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L(+)-Ascorbic acid

L(+)-Ascorbic acid
L(+)-Ascorbic acid structure
CAS No.
50-81-7
Chemical Name:
L(+)-Ascorbic acid
Synonyms
100M;Celin;Cevex;Cewin;Cipca;Vicin;Cebid;Cecon;Hicee;IDO-C
CBNumber:
CB7853704
Molecular Formula:
C6H8O6
Formula Weight:
176.12
MOL File:
50-81-7.mol

L(+)-Ascorbic acid Properties

Melting point:
190-194 °C (dec.)
alpha 
20.5 º (c=10,H2O)
Boiling point:
227.71°C (rough estimate)
Density 
1,65 g/cm3
refractive index 
21 ° (C=10, H2O)
FEMA 
2109 | ASCORBIC ACID
storage temp. 
0-6°C
solubility 
H2O: 50 mg/mL at 20 °C, clear, nearly colorless
form 
powder
pka
4.04, 11.7(at 25℃)
color 
white to slightly yellow
PH
1.0 - 2.5 (25℃, 176g/L in water)
optical activity
[α]25/D 19.0 to 23.0°, c = 10% in H2O
Water Solubility 
333 g/L (20 ºC)
Merck 
14,830
BRN 
84272
Stability:
Stable. May be weakly light or air sensitive. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, alkalies, iron, copper.
InChIKey
CIWBSHSKHKDKBQ-JLAZNSOCSA-N
CAS DataBase Reference
50-81-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
L-Ascorbic acid(50-81-7)
EPA Substance Registry System
L-Ascorbic acid(50-81-7)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  Xn
Risk Statements  20/21/22-36/37/38
Safety Statements  24/25-36-26
RIDADR  UN 1648 3 / PGII
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  CI7650000
TSCA  Yes
HS Code  29362700
Hazardous Substances Data 50-81-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Warning
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H226 Flammable liquid and vapour Flammable liquids Category 3 Warning
H319 Causes serious eye irritation Serious eye damage/eye irritation Category 2A Warning P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
Precautionary statements:
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. — No smoking.
P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continuerinsing.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use … for extinction.

L(+)-Ascorbic acid price More Price(76)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 255564 L-Ascorbic acid ACS reagent, ≥99% 50-81-7 5g $38.6 2018-11-13 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 1043003 Ascorbic acid United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard 50-81-7 1g $348 2018-11-13 Buy
TCI Chemical A0537 L-Ascorbic Acid >99.0%(T) 50-81-7 25g $14 2018-11-22 Buy
TCI Chemical A0537 L-Ascorbic Acid >99.0%(T) 50-81-7 500g $36 2018-11-22 Buy
Alfa Aesar 011188 L-(+)-Ascorbic acid, 98+% 50-81-7 100g $21.3 2018-11-16 Buy

L(+)-Ascorbic acid Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Description

Ascorbic acid, a water-soluble dietary supplement, is consumed by humans more than any other supplement. The name ascorbic means antiscurvy and denotes the ability of ascorbic to combat this disease. Vitamin C is the l-enantiomer of ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid deficiency in humans results in the body’s inability to synthesize collagen, which is the most abundant protein in vertebrates.

Chemical Properties

White crystals (plates or needles). Soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in ether, chloroform, benzene, petroleum ether, oils and fats. Stable to air when dry. One international unit is equivalent to 0.05 milligram of l-ascorbic acid.

Chemical Properties

Ascorbic acid occurs as a white to light-yellow-colored, nonhygroscopic, odorless, crystalline powder or colorless crystals with a sharp, acidic taste. It gradually darkens in color upon exposure to light.

Uses

vitamin C is a well-known anti-oxidant. Its effect on free-radical formation when topically applied to the skin by means of a cream has not been clearly established. The effectiveness of topical applications has been questioned due to vitamin C’s instability (it reacts with water and degrades). Some forms are said to have better stability in water systems. Synthetic analogues such as magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are among those considered more effective, as they tend to be more stable. When evaluating its ability to fight free-radical damage in light of its synergistic effect with vitamin e, vitamin C shines. As vitamin e reacts with a free radical, it, in turn, is damaged by the free radical it is fighting. Vitamin C comes in to repair the free-radical damage in vitamin e, allowing e to continue with its free-radical scavenging duties. Past research has indicated that high concentrations of topically applied vitamin C are photoprotective, and apparently the vitamin preparation used in these studies resisted soap and water, washing, or rubbing for three days. More current research has indicated that vitamin C does add protection against uVB damage when combined with uVB sunscreen chemicals. This would lead one to conclude that in combination with conventional sunscreen agents, vitamin C may allow for longer-lasting, broader sun protection. Again, the synergy between vitamins C and e can yield even better results, as apparently a combination of both provides very good protection from uVB damage. However, vitamin C appears to be significantly better than e at protecting against uVA damage. A further conclusion is that the combination of vitamins C, e, and sunscreen offers greater protection than the sum of the protection offered by any of the three ingredients acting alone. Vitamin C also acts as a collagen biosynthesis regulator. It is known to control intercellular colloidal substances such as collagen, and when formulated into the proper vehicles, can have a skin-lightening effect. Vitamin C is said to be able to help the body fortify against infectious conditions by strengthening the immune system. There is some evidence (although debated) that vitamin C can pass through the layers of the skin and promote healing in tissue damaged by burns or injury. It is found, therefore, in burn ointments and creams used for abrasions. Vitamin C is also popular in anti-aging products. Current studies indicate possible anti-inflammatory properties as well.

