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Gamma Butyrolactone

Chemical properties Uses Production Category Toxicity grading Acute toxicity Hazardous characteristics of the explosive Flammability hazard Storage and transportation properties Extinguishing agent
Gamma Butyrolactone
Gamma Butyrolactone structure
Chemical Name:
Gamma Butyrolactone
Molecular Formula:
Formula Weight:
MOL File:

Gamma Butyrolactone Properties

Melting point:
-45 °C (lit.)
Boiling point:
204-205 °C (lit.)
1.12 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
vapor density 
3 (vs air)
vapor pressure 
1.5 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
refractive index 
n20/D 1.436(lit.)
Flash point:
209 °F
storage temp. 
Clear colorless
PH Range
4 at 100 g/l at 20 °C
explosive limit
Water Solubility 
JECFA Number
Stable. Hygroscopic. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, strong bases, strong reducing agents.
CAS DataBase Reference
96-48-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS)
EWG's Food Scores
NIST Chemistry Reference
3 (Vol. 11, Sup 7, 71) 1999
EPA Substance Registry System
.gamma.-Butyrolactone (96-48-0)
  • Risk and Safety Statements
Signal word  Danger
Hazard statements  H315-H302-H318-H336
Precautionary statements  P280a-P301+P312a-P310a-P321-P501a-P261-P280-P305+P351+P338
Hazard Codes  Xn,F
Risk Statements  22-36-67-41-20/21/22-11
Safety Statements  26-36-39-36/37-16
WGK Germany  1
RTECS  LU3500000
Autoignition Temperature 851 °F
HS Code  29322980
Toxicity LD50 orally in rats: 17.2 ml/kg (Smyth)
NFPA 704
1 0

Gamma Butyrolactone price More Price(15)

Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
Sigma-Aldrich W329118 4-Hydroxybutanoic acid lactone ≥98%, FCC, FG 96-48-0 1 kg $70 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich B103608 γ-Butyrolactone ≥99% 96-48-0 2.5kg $102 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich W329118 4-Hydroxybutanoic acid lactone ≥98%, FCC, FG 96-48-0 10 kg $270 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich W329118 4-Hydroxybutanoic acid lactone ≥98%, FCC, FG 96-48-0 25 kg $513 2021-03-22 Buy
Sigma-Aldrich B103608 γ-Butyrolactone ≥99% 96-48-0 20kg $715 2021-03-22 Buy

Gamma Butyrolactone Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

Chemical properties

Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a colorless oily liquid. It is miscible with water and the general organic and slightly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons. GBL has been characterized as having an intense bitter taste with faint to pleasant odor.


Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) has widespread industrial use. It is a common solvent found in paint strippers, nail polish removers, stain removers and circuit board cleaners. It is also a common intermediate in industrial chemistry including the manufacture of pyrrolidones and in some pharmaceuticals.
Gamma-Butyrolactone is an important organic synthesis intermediate which can be used to synthesize indole butyric acid, butyric acid, succinic acid, α-pyrrolidone, N-methylpyrrolidone, vinyl pyrrolidone, acetyl-γ-butyrolactone, cyclopropylamine, ciprofloxacin, vitamin B1, chlorophyll and so on;
It is a non-toxic high boiling point solvent with high solubility and safe and convenient usage and management;
It is used as an extractant for butadiene, aromatic, advanced grease petroleum processing;
It is used as an acrylonitrile fiber spinning solvent in the chemical fiber industry.
It is a thinner and curing agent commonly used in wool, nylon, acrylonitrile and other fiber dyeing auxiliaries and other chemical industries.


