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개미산 구조식 이미지
카스 번호:
Formic acid
포뮬러 무게:
MOL 파일:

개미산 속성

8.2-8.4 °C(lit.)
끓는 점
101 °C
증기 밀도
1.03 (vs air)
52 mm Hg ( 37 °C)
n20/D 1.377
133 °F
저장 조건
H2O: soluble1g/10 mL, clear, colorless
산도 계수 (pKa)
3.75(at 20℃)
물리적 상태
APHA: ≤15
Specific Gravity
1.216 (20℃/20℃)
2.2 (10g/l, H2O, 20℃)
최대 파장(λmax)
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.03
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.01
JECFA Number
노출 한도
TLV-TWA 5 ppm (~9 mg/m3) (ACGIH, MSHA, OSHA, and NIOSH); IDLH 100 ppm (180 mg/m3) (NIOSH).
Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong bases, strong oxidizing agents and powdered metals, furfuryl alcohol. Combustible. Hygroscopic. Pressure may build up in tightly closed bottles, so bottles should be opened carefully and vented periodically.
CAS 데이터베이스
64-18-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
Formic acid(64-18-6)
Formic acid(64-18-6)
  • 위험 및 안전 성명
  • 위험 및 사전주의 사항 (GHS)
위험품 표기 T,C,Xi
위험 카페고리 넘버 23/24/25-34-40-43-35-36/38-10
안전지침서 36/37-45-26-23-36/37/39
유엔번호(UN No.) UN 1198 3/PG 3
WGK 독일 2
RTECS 번호 LP8925000
F 고인화성물질 10
자연 발화 온도 1004 °F
위험 등급 8
포장분류 II
HS 번호 29151100
유해 물질 데이터 64-18-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
독성 LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 1100 orally; 145 i.v. (Malorny)
신호 어: Danger
유해·위험 문구:
암호 유해·위험 문구 위험 등급 범주 신호 어 그림 문자 P- 코드
H226 인화성 액체 및 증기 인화성 액체 구분 3 경고
H302 삼키면 유해함 급성 독성 물질 - 경구 구분 4 경고 P264, P270, P301+P312, P330, P501
H314 피부에 심한 화상과 눈에 손상을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 1A, B, C 위험 P260,P264, P280, P301+P330+ P331,P303+P361+P353, P363, P304+P340,P310, P321, P305+ P351+P338, P405,P501
H315 피부에 자극을 일으킴 피부부식성 또는 자극성물질 구분 2 경고 P264, P280, P302+P352, P321,P332+P313, P362
H318 눈에 심한 손상을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 1 위험 P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
H319 눈에 심한 자극을 일으킴 심한 눈 손상 또는 자극성 물질 구분 2A 경고 P264, P280, P305+P351+P338,P337+P313P
H331 흡입하면 유독함 급성 독성 물질 흡입 구분 3 위험 P261, P271, P304+P340, P311, P321,P403+P233, P405, P501
P210 열·스파크·화염·고열로부터 멀리하시오 - 금연 하시오.
P260 분진·흄·가스·미스트·증기·...·스프레이를 흡입하지 마시오.
P280 보호장갑/보호의/보안경/안면보호구를 착용하시오.
P303+P361+P353 피부(또는 머리카락)에 묻으면 오염된 모든 의복은 벗거나 제거하시오 피부를 물로 씻으시오/샤워하시오.
P305+P351+P338 눈에 묻으면 몇 분간 물로 조심해서 씻으시오. 가능하면 콘택트렌즈를 제거하시오. 계속 씻으시오.
P337+P313 눈에 대한 자극이 지속되면 의학적인 조치· 조언를 구하시오.
P370+P378 화재 시 불을 끄기 위해 (Section 5. 폭발, 화재시 대처방법의 적절한 소화제)을(를) 사용하시오.
P405 밀봉하여 저장하시오.
P403+P233 용기는 환기가 잘 되는 곳에 단단히 밀폐하여 저장하시오.

개미산 C화학적 특성, 용도, 생산


가축 사료에 방부제로서 첨가되는 용도로 많이 쓰인다. 박테리아를 죽이기 위해 닭 사료에 첨가되기도 한다. 가죽 제품을 만들 때 사용되는데 주로 가죽의 무두질에 쓰인다. 그리고 일반적인 천의 염색과 마감처리 과정에서 사용된다. 또한 고무 제조에서 응고제로 사용되기도 한다.


