Antihypertensive drugs

Blood pressure refers to the pressure of the blood on the blood vessel wall during its flow. Hypertension refers to that the arterial blood pressure (represented by the elbow brachial artery pressure) is higher than normal value. Owing to the different levels of health care in various countries and regions of the world, the decided hypertension range is also different. The standards in our country are: In the absence of administration of antihypertensive drugs, upon the case of systolic blood pressure being ≥140 mm Hg (18.6 × 103 Pa) or the diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg (12.0 × 103 Pa), the patients should be deemed (or diagnosed) to get hypertension.

Clinically hypertension can be divided into two categories, one is the hypertension with unknown etiology, called "essential hypertension", also known as "hypertension disease"; the other one is the hypertension of clear cause such as hypertension caused by nephritis, brain tumors and other diseases with high blood pressure being only a symptom of these diseases, thus being called "secondary hypertension", also known as "symptomatic hypertension." What will be introduced here is mainly the former, namely hypertension. In Chinese medicine, it is classified into "Vertigo", "headache" category.

Antihypertensive drugs are drugs for the treatment of hypertension. It is also known as hypotensor. Rational application of antihypertensive drugs can not only make high blood pressure under control but can also reduce or eliminate the subjective symptoms caused by hypertension. Long-term administration can also reduce the complications of hypertension, such as stroke, cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, heart failure and renal insufficiency, thus extending the life of the patient. Currently, there are over 350 kinds of anti-hypertension drug in total developed all around the world. But only over 100 species are available for the clinical application, of which 10 kinds have been respectively recommended by WHO (1985) and the National High Blood Pressure Education Commission (1988) to be used commonly anti-hypertensive drugs. Antihypertensive drugs, according to different mechanism of action, can be divided into diuretics, sympathetic blockers, vasodilators, calcium antagonists and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors five categories. In recent years, it has been also developed of potassium channel openers and serotonin type II receptor antagonists as novel anti-hypertensive drugs available with some of them still being under study and some having entered clinical trial stage. Different types of anti-hypertensive drugs, because of the different principles of action, have quite differences on the impact on hemodynamics, pharmacological effects and clinical applications (see the relevant terms).
However, an excellent anti-hypertensive drug should have the following properties: excellent gastrointestinal absorption, significant and long-lasting antihypertensive effect, not causing orthostatic hypotension and reflex tachycardia after medication, having no significant adverse reactions and toxicity, not causing blood renin activity, having no sodium retention, non-resistance, and having compatibility with other drugs. So far there have been yet no kinds of anti-hypertensive drugs that can meet all these requirements. Clinicians can properly select them according to the specific characteristics of the drug and the patient's exact conditions. In case of consideration of combination therapy, we refer to their similarities and differences, taking advantage of each other while reducing the adverse effects and enhancing the efficacy.