Maleic anhydride hydrogenation method is an advanced technology developed in 1970s. It can produce tetrahydrofuran and γ-butyrolactone in any proportion with a hydrogenation reaction, and the usual ratio is tetrachlorofuran: γ-butyrolactone = 3-4:1.
There are many production enterprises, but usually in small scale. The average level is 300t/a. The production capacity account for 30% of the total domestic production capacity.  2.1, 4-butanediol dehydrogenation reactor is a tube array reactor, filled with flake copper catalyst (with zinc oxide as the carrier). The reaction temperature is controlled at 230-240 ° C. The yield of the product is obtained by reduced pressure distillation of and the yield is above 77%.


Flammable substance

Toxicity grading


Acute toxicity

oral-rat LD50: 1540 mg/kg; oral-mouse LD50: 1720 mg/kg

Hazardous characteristics of the explosive

Explosible when react with butanol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and sodium hydroxide

Flammability hazard

Flammable in case of heat, open flame; being able to react with oxidant; releasing toxic pungent smoke when in the process of pyrolysis.

Storage and transportation properties

Make sure ventilating, low temperature and drying in the warehouse; separate from the oxidant; prevent fires.

Extinguishing agent

Dry powder, carbon dioxide, foam


Dihydro-2(3H)-furanone. An endogenous neuroregulator made from gamma-amino butyrate and the precursor of gamma hydroxybutyrate. It causes selective increase of brain dopamine by inhibiting its release from nerve terminals. The compound has sedative properties at low doses and produces surgical anesthesia at high doses. It is also used as an industrial solvent and precursor.

Chemical Properties

γ-Butyrolactone is oily, colorless, clear liquid. It has a faint, sweet, aromatic, slightly buttery odor.
γ-Butyrolactone is a lactone. It is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. Under acidic conditions it forms an equilibrium mixture of both compounds. These compounds then may go on to form a polymer.


Reported found as a constituent in coffee aroma; a volatile flavor component in roasted filberts as well. Also reported found in tomato, potato, soybeans, beans, vinegar, mushrooms, roasted chicken, beef, cider, beer, wine, scallops and clams.


r-butyrolactone is one kind of important fine chemicalintermediate, simultaneously also is one kind of performance fine highboiling point solvent, ideal antioxidant, plasticizer,extracting agent, absorbent, dispersing agent, solid stain, Coagulation Reagent.


Intermediate in the synthesis of polyvinylpyrrolidone, DL-methionine, piperidine, phenylbutyric acid, thiobutyric acids. Solvent for polyacrylonitrile, cellulose acetate, methyl methacrylate polymers, polystyrene. Constituent of paint removers, textile aids, drilling oils.


ChEBI: A butan-4-olide that is tetrahydrofuran substituted by an oxo group at position 2.


From acetylene and formaldehyde, also from a number of alternative sources; ethylene chlorohydrin, glutamic acid, γ-hydroxybutyric acid solutions, tetrahydrofuran, vinyl-acetic acid.

Aroma threshold values

Detection: 20 to 50 ppm

Taste threshold values

Taste characteristic at 75 ppm: milky, creamy with fruity peach-like afternotes.

General Description

Clear colorless oily liquid with a pleasant odor.

Air & Water Reactions

Hygroscopic. Soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile

gamma-Butyrolactone can react with oxidizing materials, inorganic acids and bases, alcohols and amines. Rapidly hydrolyzed by bases and slowly hydrolyzed by acids. gamma-Butyrolactone is volatile with steam. . The combination of the lactone, butanol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and sodium hydroxide in the attempted synthesis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid caused a thermal runaway reaction that eventually exploded, [CISHC Chem. Safety Summ., 1977, 48, 3].


Toxic by ingestion. Questionable carcino- gen.

Fire Hazard

gamma-Butyrolactone is combustible.

Safety Profile

Moderately toxic by ingestion, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. An experimental teratogen. Other experimental reproductive effects. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data by skin contact. Mutation data reported. Less acutely toxic than ppropiolactone. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use foam, alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. Potentially explosive reaction with butanol + 2,4 dichlorophenol + sodium hydroxide. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid and irritating fumes.