Formic acid is the simplest carboxylic acid, a group of organic compounds defined by the carboxyl group, -COOH. Formic acid is a colorless, fuming liquid with a pungent acrid odor. The common names for simple carboxylic acids come from the Latin or Greek names of their source.
The usual commercial product is marketed as a solution of 90% formic acid in water. An hydrous formic acid must be handled carefully; it is a strong dehydrating agent and can cause severe skin burns. Formic acid is soluble in water, alcohol, ether, and glycerol. It is industrially synthesized by heating carbon monoxide and sodium hydroxide under pressure to form sodium formate (HCOONa), which is then acidifi ed with sulfuric acid to form formic acid: CO(g) + NaOH(aq) HCOONa(aq) HCOOH(aq). It can also be prepared by the acid hydrolysis of methyl formate (H-COOCH3), which is produced from methanol and carbon monoxide or from heating oxalic acid. Formic acid can also be obtained as a by-product in the production of other chemicals such as acetic acid, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde.

화학적 성질

Formic acid, or methanoic acid, is the first member of the homologous series identified as fatty acids with the general formula RCOOH. Formic acid was obtained first from the red ant; itscommon name is derived from the family name for ants, Formi- cidae. This substance also occurs naturally in bees and wasps, and is presumed to be responsible for the "sting" of these insects.
Formic acid has a pungent, penetrating odor. It may be synthesized from anhydrous sodium formate and concentrated H2S04 at low temperature followed by distillation.

화학적 성질

Formic acid has a pungent, penetrating odor Formic acid is the frst member of the homologous series identifed as fatty acids with general formula RCOOH This acid was obtained frst from the red ants; its common name is derived from the family name for ants, Formicidae This substance also occurs naturally in bees and wasps and is presumed to be responsible for the sting of these insects.

화학적 성질

Colorless, fuming liquid; penetrating odor. strong reducing agent. Soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. Combustible.

화학적 성질

Formic acid is a colorless, flammable, fuming liq uid. Pungent odor.


Widespread in a large variety of plants; reported identifed in Cistus labdanum and the oil of Artemisia trans- iliensis; also found among the constituents of petit grain lemon and bitter orange essential oil; reported found in strawberry aroma Reported found in apple, sweet cherry, papaya, pear, raspberry, strawberry, peas, cheeses, breads, yogurt, milk, cream, buttermilk, raw fsh, cognac, rum, whiskey, cider, white wine, tea, coffee and roasted chicory root


Formic acid is taken from the Latin word forant, formica. Naturalists had observed the acrid vapor from ant hills for hundreds of years. One of the earliest descriptions of formic acid was reported in an extract of a letter written from John Wray (1627–1705) to the publisher of Philosophical Transactions published in 1670. Wray’s letter reported on “uncommon Observations and Experiments made with an Acid Juyce to be Found in Ants” and noted the acid was previously obtained by Samuel Fisher from the dry distillation of wood ants. Formic acid is found in stinging insects, plants, unripe fruit, foods, and muscle tissue. J?ns Jacob Berzelius (1779–1848) characterized formic acid in the early 19th century, and it wasfirst synthesized from hydrocyanic acid by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778–1850) at about the same time. A number of synthetic preparations of formic acid were found in the first half of the 19th century. Marcellin Berthelot (1827–1907) discovered a popular synthesis using oxalic acid and glycerin in 1856; he and several other chemists from his period found syntheses of formic acid by heating carbon monoxide in alkaline solutions.


Formic acid has a number of commercial uses. It is used in the leather industry to degreaseand remove hair from hides and as an ingredient in tanning formulations. It is used as alatex coagulant in natural rubber production. Formic acid and its formulations are used aspreservatives of silage. It is especially valued in Europe where laws require the use of naturalantibacterial agents rather than synthetic antibiotics. Silage is fermented grass and crops thatare stored in silos and used for winter feed. Silage is produced during anaerobic fermentationwhen bacteria produce acids that lower the pH, preventing further bacterial action. Acetic acidand lactic acid are the desired acids during silage fermentation. Formic acid is used in silageprocessing to reduce undesirable bacteria and mold growth. Formic acid reduces Clostridiabacteria that would produce butyric acid causing spoilage. In addition to preventing silagespoilage, formic acid helps preserve protein content, improves compaction, and preservessugar content. Formic acid is used as a miticide by beekeepers.


