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Carbofuran

Description References
Carbofuran
Carbofuran structure
CAS No.
1563-66-2
Chemical Name:
Carbofuran
Synonyms
Nex;yalox;d1221;mef248;BURAON;Yaltox;brifur;D 1221;oms864;bay 70
CBNumber:
CB4322944
Molecular Formula:
C12H15NO3
Formula Weight:
221.25
MOL File:
1563-66-2.mol

Carbofuran Properties

Melting point:
150-153 °C(lit.)
Boiling point:
200°C
Density 
1.18
refractive index 
1.5200 (estimate)
storage temp. 
0-6°C
form 
Powder
color 
White, brown
Water Solubility 
Slightly soluble. 0.07 g/100 mL
Merck 
13,1813
BRN 
1428746
Exposure limits
OSHA PEL: TWA 0.1 mg/m3; ACGIH TLV: TWA 0.1 mg/m3.
CAS DataBase Reference
1563-66-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
Carbofurane(1563-66-2)
EPA Substance Registry System
7-Benzofuranol, 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-, methylcarbamate(1563-66-2)
SAFETY
  • Risk and Safety Statements
  • Hazard and Precautionary Statements (GHS)
Hazard Codes  T+,N,T
Risk Statements  26/28-50/53
Safety Statements  36/37-45-60-61-1/2
RIDADR  UN 2811 6.1/PG 1
WGK Germany  3
RTECS  FB9450000
HazardClass  6.1(a)
PackingGroup  I
HS Code  29329990
Hazardous Substances Data 1563-66-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
Toxicity LD50 orally in mice: 2 mg/kg (Fahmy, 1970)
Symbol(GHS):
Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements:
Code Hazard statements Hazard class Category Signal word Pictogram P-Codes
H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard Category 1 Warning P273, P391, P501
Precautionary statements:
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P264 Wash hands thoroughly after handling.
P264 Wash skin thouroughly after handling.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P284 Wear respiratory protection.
P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P403+P233 Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.

Carbofuran price More Price(5)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 32056 Carbofuran PESTANAL 1563-66-2 250mg $25.8 2018-11-20 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich 426008 Carbofuran 98% 1563-66-2 5g $55.3 2018-11-20 Buy
Cayman Chemical 25635 Carbofuran ≥98% 1563-66-2 500mg $48 2018-11-19 Buy
Cayman Chemical 25635 Carbofuran ≥98% 1563-66-2 250mg $25 2018-11-19 Buy
Cayman Chemical 25635 Carbofuran ≥98% 1563-66-2 1g $90 2018-11-19 Buy

Carbofuran Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Description

Carbofuran is a broad-spectrum carbamate insecticide and nematocide. It is an odourless, white crystalline solid. On heating, its breakdown can release toxic fumes and irritating or poisonous gases. It is sparingly soluble in water but very soluble in acetone, acetonitrile, benzene, and cyclohexone. The liquid formulations of carbofuran are classified as restricted use pesticides (RUP) because of their acute oral and inhalation toxicity to humans. Granular formulations are also classified as RUP.
In fact, carbofuran was first registered in the United States in 1969 and classified as RUP. Exposure to heat breaks down carbofuran, with the release of toxic fumes. Carbofuran is used for the control of soil-dwelling and foliar-feeding insects. It is also used for the control of aphids, thrips, and nematodes that attack vegetable, ornamental plants, crops of sunflower, potatoes, peanuts, soybeans, sugar cane, cotton, rice, and variety of other crops.

References

[1] S. Bretaud, J. -P. Toutant and P. Sagilo, Effects of Carbofuran, Diuron, and Nicosulfuron on Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Goldfish (Carassius auratus), Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2000, vol. 47, 117-124
[2] Dennis M. Trotter, Robert A. Kent and Michael P. Wong, Aquatic fate and effect of Carbofuran, Critical Reviews in Environmental Control, 1991, vol. 21, 137-176

Chemical Properties

White Solid

Chemical Properties

Carbofuran is a broad-spectrum carbamate insecticide and nematicide. It is an odorless, white crystalline solid. On heating, it breaks down and can release toxic fumes, and irritating or poisonous gases. It is sparingly soluble in water, but very soluble in acetone, acetonitrile, benzene, and cyclohexone. The liquid formulations of carbofuran are classifi ed as RUPs because of their acute oral and inhalation toxicity to humans. Granular formulations are also classifi ed as an RUP. In fact, carbofuran was fi rst registered in the United States in 1969 and classifi ed as an RUP. Exposure to heat breaks down carbofuran, with the release of toxic fumes. Carbofuran is used for the control of soil-dwelling and foliar-feeding insects. It is also used for the control of aphids, thrips, and nematodes that attack vegetables, ornamental plants, crops of sunfl ower, potatoes, peanuts, soybeans, sugar cane, cotton, rice, and a variety of other crops

Chemical Properties

Carbofuran is white, odorless crystalline solid.