Uses

antiscorbutic, antiviral

Uses

analgesic, antipyretic

Uses

Physiological antioxidant. Coenzyme for a number of hydroxylation reactions; required for collagen synthesis. Widely distributed in plants and animals. Inadequate intake results in deficiency syndrome s such as scurvy. Used as antimicrobial and antioxidant in foodstuffs.

Uses

Sodium, potassium, and calcium salts of ascorbic acids are called ascorbates and are used as food preservatives. To make ascorbic acid fat-soluble, it can be esterified. Esters of ascorbic acid and acids, such as palmitic acid to form ascorbyl palmitate and stearic acid to form ascorbic stearate, are used as antioxidants in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid is also essential in the metabolism of some amino acids. It helps protect cells from free radical damage, helps iron absorption, and is essential for many metabolic processes.

Production Methods

Ascorbic acid is produced synthetically using the Reichstein process, which has been the standard method of production since the 1930s. The process starts with fermentation followed by chemical synthesis. The first step involves reduction of D-glucose at high temperature into D-sorbitol. D-sorbitol undergoes bacterial fermentation, converting it into L-sorbose. L-sorbose is then reacted with acetone in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid to produce diacetone-L-sorbose, which is then oxidized with chlorine and sodium hydroxide to produce di-acetone-ketogulonic acid (DAKS). DAKS is then esterified with an acid catalyst and organics to give a gulonic acid methylester. The latter is heated and reacted with alcohol to produce crude ascorbic acid, which is then recrystallized to increase its purity. Since the development of the Reichstein process more than 70 years ago, it has undergone many modifications. In the 1960s, a method developed in China referred to as the two-stage fermentation process used a second fermentation stage of L-sorbose to produce a different intermediate than DAKS called KGA (2-keto-L-gulonic acid), which was then converted into ascorbic acid. The two stage process relies less on hazardous chemicals and requires less energy to convert glucose to ascorbic acid.

Definition

ChEBI: The L-enantiomer of ascorbic acid and conjugate acid of L-ascorbate.

Production Methods

Ascorbic acid is prepared synthetically or extracted from various vegetable sources in which it occurs naturally, such as rose hips, blackcurrants, the juice of citrus fruits, and the ripe fruit of Capsicum annuum L. A common synthetic procedure involves the hydrogenation of D-glucose to D-sorbitol, followed by oxidation using Acetobacter suboxydans to form L-sorbose. A carboxyl group is then added at C1 by air oxidation of the diacetone derivative of Lsorbose and the resulting diacetone-2-keto-L-gulonic acid is converted to L-ascorbic acid by heating with hydrochloric acid.

brand name

Ascorbin (Marion Merrell Dow).

General Description

White to very pale yellow crystalline powder with a pleasant sharp acidic taste. Almost odorless.

General Description

Scurvy (from the French word scorbutus) has been recognized as a disease afflicting mankind for thousands of years. Citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, and limes were later identified as equally effective treatments. Only within the last 100 years has a deficiency in vitamin C been definitively identified as the cause of scurvy. In 1932, Waugh and King isolated crystalline vitamin C from lemon juice and showed it to be the antiscorbutic factor present in each of these treatments.
The structure and chemical formula of vitamin C was identified in 1933 by Hirst et al.Because humans are one of the few animal species that cannot synthesize vitamin C, it has to be available as a dietary component. Dietary sources of ascorbic acid include fruits (especially citrus fruits), vegetables (especially peppers), and potatoes. Although the sources of some commercial products are rose hips and citrus fruits, most ascorbic acid is prepared synthetically.
Vitamin C is now commonly referred to as ascorbic acid because of its acidic character and its effectiveness in the treatment and prevention of scorbutus (scurvy). The acidic character is because of the two enolic hydroxyls; the C3 hydroxyl has a pKa value of 4.1, and the C2 hydroxyl has a pKa of 11.6. All biological activities reside in L-ascorbic acid; therefore, all references to vitamin C, ascorbic acid, ascorbate, and their derivatives refer to this form. The monobasic sodium salt is the usual salt form.

Air & Water Reactions

May be sensitive to prolonged exposure to air and light. Sensitive to moisture. Soluble in water. Aqueous solutions are oxidized by air in a reaction that is accelerated by alkalis, iron and copper. The rate depends on the pH and on oxygen concentration. Also subject to degradation under anaerobic conditions.

Reactivity Profile

L(+)-Ascorbic acid is a lactone. Reacts as a relatively strong reducing agent and decolorizes many dyes. Forms stable metal salts. Incompatible with oxidizers, dyes, alkalis, iron and copper. Also incompatible with ferric salts and salts of heavy metals, particularly copper, zinc and manganese .