Formic Acid is a flavoring substance that is liquid and colorless, and possesses a pungent odor. it is miscible in water, alcohol, ether, and glycerin, and is obtained by chemical synthesis or oxidation of methanol or formaldehyde.


Formic acid occurs in the stings of ants andbees. It is used in the manufacture of estersand salts, dyeing and finishing of textiles andpapers, electroplating, treatment of leather,and coagulating rubber latex, and also as areducing agent.


Dyeing and finishing of textile; leather treatment; chemicals (formates, oxalic acid, organic esters); manufacture of fumigants, insecticides, refrigerants; solvents for perfumes, lacquers; electroplating; brewing (antiseptic); silvering glass; cellulose


ChEBI: The simplest carboxylic acid, containing a single carbon. Occurs naturally in various sources including the venom of bee and ant stings, and is a useful organic synthetic reagent. Principally used as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed Induces severe metabolic acidosis and ocular injury in human subjects.

생명 공학 생산

Formic acid is generally produced by chemical synthesis . However, biotechnological routes are described in literature. First, formic acid could be produced from hydrogen and bicarbonate by whole-cell catalysis using a methanogen. Concentrations up to 1.02 mol.L-1 (47 g.L-1) have been reached within 50 h. Another example is the formation of formic acid and ethanol as co-products by microbial fermentation of glycerol with genetically modified organisms. In small-scale experiments, 10 g.L-1 glycerol has been converted to 4.8 g.L-1 formate with a volumetric productivity of 3.18 mmol.L-1.h-1 and a yield of 0.92 mol formate per mole glycerol using an engineered E. coli strain.

Taste threshold values

Taste characteristics at 30 ppm: acidic, sour and astringent with a fruity depth.

일반 설명

Formic acid,HCOOH, also known as methanoic acid, is a colorless, pungent, toxic,corrosive liquid that is soluble in water, ether,and alcohol.It is the most highly ionized of the common organic acids and therefore the most corrosive, It reacts readily with many oxidizing and reducing compounds and is somewhat unstable as the concentration approaches 100%, decomposing to carbon monoxide and water.
Formic acid is used as a chemical intermediate and solvent, in dyeing and electroplating processes, and in fumigants. In a reaction with glycerol at 220°C (430 OF), it is a source of allyl alcohol Formic acid has also been employed in brewing(to assist fermentation), as a food preservative, and in the preparation of metallic formates and esters.

공기와 물의 반응

Fumes in air. Soluble in water with release of heat.

반응 프로필

Formic acid reacts exothmerically with all bases, both organic (for example, the amines) and inorganic. Reacts with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and a metal salt. Reacts with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide. Reacts with diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, and sulfides to generate flammable or toxic gases. Reacts with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates (to give H2S and SO3), dithionites (SO2), to generate flammable and/or toxic gases and heat. Reacts with carbonates and bicarbonates to generate carbon dioxide but still heat. Can be oxidized by strong oxidizing agents and reduced by strong reducing agents. These reactions generate heat. May initiate polymerization reactions or catalyze other chemical reactions. A mixture with furfuryl alcohol exploded [Chem. Eng. News 18:72(1940)].


Corrosive to skin and tissue.


Liquid causes skin and eye burns. Vapors are irritating and painful to breath. Vapor exposure may cause nausea and vomiting.


