic compound withcancer-causing properties. The toxic routesare inhalation, ingestion, and absorptionthrough the skin. Exposure to its vaporscaused irritation of the eyes, nose, and res piratory tracts in test animals. Exposure to aconcentration of 250 ppm in air for 4 hoursproved lethal to rats (ACGIH 1986). At alower concentration, it caused delayed deathfollowing damage to lungs. Other organsaffected to a lesser degree were the liver,kidneys, and brain.
The irritant action of BCEE on the eyesvaried from mild to severe. In humans,contact of pure liquid can cause conjunctivalirritation and injury to the cornea. On theskin, its irritation effect is mild. However,on prolonged contact, the liquid may beabsorbed through the skin and manifest toxiceffects
Ingestion of this compound in smallamounts may produce nausea and vomiting.An oral dose of 50–75 mL is expected to befatal to humans
LC50 value, inhalation (rats): 330 mg (56ppm)/m3/4 hr
LD50 value, oral (rats): 75 mg/kg
LD50 value, skin (guinea pigs): 300 mg/kg
LD50 value, skin (guinea pigs): 300 mg/kg.

Fire Hazard

Flash Point (°F): 180 ℃; 131 ℃; Flammable Limits in Air (%): Data not available; Fire Extinguishing Agents: Water, foam, dry chemical, carbon dioxide; Fire Extinguishing Agents Not To Be Used: Not pertinent; Special Hazards of Combustion Products: May form phosgene or hydrogen chloride in fires; Behavior in Fire: Not pertinent; Ignition Temperature (°F): 696; Electrical Hazard: Data not available; Burning Rate: 2.4 mm/min.

Fire Hazard

May form phosgene or hydrogen chloride in fires. There is danger of explosion when ethers are heated or exposed to flames or sparks. Ethers tend to form peroxides; when ethers containing peroxides are heated, they can detonate. May be ignited by heat, sparks, or flames. Container may explode in heat of fire. Vapor explosion and poison hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Decomposes in the presence of moisture to form hydrochloric acid. Emits toxic fumes when heated to decomposition. Reacts vigorously with oleum and chlorosulfonic acid. Ethers tend to form peroxides upon standing. Heating peroxide-containing ethers can cause detonation.

Chemical Reactivity

Reactivity with Water : No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: V; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.

Safety Profile

A poison by ingestion, skin contact, and inhalation. A skin, eye, and mucous membrane irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic and tumorigenic data. Mutation data reported. Exposure to 1000 ppm for 30 to 60 minutes may result in death within days. The odor is easily detectable at 35 ppm whch causes only slight irritation. Flammable liquid when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidants. Dangerous explosion hazard; reacts vigorously with oleum, chlorosulfonic acid. Reacts with water or steam to evolve toxic and corrosive fumes. Can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use water, foam, mist, fog, spray, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-. See also ETHERS.

Potential Exposure

Dichloroethyl ether is used as a soil fumigant, an insecticide, and an acaricide; in the manufacture of paint, varnish, lacquer, soap, and finish removers. It is also used as a solvent for cellulose esters, naphthalenes, oils, fats, waxes, greases, pectin, tar, and gum; in dry cleaning and in textile scouring.

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Medical observation is recommended for 24 to 48 hours after breathing overexposure, as pulmonary edema may be delayed. As first aid for pulmonary edema, a doctor or authorized paramedic may consider administering a drug or other inhalation therapy

Environmental Fate

Biological. When 5 and 10 mg/L of bis(2-chloroethyl)ether were statically incubated in the dark at 25°C with yeast extract and settled domestic wastewater inoculum, complete degradation was observed after 7 days (Tabak et al., 1981).
Chemical/Physical. Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether is subject to hydrolysis (Enfield and Yates, 1990; NIOSH, 1994). The hydrolysis rate constant for bis(2-chloroethyl)ether at pH 7 and 25°C was determined to be 2.6 × 10–5/hour, resulting in a half-life o
Emits chlorinated acids when incinerated (Sittig, 1985).


UN1916 2,20 -Dichlorodiethyl ether, Hazard class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, 3-Flammable liquid

Purification Methods

Wash the ether with conc H2SO4, then Na2CO3 solution, dry with anhydrous Na2CO3, and finally pass it through a 50cm column of activated alumina before distillation. Altern


Contact with moisture caused decomposition producing hydrochloric acid. Can form peroxides. May form explosive mixture with air. Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fire and explosion hazard. Attacks some plastics, rubber, and coatings. Attacks metals in the presence of moisture

Waste Disposal

A potential candidate for liquid injection incineration at a temperature range of 650 to 1600C and a residence time 0.1 to 2 seconds. Also, a potential candidate for rotary kiln incineration at a temperature range of 820 to 1600C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and hours for solids. Also, a potential candidate for fluidized bed incineration at a temperature range of 450 to 980C and residence times of seconds for liquids and gases, and longer for solids. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≧100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal

2,2'-Dichlorodiethyl ether Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

2,2'-Dichlorodiethyl ether Suppliers

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2,2'-Dichlorodiethyl ether Spectrum

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