Uses

Systemic insecticide, acaricide, nematocide.

Uses

Broad-spectrum, systemic insecticide, nematocide and acaricide applied in soil to control soil insects and nematodes or on foliage to control insects and mites.

Uses

Cholinesterase inhibitor. Use as systemic insecticide, acaricide, nematocide.

General Description

Carbofuran is an odorless white crystalline solid. Contact with skin may burn skin and eyes. When exposed to heat or flames Carbofuran may emit toxic oxides of nitrogen. Carbofuran is toxic by inhalation, skin contact, and/ or ingestion. Carbofuran is used as a pesticide.

Air & Water Reactions

Slightly soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

Carbofuran is a carbamate ester. Carbamates are chemically similar to, but more reactive than amides. Like amides they form polymers such as polyurethane resins. Carbamates are incompatible with strong acids and bases, and especially incompatible with strong reducing agents such as hydrides. Flammable gaseous hydrogen is produced by the combination of active metals or nitrides with carbamates. Strongly oxidizing acids, peroxides, and hydroperoxides are incompatible with carbamates. Carbofuran is unstable in an alkaline media. .

Health Hazard

Carbofuran is extremely poisonous. May be fatal if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through skin. Contact may burn skin or eyes. Probable lethal oral dose to humans 5 to 50 mg/kg or 7 drops to 1 teaspoon for 150 lb. person.

Health Hazard

The acute oral LD50 of carbofuran to male and female rats is about 8 mg/kg, while the acute dermal LD50 for rats is more than 3000 mg/kg. Carbofuran is mildly irritating to the eyes and skin of rabbits. The acute inhalation toxicity (LC50, 4 h) is 0.075 mg/L for rats. As with other carbamate compounds, carbofuran’s cholinesterase-inhibiting effect is short term and reversible. The symptoms of carbofuran poisoning include, but are not limited to, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, sweating, diarrhea, excessive salivation, weakness, imbalance, blurring of vision, breathing diffi culty, increased blood pressure, and incontinence. Death may result at high doses from respiratory system failure associated with carbofuran exposure. Complete recovery from an acute poisoning by carbofuran, with no long-term health effects, is possible if exposure ceases and the victim has time to regain his or her normal level of cholinesterase and to recover from symptoms. Reports have indicated that risks from exposure to carbofuran are especially high among occupational workers and general public suffering with asthma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal or urogenital tracts disturbances. The available studies indicate carbofuran is unlikely to cause reproductive effects in humans at expected exposure levels. Studies indicate carbofuran is not teratogenic. No signifi cant teratogenic effects have been found in the offspring of rats given carbofuran (3 mg/kg/day) on days 5 to 19 of gestation

Health Hazard

Extremely toxic carbamate pesticide; routesof entry — ingestion, skin absorption, andinhalation of vapors; although the vaporpressure is very low [0.00002 torr at 33°C(91.4°F)], because of high toxicity, eventrace inhalation could be harmful; can causedeath if swallowed, absorbed through skinor inhaled; ingestion of about 0.5- to 2-gsubstance could cause death to humans; manifests acute, delayed, and chronic toxicity;choline sterase inhibitor; acute exposure maycause increased salivation, lacrimation, spontaneous urination, blurred vision, tremor,confusion, muscle twitching, and convulsion;high exposure may result in coma or respiratory collapse; other effects may includegastrointestinal effects, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea; cancause burn on skin contact; produced adversereproductive effects in experimental animals.
LD50 inhalation (guinea pig): 0.043 mg/L/4 hr(RTECS 1985 )
LD50 oral (rat): ~10 mg/kg
LD50 rat (skin): 120 mg/kg
Carbofuran hydrolyzes to less toxic 3-hydroxy carbamate and phenolic products.

Fire Hazard

May release nitrogen oxides. Containers may explode in heat of fire. Avoid alkalies. Stable under neutral or acid conditions.

Agricultural Uses

Insecticide, Acaricide, Nematicide: Carbofuran is a broad-spectrum carbamate pesticide that kills insects, mites, and nematodes on contact or after ingestion. It is used against soil and foliar pests of field, fruit, vegetable, and forest crops. Carbofuran, granule form, is banned in the U.S. A U.S. EPA restricted Use Pesticide (RUP). Not approved for use in EU countries. There are 40 global suppliers.. According to the Ecological Incident Investigation System, carbofuran has been responsible for more avian deaths than any other pesticide.