Formic acid is a low to moderately toxicbut highly caustic compound. It is corrosiveto the skin, and contact with pure liquidcan cause burns on the skin and eyes. It ismore toxic than acetic acid. Formic acid isa metabolite of methanol responsible for thelatter’s toxicity. Thus, the acute acidosis ofmethanol is due to the in vivo formation offormic acid generated by the actionof enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase, andaldehyde dehydrogenase. Ingestion of formicacid can cause death. Long-term exposure toformic acid can cause kidney damage. Greenet al. (2003) have found increased excretionof formic acid and the development of kidneytoxicity in rats following chronic dosingwith trichloroethanol and trichloroethylene.Such induced nephrotoxicity was attributedto excretion and acidosis from formic acid.
Exposure to formic acid vapors may produce irritation of the eyes, skin, and mucousmembranes, causing respiratory distress.
LD50 value, oral (mice): 700 mg/kg
LC50 value, inhalation (mice): 6200 mg/m3/15 minutes
Liesivuori and Savolainen (1991) studiedthe biochemical mechanisms of toxicityof methanol and formic acid. Formicacid is an inhibitor of the enzymemitochondrial cytochrome oxidase causinghistotoxic hypoxia. It is, however, a weakerinhibitor than cyanide and hydrosulfideanions. The effects of its acidosis are dilationof cerebral vessels, facilitation of the entryof calcium ions into cells, loss of lysosomallatency, and deranged production of ATP, thelatter affecting calcium reabsorption in thekidney tubules. Also, urinary acidificationfrom formic acid and its excretion maycause continuous recycling of the acid bythe tubular cell Cl-/formate exchanger. Suchsequence of events probably causes anaccumulation of formate in urine. Other thanmethanol, methyl ethers, esters, and amidesalso metabolize forming formic acid
Chan et al. (1995) have reported a caseof systemic toxicity developed in a 3-yearold girl burned by formic acid over 35% of her total body surface area. The metabolicacidosis in this case was profound with theserum formate level reaching at 400 μg/mL,the highest reported in the literature forpoisoning by any route. The patient wassuccessfully treated with hemodialysis, IVbicarbonate, and supportive measures.
In a study on the poisoning effect ofmethanol and its toxic metabolite formicacid on the retinal photoreceptors and theretinal pigment epithelian cells Treichel et al.(2004) found that the cytotoxic effects weregreater in the retinal photoreceptors althoughboth the cell types accumulated similar levelsof formate when their cultured cell lineswere exposed to formic acid in vitro. Formicacid treatment in both cell types produceddecreases in glutathione and glutathioneperoxidase.


Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic vapor generated in fires

Safety Profile

Poison by inhalation, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Mutation data reported. Corrosive. A skin and severe eye irritant. A substance migrating to food from packaging materials. Combustible liquid when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Explosive reaction with furfuryl alcohol, H202, T1(NO3)3*3H2O nitromethane, P2O5. To fight fire, use CO2, dry chemical, alcohol foam. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.

잠재적 노출

Formic acid is a strong reducing agent and is used as a decalcifier. It is used in pharmaceuticals; in dyeing textiles and finishing color-fast wool; electroplat ing, coagulating latex rubber; regeneration old rubber, and dehairing, plumping, and tanning leather. It is also used in the manufacture of acetic acid, airplane dope; allyl alcohol; cellulose formate; phenolic resins; and oxalate; and it is used in the laundry, textile, insecticide, refrigeration, and paper industries; as well as in drug manufacture.

응급 처치

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, includ ing resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medi cal attention. If victim is conscious, administer water or milk. Do not induce vomiting.

운송 방법

UN1779 Formic acid, with>85% acid by mass, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material, 3-Flammable liquid

Purification Methods

Anhydrous formic acid can be obtained by direct fractional distillation under reduced pressure, the receiver being cooled in ice-water. The use of P2O5 or CaCl2 as dehydrating agents is unsatisfactory. Reagent grade 88% formic acid can be satisfactorily dried by refluxing with phthalic anhydride for 6hours and then distilling it. Alternatively, if it is left in contact with freshly prepared anhydrous CuSO4 for several days about one half of the water is removed from 88% formic acid; distillation then removes the remainder. Boric anhydride (prepared by melting boric acid in an oven at a high temperature, cooling in a desiccator, and powdering) is a suitable dehydrating agent for 98% formic acid; after prolonged stirring with the anhydride the formic acid is distilled under vacuum. Formic acid can be further purified by fractional crystallisation using partial freezing. [Beilstein 2 IV 3.]

비 호환성

Vapors may form explosive mixture with air. A medium strong acid and a strong reducing agent. Violent reaction with oxidizers, furfuryl alcohol; hydrogen peroxide; nitromethane. Incompatible with strong acids; bases, ammonia, aliphatic amines; alkanolamines, isocya nates, alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin. Decomposes on heating and on contact with strong acids forming carbon monoxide. Carbamates are incompatible with strong acids and bases, and especially incompatible with strong reducing agents such as hydrideds and active metals. Contact with active metals or nitrides form flammable gaseous hydrogen. Incompatible with strongly oxidizing acids, peroxides, and hydroperoxides. Attacks metals: aluminum, cast iron and steel; many plastics, rubber and coatings.

폐기물 처리

Incineration with added solvent. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥ kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transpor tation, treatment, and waste disposal.

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