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Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
Clevidipine butyrate Clevidipine butyrate 167221-71-8 C21H23Cl2NO6
Dapoxetine Dapoxetine 119356-77-3 C21H23NO
Telmisartan Telmisartan 144701-48-4 C33H30N4O2
5-Bromo-2-hydroxynicotinic acid 5-Bromo-2-hydroxynicotinic acid 104612-36-4 C6H4BrNO3
Irbesartan Irbesartan 138402-11-6 C25H28N6O
S-ATBA S-ATBA 109010-60-8 C16H22N2O3
Olmesartan Olmesartan 144689-78-1 C30H32N6O6
Valsartan Valsartan 137862-53-4 C24H29N5O3
Captopril Captopril 62571-86-2 C9H15NO3S
Wogonin Wogonin 632-85-9 C16H12O5
Dapoxetine hydrochloride Dapoxetine hydrochloride 129938-20-1 C21H23NO·HCl
alpha-Methyldopa sesquihydrate alpha-Methyldopa sesquihydrate 41372-08-1 C10H15NO5
4-Hydroxyphenylacetamide 4-Hydroxyphenylacetamide 17194-82-0 C8H9NO2
Ginkgo biloba extract Ginkgo biloba extract 90045-36-6
Evodiamine Evodiamine 518-17-2 C19H17N3O
2-Butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazolin-5-one hydrochloride 2-Butyl-4-spirocyclopentane-2-imidazolin-5-one hydrochloride 151257-01-1 C11H19ClN2O
Osthole Osthole 484-12-8 C15H16O3
L-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid L-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid 74163-81-8 C10H11NO2
Candesartan Candesartan 139481-59-7 C24H20N6O3
Diethyl 2-propylImidazoledicarbonate Diethyl 2-propylImidazoledicarbonate 144689-94-1 C12H18N2O4
Trityl candesartan Trityl candesartan 139481-72-4 C43H34N6O3
Sumatriptan succinate Sumatriptan succinate 103628-48-4 C18H27N3O6S
Torasemide Torasemide 56211-40-6 C16H20N4O3S
4-Epoxypropanoxycarbazole 4-Epoxypropanoxycarbazole 51997-51-4 C15H13NO2
Losartan potassium Losartan potassium 124750-99-8 C22H23ClKN6O
Azelnidipine Azelnidipine 123524-52-7 C33H34N4O6
4,5-Dimethyl-1,3-dioxol-2-one 4,5-Dimethyl-1,3-dioxol-2-one 37830-90-3 C5H6O3
Indapamide Indapamide 26807-65-8 C16H16ClN3O3S
Lisinopril Dihydrate Lisinopril Dihydrate 83915-83-7 C21H31N3O5
Benazepril hydrochloride Benazepril hydrochloride 86541-74-4 C24H29ClN2O5
Candesartan cilexetil Candesartan cilexetil 145040-37-5 C33H34N6O6
Doxazosin mesylate Doxazosin mesylate 77883-43-3 C24H29N5O8S
Eplerenone Eplerenone 107724-20-9 C24H30O6
2-[(2S)-6-[[(1S)-1-Ethoxycarbonyl-3-phenyl-propyl]amino]-5-oxo-2-thiophen-2-yl-1,4-thiazepan-4-yl]acetic acid 2-[(2S)-6-[[(1S)-1-Ethoxycarbonyl-3-phenyl-propyl]amino]-5-oxo-2-thiophen-2-yl-1,4-thiazepan-4-yl]acetic acid 111902-57-9 C23H28N2O5S2
Metroprolol succinate Metroprolol succinate 98418-47-4 2C15H25NO3.C4H6O4
Clonidine hydrochloride Clonidine hydrochloride 4205-91-8 C9H10Cl3N3
Ethyl 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2-propyl-imidazole-5-carboxylate Ethyl 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2-propyl-imidazole-5-carboxylate 144689-93-0 C12H20N2O3
2-Butyl-4-chloro-5-formylimidazole 2-Butyl-4-chloro-5-formylimidazole 83857-96-9 C8H11ClN2O
Reserpine Reserpine 50-55-5 C33H40N2O9
Prazosin hydrochloride Prazosin hydrochloride 19237-84-4 C19H22ClN5O4
Riociguat Riociguat 625115-55-1 C20H19FN8O2
Glabridin Glabridin 59870-68-7 C20H20O4
Olmesartan Medoxomil Olmesartan Medoxomil 144689-63-4 C29H30N6O6
Drospirenone Drospirenone 67392-87-4 C24H30O3
Oleuropein Oleuropein 32619-42-4 C25H32O13
Pazopanib Pazopanib 444731-52-6 C21H23N7O2S
Sorafenib tosylate Sorafenib tosylate 475207-59-1 C28H24ClF3N4O6S
Sorafenib tosylate Sorafenib tosylate 284461-73-0 C21H16ClF3N4O3