Potential Exposure

Used as a chemical intermediate for making other chemicals, including pesticides, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals; as a solvent for paint, nail polish removers, and industrial chemicals. Used in electronics, drilling and petroleum industries as a stabilizer and solvent. Used as a flavoring agent in various foods and beverages, including grains and breakfast foods, candy, and alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. Drug of abuse: the United States Food and Drug Administration has warned the public not to purchase or consume products, containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). FDA has also asked the companies that manufacture these products to voluntarily recall them. The agency has received reports of serious health problems—some that are potentially life-threatening—associated with the use of these products. Although labeled as dietary supplements and marketed under various brand names, these products are illegally marketed unapproved new drugs. False advertising claims include building muscles, improved physical performance, enhanced sex, reduced stress and induced sleep


Listed by some sources as unregulated. UN2810 Toxic liquids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1—Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required.

Purification Methods

Dry the lactone over anhydrous CaSO4, then fractionally distil it. Handle it in a fume cupboard due to its TOXICITY. [Beilstein 17 V 7.]


4-Butyrolactone is incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, alcohols, amines, strong and inorganic acids, strong bases. Rapidly hydrolyzed by bases and slowly hydrolyzed by acids. It is hygroscopic and volatile with steam. Combustible; vapor may form explosive mixture with air.

Waste Disposal

Use a licensed professional waste disposal service to dispose of this material. Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. It is inappropriate and possibly dangerous to the environment to dispose of expired or waste drugs and pharmaceuticals by flushing them down the toilet or discarding them to the trash. Household quantities of expired or waste pharmaceuticals may be mixed with wet cat litter or coffee grounds, double-bagged in plastic, discard in trash. Larger quantities shall carefully take into consideration applicable DEA, EPA, and FDA regulations. If possible return the pharmaceutical to the manufacturer for proper disposal being careful to properly label and securely package the material. Alternatively, the waste pharmaceutical shall be labeled, securely packaged and transported by a state licensed medical waste contractor to dispose by burial in a licensed hazardous or toxic waste landfill or incinerator. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed.

Gamma Butyrolactone Preparation Products And Raw materials

Raw materials

Preparation Products

Gamma Butyrolactone Suppliers

Global( 445)Suppliers
Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
Hefei TNJ Chemical Industry Co.,Ltd.
86-0551-65418684 18949823763
86-0551-65418684 China 3001 55
Tianjin Zhongxin Chemtech Co., Ltd.
022-66880086 CHINA 537 58
Shijiazhuang Suking Biotechnology Co .,Ltd.
19955145978 CHINA 311 58
8615839353441 86-393-6101536 CHINA 5 58
Hebei Miaobian Biotechnology Co., Ltd
17733850068 +8617733850068 CHINA 873 58
Zibo Dorne Chemical Technology co. LTD
13583358881 +8613583358881 CHINA 104 58
Shijiazhuang Gantuo Biotechnology Co., Ltd
13373514458 CHINA 630 58
Shanghai UCHEM Inc.
15502138767 15502138767 CHINA 2667 58
Henan DaKen Chemical CO.,LTD.
+86-371-66670886 China 21032 58
Shanghai Time Chemicals CO., Ltd.
+8618017249410 +86-021-57951555
+86-021-57951555 CHINA 1365 55

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View Lastest Price from Gamma Butyrolactone manufacturers

Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
2021-09-26 gamma-Butyrolactone GBL
US $10.00 / Kg 1KG 99 500kg/month Handan Tongyi New Material Technology Co., Ltd
2021-08-31 Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL)
US $10.00 / KG 25Kg/Drum 99.99% 20 tons/month Wuhan Monad Medicine Tech Co.,LTD
2021-08-02 Gamma-Butyrolactone
US $20.00 / Kg/Drum 1KG 99.9% 10tons Xingtai Haoxun Import and Export Trade Co., Ltd.

Gamma Butyrolactone Spectrum

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