Trade name

A13-27164®; AU'ULTRAMICIN®; BAY 704143®; BAY 78537®; BRIFUR®; CARBODAN®; CARBOSIP 5G®; CRISFURAN®; CURETERR®; CHINUFUR®; D 1221®; DIAFURAN®; FMC 10242®; FURACARB®; FURADAN®; FURAN®; FURODAN®; KENFURAN®; KENOFURAN®; NEX®; NIA10242; NIAGARA 10242; NIAGARA NIA-10242; PILLARFURAN®; RAMPART®; YALTOX®

Contact allergens

It is a pesticide with insecticide properties, of the carbamate group. It was implicated as a sensitizer in two farmers

Safety Profile

to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of

Potential Exposure

A potential danger to those involved in the manufacture, formulation, and application of this insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.

First aid

If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit. Effects may be delayed; keep victim under observation

Environmental Fate

Biological. Carbofuran or their metabolites (3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran) at normal and ten times the field application rate had no effect on Rhizobium sp. However, in a nitrogen-free culture medium, Azotobacter chroococcum growth was inhibited by carbofuran, 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran (Kale et al., 1989). Under in vitro conditions, 15 of 20 soil fungi degraded carbofuran to one or more of the following compounds: 3-hydroxycarbofuran, 3-ketocarbofuran, carbofuran phenol and 3-hydroxyphenol (Arunachalam and Lakshmanan, 1988).
Plant. Carbofuran is rapidly metabolized in plants to nontoxic products (Cremlyn, 1991). Metcalf et al. (1968) reported that carbofuran undergoes hydroxylation and hydrolysis in plants, insects and mice. Hydroxylation of the benzylic carbon gives 3-hydroxycarbofuran which is subsequently oxidized to 3-ketocarbofuran. In carrots, carbofuran initially degraded to 3-hydroxycarbofuran. This compound reacted with naturally occurring angelic acid in carrots forming a conjugated metabolite identified as 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-(((methylamino)-carbonyl)oxy)-3-benzofuranyl (Z)-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid (Sonobe et al., 1981). Metabolites identified in three types of strawberries (Day-Neutral, Tioga and Tufts) were 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate, 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxo-7-benzofuranyl-N-methylcarbamate, 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-3-benzofuranol, 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-3,7-benzofuranol and 2,3- dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-3-oxo-7-benzofuranol (Archer et al., 1977). Oat plants were grown in two soils treated with [14C]carbofuran. Most of the residues recovered in oat leaves were in the form of carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran. Other metabolites identified were 3-ketocarbofuran, a 3-keto-7-phenol and a 3-hydroxy-7-phenol (Fuhremann and Lichtenstein, 1980).
Surface Water. Sharom et al. (1980) reported that the half-lives for carbofuran in sterilized and non-sterilized water collected from the Holly Marsh in Ontario, Canada were 2.5 to 3 weeks at pH values of 7.8–8.0 and 8.0, respectively. The half-lives observed in distilled water were 2 and 3.8 weeks at pH values of 7.0–7.2 and 6.8, respectively. They reported that chemical degradation of dissolved carbofuran was more significant than microbial degradation.
Chemical/Physical. Releases toxic nitrogen oxides when heated to decomposition (Sax and Lewis, 1987; Lewis, 1990).
The hydrolysis half-lives for carbofuran in a sterile 1% ethanol/water solution at 25°C and pH values of 4.5, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0 were 170, 690, 690, 8.2 and 1.0 week, respectively (Chapman and Cole, 1982).

storage

Carbofuran should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated place, in their original containers only. It should not be kept stored or used near heat, open flame, or hot surfaces

Shipping

UN2757 Carbamate pesticides, solid, toxic, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials. UN 2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name RequiredUN2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required

Incompatibilities

Alkaline substances, acid, strong oxidizers, such as perchlorates, peroxides, chlorates, nitrates, permanganates.

Waste Disposal

Alkaline hydrolysis is the recommended mode of disposal. In accordance with 40CFR165, follow recommendations for the disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers. Must be disposed properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office.

Precautions

During use/handling of carbofuran, workers should wear coveralls or a long-sleeved uniform, head covering, and chemical protective gloves made of materials such as rubber, neoprene, or nitrile. Occupational workers should know that areas treated with carbofuran are hazardous. The runoff of carbofuran material and the fi re control releases irritating or poisonous gases. It is advisable that workers should enter storehouses or carbofuran-treated close spaces with caution

Carbofuran Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products


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