Verapamil hydrochloride Verapamil hydrochloride 23313-68-0 C27H39ClN2O4
3-Bromo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[b]azepin-2-one 3-Bromo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[b]azepin-2-one 86499-96-9 C10H10BrNO
Zofenopril calcium Zofenopril calcium 81938-43-4 C44H44CaN2O8S4
Aliskiren Aliskiren 173334-57-1 C30H53N3O6
Clevidipine Clevidipine 166432-28-6 C21H23Cl2NO6
Mecamylamine hydrochloride Mecamylamine hydrochloride 826-39-1 C11H22ClN
Ramipril Ramipril 87333-19-5 C23H32N2O5
Rilmenidine Rilmenidine 54187-04-1 C10H16N2O
Perindopril Perindopril 82834-16-0 C19H32N2O5
Enalapril Enalapril 75847-73-3 C20H28N2O5
Enalapril maleate Enalapril maleate 76095-16-4 C24H32N2O9
Imidapril Imidapril 89371-37-9 C20H27N3O6
Sodium nitroprusside dihydrate Sodium nitroprusside dihydrate 13755-38-9 C5H4FeN6Na2O3
2-Butyl-5-dimethylaminothiocarbonylmethyl-6-methyl-3-[[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one 2-Butyl-5-dimethylaminothiocarbonylmethyl-6-methyl-3-[[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one 247257-48-3 C27H31N7OS
2,6-Dimethylpiperidine 2,6-Dimethylpiperidine 504-03-0 C7H15N
Terazosin Terazosin 63590-64-7 C19H25N5O4
Tiamenidine Tiamenidine 31428-61-2 C8H10ClN3S
Fosinopril Fosinopril 98048-97-6 C30H46NO7P
Enalaprilat Enalaprilat 76420-72-9 C18H24N2O5
5-(4'-Methylbiphenyl-2-yl)-1-trityl-1H-tetrazole 5-(4'-Methylbiphenyl-2-yl)-1-trityl-1H-tetrazole 124750-53-4 C33H26N4
Perindopril erbumine Perindopril erbumine 107133-36-8 C23H43N3O5
Fosinopril sodium Fosinopril sodium 88889-14-9 C30H46NNaO7P
Hydralazine hydrochloride Hydralazine hydrochloride 304-20-1 C8H9ClN4
Aliskiren Aliskiren
Benazepril Benazepril 86541-75-5 C24H28N2O5
Vitamin E nicotinate Vitamin E nicotinate 16676-75-8 C35H53NO3
Ketanserin Ketanserin 74050-98-9 C22H22FN3O3
3-Chloro-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-1-benzazepin-2-one 3-Chloro-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-1-benzazepin-2-one 86499-23-2 C10H10ClNO
Doxazosin Doxazosin 74191-85-8 C23H25N5O5
1,4-Dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2',3'-dichlorophenyl)-5-carboxy methyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid 1,4-Dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2',3'-dichlorophenyl)-5-carboxy methyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid 123853-39-4 C16H15Cl2NO4
Labetalol Labetalol 36894-69-6 C19H24N2O3
Quinapril hydrochloride Quinapril hydrochloride 82586-55-8 C25H31ClN2O5
Losartan Losartan 114798-26-4 C22H23ClN6O
Moxonidine Moxonidine 75438-57-2 C9H12ClN5O
(1R,3S)-Benazepril Hydrochloride (1R,3S)-Benazepril Hydrochloride 86541-77-7 C24H28N2O5HCl
Bendazol Bendazol 621-72-7 C14H12N2
4-(2,3-Dichloro-phenyl)-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydro-pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid 3-(2-cyano-ethyl) ester 5-methyl ester 4-(2,3-Dichloro-phenyl)-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydro-pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid 3-(2-cyano-ethyl) ester 5-methyl ester 110962-94-2 C19H18Cl2N2O4
5-(4'-Bromomethyl-1,1'-biphenyl-2-yl)-1-triphenylmethyl-1H-tetrazole 5-(4'-Bromomethyl-1,1'-biphenyl-2-yl)-1-triphenylmethyl-1H-tetrazole 124750-51-2 C33H25BrN4
Trandolapril Trandolapril 87679-37-6 C24H34N2O5
Moxonidine hydrochloride Moxonidine hydrochloride 75438-58-3 C9H13Cl2N5O
Alfuzosin hydrochloride Alfuzosin hydrochloride 81403-68-1 C19H28ClN5O4
Moexipril Moexipril 103775-10-6 C27H34N2O7
Minoxidil sulphate Minoxidil sulphate 83701-22-8 C9H15N5O4S
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