Fire Hazard

Flash point data for L(+)-Ascorbic acid are not available; however, L(+)-Ascorbic acid is probably combustible.

Pharmaceutical Applications

Ascorbic acid is used as an antioxidant in aqueous pharmaceutical formulations at a concentration of 0.01–0.1% w/v. Ascorbic acid has been used to adjust the pH of solutions for injection, and as an adjunct for oral liquids. It is also widely used in foods as an antioxidant. Ascorbic acid has also proven useful as a stabilizing agent in mixed micelles containing tetrazepam.

Clinical Use

Vitamin C is indicated for the treatment and prevention of known or suspect deficiency. Although scurvy occurs infrequently, it is seen in the elderly, infants, alcoholics, and drug users.Ascorbate can also be used to enhance absorption of dietary nonheme iron or iron supplements. Ascorbic acid (but not the sodium salt) was historically used to acidify the urine as a result of excretion of unchanged ascorbic acid, although this use has fallen into disfavor. Ascorbate also increases iron chelation by deferoxamine, explaining its use in the treatment of iron toxicity.

Toxicology

L-Ascorbic acid, or vitamin C, is widely present in plants. The structures of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid are shown in Figure 10.5. Vitamin C is not only an important nutrient but is also used as an antioxidant in various foods. However, it is not soluble in fat and is unstable under basic conditions. Vitamin C reduces cadmium toxicity and excess doses prolong the retention time of an organic mercury compound in a biological system. Overdoses of vitamin C (106 g) induce perspiration, nervous tension, and lowered pulse rate. WHO recommends that daily intake be less than 0.15 mg/kg. Toxicity due to ascorbic acid has not been reported. Although repeated intravenous injections of 80 mg dehydroascorbic acid was reported to be diabetogenic in rats, oral consumption of 1.5 g/day of ascorbic acid for six weeks had no effect on glucose tolerance or glycosuria in 12 normal adult males and produced no change in blood glucose concentrations in 80 diabetics after five days. The same report noted that a 100-mg intravenous dose of dehydroascorbic acid given daily for prolonged periods produced no signs of diabetes. Ascorbic acid is readily oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid, which is reduced by glutathione in blood.

Safety Profile

Moderately toxic by ingestion and intravenous routes. Human systemic effects by intravenous route: blood, changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis). An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

Safety

Ascorbic acid is an essential part of the human diet, with 40 mg being the recommended daily dose in the UK and 60 mg in the USA. However, these figures are controversial, with some advocating doses of 150 or 250mg daily. Megadoses of 10 g daily have also been suggested to prevent illness although such large doses are now generally considered to be potentially harmful.
The body can absorb about 500 mg of ascorbic acid daily with any excess immediately excreted by the kidneys. Large doses may cause diarrhea or other gastrointestinal disturbances. Damage to the teeth has also been reported. However, no adverse effects have been reported at the levels employed as an antioxidant in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. The WHO has set an acceptable daily intake of ascorbic acid, potassium ascorbate, and sodium ascorbate, as antioxidants in food, at up to 15 mg/kg bodyweight in addition to that naturally present in food.
LD50 (mouse, IV): 0.52 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 3.37 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 11.9 g/kg

storage

In powder form, ascorbic acid is relatively stable in air. In the absence of oxygen and other oxidizing agents it is also heat stable. Ascorbic acid is unstable in solution, especially alkaline solution, readily undergoing oxidation on exposure to the air.The oxidation process is accelerated by light and heat and is catalyzed by traces of copper and iron. Ascorbic acid solutions exhibit maximum stability at about pH 5.4. Solutions may be sterilized by filtration.
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed nonmetallic container, protected from light, in a cool, dry place.

Purification Methods

Crystallise it from MeOH/Et2O/pet ether [Herbert et al. J Chem Soc 1270 1933]. [Beilstein 18/5 V 26.]

Incompatibilities

Incompatible with alkalis, heavy metal ions, especially copper and iron, oxidizing materials, methenamine, phenylephrine hydrochloride, pyrilamine maleate, salicylamide, sodium nitrite, sodium salicylate, theobromine salicylate, and picotamide. Additionally, ascorbic acid has been found to interfere with certain colorimetric assays by reducing the intensity of the color produced.

Regulatory Status

GRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (inhalations, injections, oral capsules, suspensions, tablets, topical preparations, and suppositories). Included in medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.

L(+)-Ascorbic acid Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


L(+)-Ascorbic acid Suppliers

Global( 534)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
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View Lastest Price from L(+)-Ascorbic acid manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2019-04-02 Ascorbic acid Manufacturer; In stock GMP Factory
50-81-7
US $1.00 / KG 1KG High quality manufacturer TOP 3 largest production factory in China Chemwill Asia Co.,Ltd.
2018-08-04 L(+)-Ascorbic acid
50-81-7
US $7400.00-7300.00 / KG 1000KG 98% 1000 career henan chemical co
2018-07-26 L(+)-Ascorbic acid
50-81-7
US $15.00 / KG 1KG 99% 1000KG career henan chemical co

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